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WITHIN 18271828. 

No. Page 

1. Sir Richard John Strachan - - 1 

2. The Margravine of Anspach - 10 

3. Dr. Mason Good - 29 
4-. Lady Caroline Lamb - 51 

5. &r Henry Torrens - 58 

6. Dean Hook - 65 

7. William Lowndes, Esq. - 99 

8. Captain Clapperton - - 105 

9. The Hon. Mrs. Darner - - 125 

10. Archbishop Sutton - - 137 

11. Vice- Admiral Novell - - 159 

12. /fam/ Sfo* Faw Zh/&, Esq. - J73 

13. The Rev. Edward Forster - - - 187 

14. Major-General Burr ell - - - 198 

15. Bishop Tomline - 210 

16. Richard Parkes Bonington, Esq. - - 219 

17. Archdeacon Coxe - 227 

18. Sir Philip Carteret Silvester - 236 

19. The Rev. Legh Richmond - 251 

20. Ditgald Stewart, Esq. - - 256 

21. Lieutenant-Colonel SacJcville .- - 270 

22. The Rev. Tfiomas Kerrich - 278 

23. Sir James Edward Smith - - - 301 

24. Sir Thomas Boulden Thompson - - - 319 



No. Page 

25. Henry Neele, Esq. - 330 

26. Her Majesty the Queen Dowager of Wurtemberg - 344? 

27. Sir Neil Campbell - 358 

28. Sir William Domet - 361- 

29. The Earl of Liverpool - - 371 


A General Biographical List of Persons >who have died in 

18271828 - - - - - 407 








No. I. 


1 HE surname of Strachan, which in the successive changes 
of orthography appears Strathechyn, Strathaquin, Straquhen, 
and otherwise, is local, there being a parish so called in the 
north of Scotland. Nisbet affirms, that the district was an- 
ciently erected into a county palatine, as he finds a Walterus, 
Comes Palatinus de Strachan, and considers it the only in- 
stance known in the kingdom. The family is traced by au- 
thentic documents from a period of high antiquity. 

The subject of this memoir was the eldest son of Lieutenant 
Patrick Strachan, R. N., by the daughter of Captain Pitman 



of the same service, and nephew of Captain Sir John Stra- 
chan, the fifth Baronet of that name, to whose title he suc- 
ceeded Dec. 28. 1777. Sir Richard was born in Devonshire, 
Oct. 27. 1760; and, like his father and uncle, entered early 
into the naval service. His first promotion was into the 
Actseon, one of the old 44s upon two decks ; he then became 
third lieutenant of the Hero, 74, one of Commodore John- 
stone's squadron in the affair at Porto Praya; and after- 
wards first of the Magnanime of 64 guns, from which ship he 
was removed into the Superb, 74, bearing the flag of Sir Ed- 
ward Hughes, by whom he was made a Commander in the 
Lizard Cutter, at Bombay, in 1782; and further promoted to 
the Naiade frigate, captured from the French by the Sceptre. 
His post commission bore date April 26. 1783. 

After the termination of the American war, our officer ob- 
tained the command of the Vestal, of 28 guns, and was or- 
dered to convey the brother of the present Lord Cathcart on 
an embassy to the Emperor of China. The Ambassador was 
in a bad state of health when he embarked at Portsmouth, 
and continued to grow worse daily until the ship's arrival in 
the Straits of Banca, when he died. Sir Richard afterwards 
carried General Meadows to his government at Bombay ; and 
during his continuance in the East Indies, distinguished him- 
self on several occasions in supporting the British commercial 
rights, which would otherwise have been injured by interlopers 
under netftral colours, countenanced by some French frigates, 
as well as by the Governors of the garrisons belonging to 
that nation. 

In the month of Nov. 1791 ? whilst cruizing off the Malabar 
coast, in the Phcenix frigate, he fell in with la Resolu, of 
46 guns, convoying two country coasting vessels to Mangalore 
(the principal sea-port of Tippoo Saib), supposed to be laden 
with stores and provisions for that chieftain, with whom we 
were then at war. Finding that Sir Richard Strachan was 
determined to examine these vessels, the French Captain 
thought proper to object ; and an action commenced, which 
was maintained with great obstinacy on both sides, until the 


Phoenix had 6 men killed and 11 wounded, and la Resolu 25 
killed and 40 wounded. The Frenchman now struck his 
colours, and Sir Richard performed his first intentions of 
examining the vessels ; whjch, however, on being searched, 
did not justify any further detention. The Commander of 
la Resolu insisted on his ship being taken possession of as a 
prize, which Sir Richard with great propriety refused : but 
he towed her into Tellicherry Roads, from whence she was 
afterwards sent to the French settlement at Mahe. 

The right of searching neutral vessels, which has always 
been looked upon as intimately connected with our maritime 
welfare, was on this occasion exercised with as much con- 
ciliation and attention to forms, as it was opposed with a 
violence and rashness, afterwards acknowledged to be unjus- 
tifiable by the French Government. The Commander of the 
French squadron, Mons. St. Felix, shortly after arrived, and 
a correspondence took place between him and Commodore 
Cornwallis, which seemed likely to be productive of serious 
consequences, as he threatened resistance if any vessels under 
his protection were attempted to be stopped. His letters, 
were answered with temper and firmness ; for the Commodore 
was not a man likely to be deterred from doing his duty by 
threats. There was, however, no trial made on the part of 
the French, although the Cybele and Resolu got under weigh 
and went to sea ; they were attended by the Phcenix and 
Minerva, who cruised with them several days, and brought-to 
vessels under French colours without interruption from them ; 
M. St. Felix despatched the Resolu on other service, and the 
Phcenix was also then sent away : the remaining English and 
French frigates cruized together some days longer, without 
any thing of importance occurring. 

Sir Richard Strachan returned to England soon after this 
event ; and on the breaking out of the war with the French 
Republic, was appointed to the command of la Concorde, of 
42 guns and 257 men, in which ship he joined a squadron of 
frigates employed on the coast of France under the orders of 
Sir John Borlase Warren. At daybreak on the morning of 

B 2 


April 23. 1794, this squadron, consisting of the Flora, Arethusa, 
Concorde, Melampus, and Nymphe, being to the westward 
of Guernsey, discovered four French ships standing out to 
sea, one of which was la Resolu, Sir Richard Strachan's former 
antagonist. Commodore Warren, fearing that the enemy 
would attempt to escape into port, made the signal for his 
squadron to engage as they came up, and by this means cut 
them off from their own shore. The battle was maintained 
on both sides with great resolution for three hours; when 
la Pomone and la Babet struck to the Flora and Arethusa. 
La Concorde continued to pursue the others ; and at length 
got near enough to receive and return their fire. It was 
Sir Richard Strachan's intention to endeavour to disable the 
sternmost of the enemy's ships, leaving her to be picked up 
by the Melampus and Nymphe, which were also in pursuit, 
and to push on for the headmost; but this ship bore down, 
and closed to support her consort, at the rame time raking la 
Concorde with great effect. Sir Richard Strachan continued 
to engage them both with much gallantry ; but finding that 
the day was far advanced, and little prospect of being assisted 
by the other British frigates, which rather dropped astern, 
and his main-topmast being so badly wounded that he ex- 
pected it would fall over the side, by which accident the enemy 
might have escaped, he came to the resolution to secure that 
ship which was the nearest to him ; and by a skilful manoeuvre 
having changed sides in the smoke, he prevented the other 
either from annoying him or giving assistance to his friend. 
They continued in close action from twelve till a quarter 
before two, when the Frenchman ceased firing, and hailed 
that he had surrendered. The prize proved to be FEngageante, 
of 38 guns and 300 men, between 30 and 40 of whom were 
killed and wounded. La Concorde had but one man killed 
and 12 wounded. The other frigate, la Resolu, after firing a 
few shot, made sail and got off. In the evening the masts of 
FEngageante fell overboard, and it was with some difficulty 
and great exertions that la Concorde's were prevented from 
sharing the same fate. 


Soon after this event, Sir Richard Strachan obtained the 
command of the Melampus of 42 guns ; and his enterprising 
character being duly appreciated, he was selected for a sepa- 
rate command on the coast of France, where he was aided 
by the gallantry and skill of Sir W. Sidney Smith. On the 
9th May, 1795, being at anchor in Gourville Bay in the 
island of Jersey, he discovered thirteen sail of the enemy's 
vessels running along shore. The British squadron imme- 
diately weighed, and chased them under a small battery, which 
was soon silenced, and twelve of the vessels, abandoned by 
their crews, taken possession of. The other escaped round 
Cape Carteret. They consisted of ten transports, laden with 
ship-timber, powder, cannon, cordage, 'and other articles of 
naval stores, escorted by an armed brig and lugger. In per- 
forming this service the Melampus had 8 men wounded ; the 
loss on board the other ships of the squadron amounted to 2 
killed and 9 wounded. 

On the 3d July following, the Melampus, in company with 
the Hebe, captured, off St. Maloes, six out of thirteen French 
vessels, laden with military stores, convoyed by a ship of 26 
guns, two brigs, and a lugger ; one of the brigs, la Vesuve, of 
four 24-pounders and 60 men, was also taken. 

In 1796, when Sir W. Sidney Smith was taken prisoner in 
a vessel captured by the boats of the Diamond, Sir Richard 
Strachan succeeded him in the command of that fine frigate, 
and continued in her until the month of February 1799*, 
when he was appointed to the Captain, of 74? guns, in which 
ship he assisted at the capture of a French squadron in the 
Mediterranean, and served during the expeditions against 
Quiberon and Ferrol, in the summer and autumn of 1800. 
He was afterwards employed in the command of a small 

* The following were among the captures made by the Diamond during the 
time she was commanded by Sir Richard Strachan : 
L'Amaranthe, French corvette, 14 guns 

L'Esperance, brig privateer 
L'Espe'rance, cutter privateer } 

Unknown, armed lugger destroyed ) 
Gun-boat, destroyed, 1798. 

B 3 


squadron, cruizing off the western coast of France, where he 
distinguished himself by his assiduity and perseverance in 
annoying the enemy's trade, cutting off the supplies intended 
for the Brest fleet, and keeping their small armed vessels in 

During the temporary suspension of hostilities that followed 
the treaty of Amiens, the subject of this memoir commanded 
the Donegal of 80 guns ; and on the renewal of the war, he 
was employed off Cadiz, watching the motions of the French 
ships in that port. On the 25th Nov. 1804, he captured 
the Amphitrite, Spanish frigate of 44< guns, from Cadiz, with 
despatches and stores, bound to Teneriffe and the Havannah. 
The Donegal chased the Amphitrite for several hours, some- 
times gaining upon her, and sometimes losing, till at length 
the latter carried away her mizen-topmast, and was over- 
taken. Sir Richard Strachan then acquainted the Spanish 
Captain, that, in compliance with the orders he had received 
from his Admiral, he was under the necessity of conducting 
the Amphitrite back to Cadiz, and he allowed him three 
minutes to determine whether he would comply without 
compelling him to have recourse to force. After waiting 
six minutes in vain for a favourable answer, Sir Richard gave 
orders to fire, which was immediately answered with a broad- 
side. An engagement ensued, which lasted about eight 
minutes, when the Amphitrite struck her colours. During 
this short action the Spanish Commander was killed by a 
musket ball. The Donegal, about the same time, captured 
another Spanish ship, with a cargo worth 200, OOO/. In the 
month of March following, Sir Richard's affairs requiring 
him in England, he exchanged into the Renown, that ship 
being ordered home, in consequence of her bad condition. 

About the month of July, 1805, Sir Richard, who had 
been nominated a Colonel of Royal Marines in the spring of 
the preceding year, was appointed to the Caesar, of 80 guns, 
and intrusted with the command of a detached squadron. 
On the evening of the 2d November, being off Ferrol, he fell 
in with four French line-of-battle ships, that had escaped 


from the battle of Trafalgar, and immediately bore away for 
the purpose of bringing them to action ; but it was not before 
daylight on the 4th, that the advanced frigates of the British 
squadron could arrive within gun-shot. 

A little before noon, the French, finding an action unavoid- 
able, began to take in their small sails, and form in a line on 
the starboard tack. At noon the battle began, and continued 
till half-past three, when the enemy's ships, being no longer 
manageable, struck their colours, and proved to be the 
Formidable, of 80 guns, bearing the flag of Rear- Admiral 
Dumanoir le Pelley ; the Duguay-Trouin, Mont Blanc, and 
Scipion, of 74 guns each. The British squadron consisted, 
besides the Caesar, of the Hero, Namur, and Courageux, 
74s ; and the Santa Margaritta, Phoenix, Revolutionnaire, 
and ^Eolus, frigates, the whole of whom came into action. 
The loss sustained by the enemy was immense : the Mont 
Blanc alone had 159 killed and wounded, the Scipion 111. 
M. Dumanoir le Pelley was wounded, and Captain Trufflet, 
of the Duguay-Trouin, slain. The English had only 24 killed 
and 111 wounded : among the latter were Lieutenants Skekel, 
Clephane, and Osborne ; and Captain Clements of the Royal 

Five days after the above action, Sir Richard Strachan was 
advanced to the rank of Rear- Admiral ; and on the 29th Jan. 
1806, his late Majesty, as a reward for his services, was 
pleased to confer upon him the dignity of a K. B. About 
the same time he received the thanks of both Houses of 
Parliament; and was soon after detached, with his flag 
on board the Csesar, to the coast of America, in pursuit of a 
French squadron, commanded by Admiral Villaumez, one of 
whose ships, the Castor, of 74 guns, foundered in a hurricane ; 
and another, I'lrnpetueux, of the same force, was driven 011 
shore near the Chesapeak, where she was afterwards de- 
stroyed by the British. 

On his return from the above service, Sir Richard was 
employed in the blockade of Rochefort, until the summer 

B 4 


of 1809, when he assumed the command of the naval part of 
the expedition destined for the occupation of Flushing, and 
the destruction of the French ships of war, arsenals, &c. in 
the Scheldt. This armament consisted of thirty-seven sail of 
the line, two ships of 50 guns, three of 44, twenty-four 
frigates, thirty-one sloops, and five bombs, besides gun-boats 
and other small craft, together with 40,000 troops, under the 
orders of the Earl of Chatham. 

On the 28th and 29th July, the ships of war and transports 
sailed in two divisions ; and a landing having been effected in 
the islands of Walcheren and South Beveland, Flushing was 
immediately invested. On the 13th Aug. the batteries were 
completed, and the frigates and small vessels having taken 
their stations, the bombardment commenced. The next day, 
the line-of-battle ships cannonaded the town for some hours ; 
the enemy's fire ceased, and on the 15th they demanded a 
suspension of arms, which was succeeded by the surrender of 
the garrison, 6000 strong. In the mean time a very numerous 
French army assembled in the neighbourhood of Antwerp, 
the forts in the Scheldt were well manned, and every prepar- 
ation was made for defending the passage of the river, and 
for conveying the ships so high up as to be beyond the reach 
of either naval or military operations. 

All idea of pushing up the Scheldt being necessarily aban- 
doned, Lord Chatham, with the greater part of the troops, 
returned to England on the 14th Sept. ; and a distemper 
having broken out among those who remained, which carried 
off from 200 to 300 men per week, it was determined to 
evacuate the island of Walcheren, which was carried into 
effect, after demolishing the works and basin of Flushing, on 
the 23d of December. 

On the 3d July, 1810, Sir Richard Strachan was presented 
with a sword, and the freedom of the city of London, which 
had been voted to him for his achievement off Ferrol in 1805. 
He was advanced to the rank of Vice -Admiral on the 3 1st of 
the same month, and became a full Admiral, July 19, 1821. 


Sir Richard Strachan married, in 1812, Miss Louisa 
Dillon ; by whom he had issue. He died in Bryanstone 
Square Feb. 3d, 1828, after a short but severe illness, 
aged 83. 

Marshall's Royal Naval Biography has furnished us \vith 
this Memoir. 


No. II. 


So lately as in the year 1826, this accomplished and cele- 
brated lady published an auto-biographical Memoir, in two 
octavo volumes. From that production the following parti- 
culars have been derived ; the greater part of which, as they 
would have lost all their na'ivete by any change, we have 
quoted, in the first person ; merely connecting them by such 
brief remarks as were necessary to render the narrative con- 
secutive and intelligible. It would, however, be unjust not to 
add, that the volumes alluded to contain a mass of anecdotes 
respecting the numerous persons of eminence and distinction, 
in various countries, with whom the late Margravine came into 
contact during her life, many of which are curious and enter- 

The Margravine was the youngest daughter of Augustus, 
fourth Earl of Berkeley, K. T., by his Countess, Elizabeth, 
daughter of Henry Drax, of Charborough, in Dorsetshire, 
Esquire, and was born in December, 1750. Her father died 
when she was only five years old. The Countess of Berkeley, 
who was Lady of the Bedchamber to the Princess of Wales, 
was lively and handsome, and had no love for children. Lady 
Elizabeth Berkeley (the subject of this memoir), and her next 
sister, Lady Georgiana Berkeley, were therefore placed under 
the care of a Swiss governess, whose virtues and kindness 


were such that her pupils could never speak of her in after- 
life without emotion. 

" A passion for reading soon discovered itself; so that 
little exercise was taken, and a reluctance generally shown on 
all occasions where sedentary employment was not engaged. 
This, however, turned out an advantage ; for whenever lively 
music was heard, I would leave every thing to dance. I was 
taught so young and so early, that although I had not the 
recollection at what period I commenced to learn, I have fre- 
quently since been told that I was taught upon a table, be- 
cause the dancing- master could not stoop to place my arms 
and feet upon the ground ; and by the time I was ten years 
old, I made the fortunes of my dancing-master and my mil- 
liners, by the interest I took in them, and the credit they 
gained from their attention to my manner and my figure. 

" Among the many reflections that occurred to a mind of 
such a thinking turn as that of mine, none afforded me greater 
pleasure than the recollection that the great approbation which 
I insured was owing to the excellent advice prescribed to me 
by my governess ; for my natural disposition was one of the 
most difficult to manage extremely meek, yet very lively ; 
extremely humble, yet, when crossed, it produced a sensation 
of pride which for ever sealed my lips and ears to those who 
offended me. Generous feelings constantly were awakened 
on every occasion, and a liberal way of thinking accompanied 
all the actions of my life. As I began to attain my tenth year 
I grew tall, and though opportunities might have presented 
themselves of showing me that my appearance was by no 
means of an ordinary kind, yet, from my mother's admiration 
of my sister's beauty, and her indifference to the younger one, 
not to say dislike, I was persuaded to think myself by no 
means of a prepossessing form or countenance, but, on the 
contrary, was induced to imagine myself rather disagreeable. 
There was not the slightest similarity between my sister and 
myself; and the former had light hair, while I had auburn. 
The impressions which I received from my mother's conduct 
produced that look of modesty and timidity, which, contrasted 


with my natural vivacity, and love for all that was gay and 
cheerful, fascinated every one in so powerful a degree. 

" It is a matter of regret to me, that there is no picture 
of me which has done me justice, nor is even like me. 
The figure, in all the whole-lengths, is spoiled ; and even 
Madame Le Brun, who painted a three-quarters' length of me, 
made an arm and hand out of all proportion to the chest and 

" My docile temper made learning easy to me ; and the 
best methods of instruction were always sought and practised. 
With a natural inclination and taste for all fine works, I 
danced, sung, and embroidered ; and being obliged to read 
aloud, I acquired the habit of speaking clearly and articu- 
lately. My disinclination to plain work, and all subjects that 
required plodding, prevented me from acquiring arithmetic ; 
and those things which did not engage the imagination or de- 
light the eye were abandoned and neglected. 

" If my occupations and the clearness of my ideas produced 
delight in all who knew me, and became the cause of the com- 
fort of both my husbands, and the primitive source of my com- 
mon sense, I also considered that to these circumstances, the 
method in which I was nursed contributed, in a great measure, 
to produce these original causes. It is customary in England 
for nurses to toss infants in the air, and to shake their tender 
frames, before they are able to bear it ; and this is called 
good nursing, and keeping the children alive. One day, when 
the late Pere Elisee, surgeon to the King of France, was 
talking to me, he said, ' Dieu, comme vos idees sont claires et 
nettes J' { Because, 7 I replied, ' I was too weak to be tossed 
about when an infant, and knocked upon nurses' knees.' 
1 Vous croyez plaisanter, Madame, he said ; ' mais sache que 
le nombre des enfans qui sont malades en Angleterre, ou qui men- 
rent de water on the brain, doivent cela a I'infame coutume que 
les Anglaises out de rcmuer et de sauter les enfans, avant que la 
tete peut etre soutenue perpendiculairement par les Jibres du 
coi: " 

" Although I was complimented with phrases of being quite 


superior, and otherwise gifted by nature, to the generality of 
my sex, I always attributed such accomplishments or gifts to 
the effects of my education. Instead of skipping over a rope, 
I was taught to pay and receive visits with children, and to 
suppose myself a lady who received company ; and my sister 
and myself had a set of young ladies who visited us in Lon- 
don. I was never permitted to see a play till twelve years old, 
when I took a most decided passion for acting, which after- 
wards proved one of the Margrave's greatest pleasures." 

At the age of thirteen, Lady Elizabeth Berkeley accompa- 
nied her mother and sister to Paris. The passage from Dover 
to Calais was exceedingly stormy. The Countess of Berkeley 
and Lady Georgiana were terrified out of their senses : 

" As I thought mariners knew better than myself, if there 
was any danger, I immediately went and addressed the cap- 
tain; and, with one of my best curtsies, asked him if there was 
any danger ; he told me, none. I then began to feel sick, and 
asked him if he could give me any thing to stop the sickness. 
He desired to know if I had ever drank any brandy ; and, on 
my replying { Oh, no ! ' he gave me some, which soon allayed 
the complaint." 

The fair sisters experienced great attention at Paris : 
" While Lady Georgiana appeared quite indifferent, and I 
regular in my conduct, notwithstanding the flattery and homage 
which I received, our manners excited considerable surprise 
to men who were accustomed to meet with welcome assurances 
of their devotions. But this well-regulated manner may be 
entirely ascribed to the mode in which we had been brought 
up ; for the young nobility in England, of our age, were accus- 
tomed to visit us during our holidays, when we had children's 
balls and other amusements, which prepared our minds for 
general society. Lords Egremont, Tyrconnel, and Cholmon- 
deley, and his cousin Brand, Lord Carlisle, and many others, 
were the constant visitors of the family, while boys. It is very 
natural to suppose how intimately acquainted we must have 
been. Those boys whose conduct was too boisterous were 
sent to Coventry by the girls. This youthful society was of 


essential service to all parties, as it prepared our minds, and, 
in some degree, formed our manners, for the great theatre of 
the world, and taught us to receive those attentions we were 
entitled to with a calmness which others, who have been more 
secluded, cannot easily attain. Such an education, also, took 
from the young females that foolish delight, and overstrained 
civility, with which young English ladies treat men, when they 
are what is called brought out into society, seemingly, indeed, 
only to be disposed of. Lady Georgiana and myself were as 
opposite in our dispositions as we were in our persons ; the 
former being very indolent, and naturally obstinate ; while, on 
the other hand, I was very active and obedient. Lady Georgiana 
had blue eyes, with handsome eyebrows and eyelashes; but 
her whiteness, which was that of alabaster, never changed. 
Sorrow, ill health, the sun, wind, never had any effect on her 
skin. My auburn eyes and hair were admired : this last was 
one of my greatest beauties, as it was soft as silk ; and, at 
Paris, was so long, that it reached below my knees ; and my 
skin, which was also white, was suffused with colour, and, 
when exposed to the sun, covered with freckles. 

" The French who visited at the house, particularly the 
Princesse Guimenee, our next-door neighbour, were surprised 
to hear an English child talk French ; and, although nothing 
could excite vanity in me, I thought my friends were exces- 
sively kind, but attributed my being sought after, to the cold 
and inaccessible manner of my sister. Lady Georgiana had 
learned nothing well, from her natural indolence ; and the 
French she seemed particularly to disdain, imagining that she 
disliked every thing French. Her admiration was chiefly 
bestowed upon herself. From the contrast between the two 
sisters, I soon became endeared to the whole house, and all 
the servants called me La Petite, as a term of affection, 
although I was rather tall of my age. At Paris, I learned to 
paint and embroider on silk, and the tambour, which was just 
imported from Turkey. . I had also a dancing-master, and, as 
in England, my masters were delighted with me ; for, although 
lively to a great degree, the instant I was to learn any thing, 


a deep silence and an application to my pursuits seized me, 
and I generally concluded all my lessons with a nervous head- 
ache, arising from my too great attention," 

Soon after Lady Elizabeth Berkeley's return to England, 
she went to the music-meeting at Gloucester, where she met 
with many who talked love to her, but she disliked them all : 

" I however made an exception to one, and only one, who 
sighed and tormented me, and that was Mr. Howard ; and I 
imagined the reason why I did not dislike him was, that his 
father would not permit him to propose to me, because I was 
a Protestant." 

In the November following, Lady Elizabeth was presented 
at court : 

" From that time till April, had I been vain, I ought to 
have been happy ; for I was received by the world, cherished 
by my relations, and courted by the men, in a manner which 
might have turned the head of any young creature ; but this I 
attributed, partly to the great goodness of some, and the great 
folly of others; so that all the caresses and homage I received 
made me more diffident and humble than ever ; and it was just 
that look, which no one else had, that made me to be endeared 
by every one." 

Soon after she was sixteen years of age, Lady Elizabeth 
Berkeley was married to Mr. William Craven, nephew of 
Lord Craven. 

" Without dwelling long on the wedding, suffice it to say, 
that my governess shut herself up in her room, and would see 
no one. All the house was sobbing, except Lady Berkeley. 
I stood, at the ceremony, between the Duke of Richmond and 
Lord Berkeley, who, it was intended, was to have given me 
away ; but, petrified with grief at the thought of losing me, the 
Duke was obliged to take my hand, and present it to Mr. 
Craven. The next winter, and the following one, were passed 
at Ashdown Park, where I had two daughters in two years. 
Mr. Craven's attachment to me seemed to increase daily : my 
manners were such a novelty to him, that he has often told me 


he was as much alarmed at the delicacy of my mind, as at that 
of my person." 

On the death of Lord Craven, Mr. Craven inherited the 
title and estate. The subject of our memoir, now, of course, 
Lady Craven, enjoyed the esteem and friendship of the Earl 
of Warwick, Lord and Lady Greville, the Countess of Den- 
bigh, the Earl and Countess of Aylesford, and other neigh- 
bours : 

" The people of the city of Coventry also took a great pre- 
possession in my favour. In most of the visits that I paid, I 
was obliged to pass through the city of Coventry ; and the 
people used to run by the sides of the coach, and say, c God 
bless your sweet face ! ' and offer cakes, &c. At the end of a 
riot of three days in the town, owing to a contested election, 
the Mayor of Coventry and four aldermen came to Lord Cra- 
ven, to entreat that I might go into the city with blue ribbons, 
as the yellow and green had thrown it into confusion. I was 
much averse to this proposition ; but Lord Craven insisted, 
and I accordingly went in a low chaise, which generally was 
used only in the park. On my arrival at Coventry, I was 
treated with the greatest respect by the people, so much was 
I beloved. Lord Craven, next day, named a friend of his, 
through the mayor. On my return to England, many years 
after, as wife of the Margrave of Anspach, I was not a little 
surprised to receive an offer from Coventry, to name a member 
in Parliament. * * * A county, likewise, did me the honour to 
request me to recommend a member ; but, far from availing 
myself of such extreme attention, I declined to interfere, as I 
ever had done, in politics. 

" In London, the Duke and Duchess of Marlborough 
showed their partiality to me ; and Mr. Walpole (afterwards 
Lord Orford), Dr. Johnson, Garrick, and his friend Colman, 
were among my numerous admirers ; and Sir Joshua Reynolds 
did not conceal his high opinion of me. Charles Fox almost 
quarrelled with me, because I was unwilling to interfere with 
politics a thing which I always said I detested, and con- 
sidered as being out of the province of a woman." 


Lady Craven was frequently at Blenheim, and, on one 
occasion, stayed there ten days : 

" I there learned, from one of the intimates of the Duchess, 
what it was that induced her to give me such a preference as 
she appeared to do. It was the perfect conviction that her 
Grace had, that I had not the slightest desire to attempt to 
please or govern. One day, a little child of the Duchess's, 
only two years old, threw herself, screaming, on the carpet, on 
my entrance, and terrified the Duchess. I threw myself in- 
stantly on the carpet, and imitated the child's cries ; which 
soon pacified the child, and the Duchess was diverted beyond 
measure. This kind of conduct, and these manners, made 
Lord Craven , extremely fond of me, and he was highly grati- 
fied in finding me so universal a favourite." 

Unhappily, Lady Berkeley and Lord Craven were constantly 
disagreeing : Lady Craven was. the general subject of their 
disputes : 

" Lady Berkeley pretended that Lord Craven spoiled me, 
as she called it ; and it appeared to excite her envy, when he 
told her that nothing was great or good enough for my mind 
and person." 

The hurry which the christening of her youngest son 
occasioned was the cause of a severe illness, from which 
Lady Craven was recovered by the skill of the celebrated 
Dr. Jenner : 

" That winter I was much surprised to find that often, when 
Lord Craven told me he was going to hunt in Hampshire or 
Wiltshire, he had been in neither place, but in London, and not 
residing in our own house. I of course began to grow very 
uneasy ; and soon discovered that he had formed another at- 
tachment to a person whom he had found at the Crown Inn, 
by chance, at Reading ; left there for debt by a gay colonel, 
whose mistress she was, till, tired by her extravagance, he had 
left her and her charms in pledge to pay her reckoning." 

The consequence was a separation between Lord and Lady 
Craven ; and the latter left England for France ; taking with 
her her youngest son : 



" My mother's surprise at my extreme tranquillity I shall 
never forget. ' You do not even name Benham !' she said. 
I then consulted my feelings, and found my governess was 
quite right ; when, one day I was telling her that I neither 
knew the sensations of envy nor hatred, we were talking 
French^ and she said, ' Vous ne ha'issez pas, metis vous faites 
pis 9 vous meprisez;' and then, and then only, I felt really that 
it was contempt which shut out my heart at that moment from 
every regret, and that my mind was too lofty to descend to 
things personal to myself, where the fate of many was con- 

At Paris Lady Craven occasioned so great a sensation, that 
the Queen of France and Madame Elizabeth employed a 
milliner to watch her conduct. Here she was frequently 
visited by the Margrave of Anspach : 

" He had known me from my childhood, and had conceived 
for me the same partiality that all who had known me from 
my infancy retained for me. 

" Some time after, the Duke of Dorset asked me why Ma- 
dame de Polignac tormented him with so many questions about 
me. I asked him what questions. He replied, ' Such as 
these : Est-elle aussijolie? A-t-elle autant d' esprit que le monde 
dit ? ' And what did you answer ?' said I to the Duke. ( I 
told her,' said he, ' that we had twenty women at court more 
handsome than you i mais, pour les graces et Vesprit^ pas 
urn? " 

From France, Lady Craven went to Italy, and thence to 
Vienna, where she was received at Court in the most flatter- 
ing manner. The Emperor quitted Vienna two days after 
Lady Craven had seen him ; but he ordered Prince Kaunitz, 
his first minister, to prepare one of his houses for Lady 
Craven to reside in, and wished her to pass the whole winter 
at Vienna : 

" When Prince Kaunitz delivered the Emperor's message 
to me, and added to it, c The Emperor says he never saw any 
woman with the modest and dignified deportment of Lady 
Craven, ' I immediately replied that it was not in my power 


to stay ; and I set off in ten days to perform the extraordinary 
journey to St. Petersburgh, where the Empress of Russia, and, 
by her orders, all who commanded under her authority, treated 
me with the most unexampled attention. The Emperor had 
no wife, and the opinion which he had formed of me, and 
which was repeated over all Germany, terrified me; and, fear- 
ful lest injurious reports should be spread of me, which was 
what I could not bear, at the risk of being thought ungrateful 
to the Emperor, I fled like a frightened bird from a net." 

On her arrival at Warsaw, on her way to 'St. Petersburgh, 
Lady Craven was presented to the King of Poland. She also 
passed two days with the Princess Czartoriska (whom she had 
previously known in England), at a country-house belonging 
to her sister-in-law : 

" She inquired of me if I had been at Berlin, and when I 
answered in the negative, she said she wished me joy : " For 
what would he have done to you, ' she said, ' since he so much 
embarrassed me ?' c And pray,' said I, ' who is he who could 
venture to do any thing to embarrass you ? ' ' Le Grand Fre- 
derick^ was her reply. She then informed me that his majesty 
had her invited to dinner by the Queen ; and every body 
being assembled before he came, when he arrived he made one 
bow at the door to the circle, and then walked up to her, 
took her by the hand, and led her up to a window; where he 
stood to examine her countenance, with a look so scrutinizing, 
with eyes so piercing, that she was embarrassed in the highest 
degree ; particularly as he never spoke till he had examined 
all he wished to look at ; and when this was done, he said, ' I 
had a great desire to see you, I have heard so much of you ;' 
and began an account of what that was in language so civil, 
but with a raitterie la plus fine ', que detail presque line persi- 
jlage. When he had done, she added, ' I did not know whe- 
ther I was to feel humbled or elevated, or whether it was a 
good or bad impression he had received of me, or whe- 
ther it was satire or compliment he meant to convey. Qttel 
homme ! ne le voyez jamais, chere Miladi ; vous rougissez pour 

c 2 


rien / il vous ferait pletirer. I felt internally that I should 
like to see him ; and that, as the adopted sister of the Mar- 
grave, under that protection, I should not fear even the Great 

From St. Petersburgh, Lady Craven proceeded to Moscow, 
thence to Constantinople, and to Greece. She then returned 
to England, for the purpose of seeing her children, and after- 
wards went to Paris to take measures for her stay at Anspach 
with the Margrave and Margravine : 

" On my arrival at Anspach, the joy of the Margravine at 
seeing me was very great, as she knew it was by my desire 
that the Margrave had returned earlier than usual ; for she 
loved and esteemed him as much as he deserved, notwithstand- 
ing her general coldness." 

At Anspach Lady Craven instituted a little society for the 
encouragement of arts and sciences, and endeavoured, though 
unsuccessfully, to establish a school and asylum for children. 
But dramatic amusements were her principal delight. She 
had a theatre constructed, formed a company from the young 
nobility, engaged an excellent machinist, employed the court 
orchestra, and was herself a writer and a principal performer: 

" I wrote two petites pieces. One was called e La Folie du 
Jour ^ the other ( Abdoul et Nourjad, which I had previously 
written to please M. Choiseul Gouffier, was acted by my com- 
pany with such success, that many people took drawings of 
the first scene, and the sentinels and boys in the street sung 
the favourite airs. I also translated from the English into 
French, the comedy of She would and she would not;' and 
as I always gave the Margravine the choice of what was to 
be acted, she generally chose that ; and as I was obliged to 
curtail the dialogue, it was much animated in the French. 
Yet, notwithstanding all my endeavours to please, I could not 
satisfy the suspicious tempers of the Germans; and all -the 
good I wished to do was frequently opposed. 

" When I reflect on the position in which I was placed, I 
find that it has been a negative which has given me the consi- 
deration in which I have been held. I have been, like other 


women, flattered with the brilliancy of my talents, my figure, 
and all those things to which my successes in the world are attri- 
buted ; but these only raised malice and envy against me : the 
real causes are negatives. I never utter a falsehood I never 
detract I talk as little as I can I never suffer sorrow or 
wrong to approach me without a negative ; that is, without 
endeavouring to oppose them I get out of the way, and let 
others alone to do as they please." 

Although Lady Craven scrupulously refrained from the 
solicitation or acceptance of favours for her friends and coun- 
trymen, the influence which she was known to possess over the 
Margrave excited a dislike towards her amongst the people 
about the court. Mademoiselle Clairon, the celebrated French 
actress, in whose train of admirers the Margrave had some 
time been, also conceived a furious jealousy against her, but 
at length yielded the palm : 

" In the winter following my arrival at Anspach, the Mar- 
grave wished me to go to Naples with him, in order to pass a 
few months there. We were received at court with the greatest 
delight, for the Margrave had always been held in the highest 
estimation by the King of Naples. The Queen also, who at 
that time was ill, showed me a great partiality, as I was allowed 
to attend upon her ; and by my attentions I truly gained her 
heart. Her Majesty soon took such a fancy to me, that she 
made me pass most of my evenings with her tete-a-tete; 
while in the mornings I frequently accompanied the King in 
his hunting or shooting parties, of which he was extremely 
fond. My adroitness in killing game, my skill in riding on 
horseback, and the indifference I showed about my person in 
rain, in wind, or whatever might be the fatigue, endeared me 
much to the King. Sir William Hamilton, who, early in life, 
had experienced the kindness of my relations to him, returned 
that kindness in my person, by saying such handsome things 
of me at court, that I became a universal favourite." 

After a long residence at Naples, and three months* stay at 
Berlin, Lady Craven and the Margrave of Anspach re- 
turned to Anspach : 

c 3 


" I am thoroughly persuaded that the unjust suspicions of 
people against me induced the Margrave, among other causes, 
to resolve to cede his dominions to the King of Prussia ; as 
he imparted to me after his journey to Berlin. This reso- 
lution I combated with all the arguments I could adopt. 
That summer the Margrave informed me that he had received 
an invitation from the King of Prussia, to go to Berlin, to 
pass the carnival there with the royal family ; and that I was 
also desired to accompany him, as the King's adopted sister." 

Previously to the departure of the Margrave and Lady 
Craven to Berlin, the Margravine took a singularly affec- 
tionate leave of the latter : 

" There was something so novel in her conduct, that the 
Marechal, who handed me down, and the courtiers who fol- 
lowed, were struck with astonishment, and a dead silence 
ensued. I then withdrew into my apartment." 

At Berlin Lady Craven was received with great distinction ; 
and was present at the confidential conversations between the 
King of Prussia and the Margrave of Anspach, on the pro- 
posal of the latter to give up his principalities to the former. 
On their return from Berlin, the Margrave and Lady Craven 
stayed one day at Bareith, where they received intelligence of 
the death of the Margravine. 

M. Seckendorf, a minister of finance at the Court of An- 
spach, who had converted a large sum of the public money to 
his own use, had been dismissed from his office by the Mar- 
grave : 

" Upon the death of the Margravine this M. Seckendorf 
wrote to Madame Schwellenburg, the confidential friend of 
the Queen of England, to inform her that the Margrave in- 
tended to marry the Princess Royal of England ; but, as no 
such intimation came officially, Madame Schwellenburg wrote 
to M. Seckendorf, to know why no proposals had arrived. 
To this he wrote in reply, that a pair of fine eyes, at the 
Court of Anspach, would prevent the possibility of the Mar- 
grave's marrying, as long as their influence continued. It is 
impossible to describe the anger of the Margrave that any 


report of his marrying again should be spread abroad. He 
shut himself up with his minister ; had all his letters inter- 
cepted ; and the correspondence between Madame Schwellen- 
burg and M. Seckendorf cleared up all the mystery. Seck- 
endorf thought he could not wound the Margrave's feelings 
in a more tender point than in representing me in an odious 
light to the Queen of England ; and from this invention arose 
all the Queen's conduct towards me." 

Lord Craven's death took place six months after the decease 
of the Margravine. He had been some time seriously ill ; 
and the Margrave of Anspach and Lady Craven having 
gone to Lisbon, it was there that the news reached them: 

" The weather having been bad, I was prevented from 
going to the post-office for my letters, a thing I always did 
myself; the first time, therefore, when I was able to go again, 
I found five there apprising me of the death of Lord Craven. 
The climate of Lisbon made my hair grow very long, and ex- 
tremely thick ; and the salubrity of the air refreshed and in- 
vigorated my constitution. 

" As, by the death of Lord Craven, I felt myself released 
from all ties, and at liberty to act as I thought proper, I ac- 
cepted the hand of the Margrave without fear or remorse. We 
were married in the presence of one hundred persons, and 
attended by all the English naval officers, who were quite de- 
lighted to assist as witnesses." 

From Portugal the Margrave and Margravine proceeded 
to Spain : 

" We arrived at Madrid, where I received the congra- 
tulations of all my Spanish acquaintances and connections, in 
the most flattering manner. In paying to the Margrave all 
the respect due to his rank, they seemed to try (which was 
not necessary) to make him feel the value of his wife." 

Quitting Spain, the Margrave and Margravine passed as 
rapidly as possible through France, which was then the theatre 
of the Revolution, to Berlin, where they were again kindly 
received by the King. After a short stay they proceeded to 


" Upon my return to England I received a letter, signed by 
my three daughters, beginning with these words : ' With 
due deference to the Margravine of Anspach, the Miss 
Cravens inform her that, out of respect to their father, they 
cannot wait upon her/ The letter dropped from my hand, 
while Keppel endeavoured to soothe me, as I could neither 
speak nor stir. Such conduct seemed to me to be perfectly 
unaccountable. I, however, recovered my spirits, in order to 
support more ill treatment, which I expected would follow 
from this prelude. My suspicions were not unfounded : my 
eldest son, Lord Craven, totally neglected me ; and Lord 
Berkeley, who was guardian to my children, wrote me an 
absurd letter, filled with reproaches on account of my mar- 
riage with the Margrave so soon after the death of my late 
husband. I deigned to reply ; and observed, that it was six 
weeks after Lord Craven's decease that I gave my hand to the 
Margrave, which I should have done six hours after, had I 
known it at the time. I represented that I had been eight 
years under all the disadvantages of widowhood, without the 
only consolation which a widow could desire at my time of 
life which was that of bestowing my hand, where I might 
forget, by the virtues of one man, the folly and neglect 
of another, to whom it had been my unfortunate lot to 
be sacrificed. 

" The next affront that I met with was a message sent by 
the Queen to the Margrave, by the Prussian Minister, to say, 
that it was not her intention to receive me as Margravine of 
Anspach. The Margrave was much hurt by this conduct of 
her Majesty, and inquired if I could conjecture the cause. I 
answered him that I was ignorant of it ; but that, as such was 
the Queen's intention, she should not see me at all. The 
Margrave, upon this, demanded an audience of his Majesty, 
but refused to pay his respects to the Queen ; nor did he ever 
after see her." 

The Margravine drew up an address to the House of 
Lords, with the intention of claiming her privilege of going 


to Court as a Princess of the German empire ; but it was not 

" Two years after my marriage with the Margrave, the 
Emperor Francis sent me the diploma, which is registered in 
the Herald's office, of the title of Princess Berkeley. Upon 
my receiving this honour, the Margrave sent to the Queen to 
inform her that I required an audience on the occasion ; but 
her Majesty never deigned to give an answer to Lord Elgin 
from that moment; nor did I ever again make an appli- 

Having disposed of his principality to the King of Prussia, 
for an annuity to himself, and the Margravine, of 400,000 rix 
dollars, the Margrave purchased Brandenburgh House, near 
Hammersmith, and Benham, in Berkshire, an old seat of the 
Craven family, but which Lord Craven had sold. 

" The theatre, concerts, and dinners, at Brandenburgh 
House, were sources of great enjoyment to the Margrave. 
My taste for music and poetry, and my style of imagination 
in writing, chastened by experience, were great sources of 
delight to me. I wrote ' The Princess of Georgia/ and * The 
Twins of Smyrna,* for the Margrave's theatre: besides 
' Nourjad,' and several other pieces ; and for these I composed 
various airs in music. I invented fetes to amuse the Mar- 
grave, which afforded me a charming contrast to accounts, 
bills, and the changes of domestics and chamberlains, and 
many other things quite odious to me. We had, at Branden- 
burgh House, thirty servants in livery, with grooms, and a set 
of sixty horses. Our expences were enormous, although I 
curtailed them with all possible economy." 

Among other celebrated persons of that period, who were 
frequent visitors to the Margravine of Anspach, was Dr. 
Johnson : 

" One day, in a tete-a-tete, I asked him why he chose to 
do me the singular favour of sitting so often and taking his tea 
with me 'I, who am an ignorant woman,' I said, ' and 
who, if I have any share of natural wit or sense, am so much 
afraid of you, that my language and thoughts are locked up, 


or fade away, when I am about to speak to you/ He laughed 
very much at first, and then said : ' An ignorant woman ! the 
little I have perceived in your conversation pleases me;' and 
then, with a serious, and almost religious emphasis, he added, 
* I do like you !' ( And for what ?' I said. He put his large 
hand upon my arm, and with an expression I shall never 
forget, he pressed it, and said, < Because you are a good 
mother.' Heaven is my witness, I was more delighted at his 
saying this, than if he had praised me for my wit or mariners, 
or any gift he might have perceived in me. 

" One evening, at a party at Lady Lucan's, when Johnson 
was announced, she rose, and made him the mosj: flattering 
compliments ; but he interrupted her, by saying, * Fiddle 
faddle, Madam ;' and turned his back upon her, and left her 
standing by herself in the middle of the room. He then took 
his seat by me, which Sir Joshua Reynolds, who was present, 
perceiving, he came and sat down by us. Johnson asked him 
what was the reason he had refused to finish the picture for 
which I had sat six times. Reynolds was much embarrassed, 
and said, laughing, ' There is something so comical in the 
lady's face that all my art cannot describe it.' Johnson re- 
peated the word comical ten times, in every different tone, 
and finished in that of anger. He then gave such a scolding 
to his friend, that he was much more embarrassed than before, 
or than even I was, to be the cause of it. That picture is 
now at Petworth ; it was bought at Sir Joshua's sale, after his 
death, by Lord Egremont." 

Towards the latter end of the year 1805, the Margrave of 
Anspach suffered severely from a disorder which baffled the 
skill of the faculty : 

" His constitution gave way, and he resigned his life at 
Benham, after lingering for two years with a pulmonary 
complaint, when he had nearly completed his seventieth year. 
He had previously declared his intention of leaving me in 
the possession of all his property : a proof that he thought 
me deserving of his tenderness was, that he fulfilled his 


wishes. To dwell upon bis virtues would be unnecessary. 
I believe a better man never existed/' 

The Margravine continued to reside at Benham, till she 
" thought it proper to go to Anspach to make inquiries 
respecting a sum of money of the Margrave's, which was mine 
by right." After this journey, which was unsuccessful, she 
continued in England till the Peace. She then went to Mar- 
seilles, thence to Genoa, where she met with the Princess of 
Wales, to whom her son Keppel had been chamberlain ; 
from thence to Ghent, where she saw Louis the XVIIIth ; 
and thence to Naples : 

" The King of Naples made me a present of two acres of 
land, on a most beautiful spot of ground, commanding a com- 
plete view of the bay. Here I built a house, in form similar 
to my pavilion at Brandenburgh House ; a large circular 
room in the centre, with smaller apartments surrounding it. 
The Duchess of Devonshire and many of our English nobility 
resided at Naples ; and the high esteem in which 1 was held 
at court rendered my life extremely agreeable." 

The death of the Margravine, from a decay of nature, took 
place at Naples, on the 13th of January, 1828, at the age 
of 77. 

Her remains were interred, according to the desire she 
had expressed, in the English Protestant burial-ground at 
Naples, and were attended to the grave by her son, the Hon. 
II. Keppel Craven, his Grace the Duke of Buckingham (her 
nephew), the members of his Britannic Majesty's Mission and 
Consulate, the Minister Plenipotentiary of his Majesty the 
Emperor of Austria, and a long train of distinguished person- 
ages, both English and Neapolitan, who were anxious to pay 
this last tribute of respect to her memory. The unosten- 
tatious munificence of her mode of living, and the employ- 
ment she had so long afforded to numerous poor, have 
caused her loss to be deeply felt by many. The disposition 


of her property is understood to be as follows : With the 
exception of provision for her servants, and some trifling be- 
quests, the whole of her property in England is left to her 
third son, the Hon. R. K. Craven, with a reversion in the 
landed interest in Berkshire to her nephew, Sir George 
Berkeley, Bart. K.C.B. Her house and property at Naples, 
together with her villa situated on the Strada Nuova, the 
ground of which was given to her by the late king of Naples, 
and the Villa Strozzo 3 at Rome, are likewise secured to her 
third son. 


No. III. 


DELPHIA, &c. Sec. &c. 

OF this highly-gifted and amiable man, most interesting 
Memoirs have lately been published, by his friend Dr. Olin- 
thus Gregory. These Memoirs are divided into three sections. 
In the first, Dr. Gregory has traced the leading incidents in 
Dr. Good's life, and shown their influence in the formation of 
his intellectual, literary, and professional character; in the 
second, he has given analyses of greater or less fulness accord- 
ing to the nature and interest of die subjects, of Dr. Good's 
principal published works, as well as of two which ar 
unpublished; in the third, he has endeavoured to mark the 
changes in Dr. Good's religious sentiments ; and to trace, as 
far as it was practicable, the connection between the circum- 
stances in which he was successively placed, the trains of 
emotions which they occasioned, and their permanent issue in 
the avowal of sentiments which have been always found power- 
fully influential upon the conduct, and which evinced their 
complete and undisputed energy upon his. The whole of 
Dr. Gregory's volume, amounting to nearly five hundred 
pages, is well deserving, and will amply repay, an attentive 
perusal ; but the nature of our work, in a great measure, con- 
fines us to the subject of the first section, of which the follow- 
ing is an abridgment : 

The family of Dr. Good was highly respectable, and bad, 
for several generations, possessed property at Romsey, in 
Hampshire, and in the neighbouring parish of Lockerley. 
His grandfather, who was actively engaged in the shalloon 


manufacture, had three sons, William, Edward, and Peter. 
Of these, the eldest entered the army, and died young ; the 
second succeeded his father as a manufacturer; the third, 
evincing early indications of piety, was devoted to the ministry 
of the Gospel, among the Independent or Congregational 
class of Dissenters. After completing his education at the 
academy at Ottery- Saint- Mary, in Devonshire (then under 
the charge of a very eminent scholar, the Rev. Dr. Lavender), 
he became the Pastor of an Independent Church and Congre- 
gation, at Epping, in Essex, in the year 1 760. About a year 
afterwards, he married Miss Sarah Peyto, the daughter of the 
Rev. Henry Peyto, of Great Coggeshali, in Essex, and the 
favourite niece of the Rev. John Mason, author of a popular 
treatise on " Self Knowledge," and several other works. 
Their union, however, was not of long continuance. Mrs. 
Good died on the 1 7th of February, 1766, at the early age of 
29. She left three children; William, bora October 19. 
1762; John Mason (the subject of this memoir), born May 
25. 1764; and Peter, born February 13. 1766. William and 
Peter are still living ; and reside, one at Bath, the other in 

Within two years of the death of his first wife, the Rev. 
Peter Good married a second, the only daughter of Mr. John 
Baker, an eminent tradesman, residing in Cannon Street, 
London. She was a woman of great piety and extensive in- 
formation, and discharged the duties which devolved upon 
her with so much prudence, affection, and delicacy, that 
many years elapsed before John Mason Good discovered, 
with equal surprise and regret, that she was not actually his 
mother. She had one child, a daughter, who is still living, 
and resides at Charmouth. Shortly after his second marriage, 
Mr. Good removed from Epping, to take the charge of a con- 
gregation at Wellingborough, in Northamptonshire ; but, in 
little more than a year, the patrimonial property, and the 
business at Romsey, having passed into his hands, in conse- 
quence of the death of his brother John, he settled at Romsey. 
His first thoughts were to carry on the shalloon manufacture. 


with the assistance of his late brother's superintendent of the 
works, until one of his sons should be old enough to take the 
business ; but he relinquished his intention, on finding that the 
prosecution of it would draw him too much from his favourite 
pursuits. He then resolved to devote his time to the education 
of his children ; and, soon after, in compliance with the wishes 
of many of his friends, he engaged an assistant, and opened a 
seminary for a limited number of pupils. 

Under the tuition of his father, the subject of this memoir 
made a correct acquaintance with the Greek, Latin, and 
French languages ; and soon evinced a remarkable desire to 
drink deeply of the springs of knowledge and pleasure which 
they laid open to him. Such, indeed, was the delight with 
which he pursued his studies of every kind, that it occasioned 
an entire absorption of thought ; so that, when he was little 
more than twelve years of age, the habit of hanging over his 
books had produced a curvature in his back, equally unfa- 
vourable to his growth and to his health. His father, anxious 
to remove this evil, earnestly besought him to join with his 
fellow-students in their various games and sports ; and, ere 
long, he engaged in these also, with his characteristic ardour, 
and became as healthful, agile, and erect as any of his youth- 
ful associates. 

As the season approached in which it would be proper for 
Mr. Good to put his sons into more immediate training for the 
professions which they respectively selected, he gradually di- 
minished the number of his pupils, in order that, when they 
had quitted home, he should retain only two or three students, 
and they of more mature age. His eldest son, William, was, 
at fifteen years of age, articled to an attorney at Portsmouth ; 
John Mason, at about the same age, was apprenticed to Mr. 
Johnson, a surgeon-apothecary at G.osport ; and the youngest 
son, Peter, was placed in a commercial house at Portsmouth. 
The father being now at liberty fully to resume the pastoral 
duties, acceded to the invitation of a congregation at Havant, 
to which place he removed in the year 1779 or 1780. Here 
he was within a few miles of all his sons, and kept alive an 


intimacy between them and his two remaining pupils ; one a 
son of Sir John Carter of Portsmouth ; the other, a son of the 
Rev. D. Renaud, Rector of Ha van t.* 

The buoyancy and hilarity of youth, and the direction of 
his ardent and aspiring mind into fresh channels of research, 
soon rendered the subject of this memoir happy in his new 
situation. He quickly made himself acquainted with phar- 
macy, and the general principles of medical practice ; and the 
intervals of his leisure were devoted to music, the sciences, and 
belles lettres. Even at this early period he began to exercise 
his powers in original composition, as well as to digest plans 
for the augmentation of his literary acquirements. At the age 
of fifteen he composed a " Dictionary of Poetic Endings," and 
several little poems. He also drew up " An Abstracted 
View of the principal Tropes and Figures of Rhetoric, in 
their Origin and Powers," illustrated by a variety of examples} 
original and collected. Shortly afterwards, he made himself 
master of the Italian language. He likewise reduced into 
active operation a plan of common-place books, which had 
been incessantly recommended by his father. These he 
threw into separate classifications ; and, commencing with a 
series of books, each of a convenient size for the pocket, he 
made one or other his constant companion ; and thus, where- 
ever he went, and could get access to a volume, he was pre- 
pared to select from it, and add to his own stores. 

Before he had completed his sixteenth year, the bad 
health of Mr. Johnson caused to be thrown upon -him an un- 
usual weight of responsibility for one so young. He had to 
prepare the medicines, to enter an account of them in the 
several books, to send them to the respective patients, &c. 
almost entirely without superintendence. All this, however, 
served but to consolidate and establish the habits of order and 
regularity in which he had been trained, and thus supplied 
another link in the chain of circumstances which operated to 

* The pupil last-mentioned is now the Rector of Messingham, in Lincolnshire ; 
and it may perhaps be permitted to the Editor of the Annual Biography to say, 
that a more excellent person does not exist. 


the formation of his character. In about two years from this 
period Mr. Johnson became so ill that he was obliged to en- 
gage a gentleman of skill and talent to conduct his business. 
For that purpose he selected Mr. Babington, then an assist- 
ant-surgeon of Haslar hospital, and since well known as a 
physician of high reputation in London. Mr. Babington was 
older by a few years than Mr. Mason Good ; but the dis- 
parity was not such as to prevent their forming for each 
other a cordial esteem. Satisfactory plans for the efficient 
co-operation of these two individuals had scarcely been 
formed, when the death of Mr. Johnson, and opening pro- 
spects of another kind for both, prevented them from being 
reduced into action. A favourable opportunity presenting it- 
self at this juncture for Mr. Mason Good's reception into the 
family of a surgeon of great skill and extensive practice at 
Havant, where his father then resided, he removed thither, 
and thus was permitted, though only for a few months, again 
to enjoy the advantage of paternal advice. A few occasional 
visits to his grandfather, Mr. Peyto, still living at Cogges- 
hall, prepared the way for his entering into partnership with 
a Mr. Deeks, a reputable surgeon at Sudbury, in the neigh- 
bouring county. To qualify himself as far as possible for the 
duties he was about to undertake, he spent the autumn and 
winter of the year 1783, and the spring of 1784-, in London; 
attending the lectures of Dr. George Fordyce, Dr. Lowder, 
and other eminent professors of the various departments of 
medical science and practice; taking down those lectures very 
accurately in short-hand (which he wrote with great neatness 
and facility), and afterwards transcribing them fully into 
larger books, with marginal spaces, on which he might record, 
subsequently, the results of his reading, as well as of his pro- 
fessional experience. The greater portion of the papers and 
memoranda he thus collected were carefully preserved, and 
are still extant. He also became an active member of a so- 
ciety for the promotion of natural philosophy, as well as me- 
dical science, then existing among the students at Guy's 
hospital. Such an institution lay so naturally in the current 



of his investigating intellect, that he soon distinguished himself 
by the discussions into which he entered, and the essays he 
prepared. Some of the latter, which are still in existence, 
afford incontrovertible proof of most extensive reading. 

Having terminated his winter and spring course at the hos- 
pitals, and spent the earlier part of the summer in collecting 
such professional information as London then supplied, he 
commenced his duties at Sudbury, in July or August, 1784, 
that is, shortly after he had completed his twentieth year. * 
At so early an age many obstacles to his gaining the confi- 
dence of the inhabitants would naturally present themselves ; 
but some striking proofs of his surgical skill, which occurred 
shortly after his establishment, gave an extent and solidity to 
his reputation which could not have been anticipated. The 
result was, that in a few months Mr. Deeks left the business 
entirely in his hands. By the time he was twenty-one years 
of age, his thoughts aspired to a partnership of a more en- 
dearing kind ; and he was united to Miss Godfrey, of Cogges- 
hall, a young lady scarcely nineteen years of age, described by 
those who still recollect her as of accomplished mind and fas- 
cinating manners. But, alas ! in little more than six months 
after her marriage, the youthful bride died of consumption. 

For nearly four years from this melancholy event Mr. Good 
remained a widower. His professional occupations, however, 
which now began to extend themselves into the surrounding 
villages, together with the soothing influence of time and so- 
ciety, gradually restored to his spirits their native buoyancy. 
There is reason to believe that at this period of his life he did 
not bend his mind to any regular course of study : he perused 
with the utmost eagerness every thing that was new to him, 
and he continued his early-acquired habit of recording all that 
he thought striking, or useful, or essentially original, in one 
or other of his common-place books ; but his reading was de- 

* About the same time, or soon afterwards, the Reverend Peter Good re- 
moved from Havant to Bishop's Hull, near Charnmouth ; where he continued 
to discharge the pastoral duties over a respectable church and congregation, until 
death put a period to his useful labours in the year 1805 or 1806. 


sultory, and without any fixed object. Early in the year 1 790 
he had the good fortune to become acquainted with a gentle- 
man of his own profession, and, in many respects, of a kindred 
mind, Dr. Nathan Drake, well known to the public as the ac- 
complished and amiable author'of " Literary Hours," " The 
Gleaner," and other esteemed works, dedicated to the illus- 
tration of tasteful and elegant literature. Their congeniality 
of feeling, and similarity of pursuits, laid the basis of a warm 
and permanent friendship, which continued, without inter- 
ruption, until it was closed by death. Each stimulating the 
other to an extended activity of research, and each frequently 
announcing to the other the success which attended his ex- 
ertions, could not but be productive of the most beneficial 
effects. Mr. Good greatly enlarged his acquaintance with 
the writers of Greece and Rome : at the same time he took a 
more extensive view of the poetry and literature of France 
and Italy ; and, as though these were not enough to engage 
all the powers of his mind, he commenced the study of 
Hebrew, a language of which he soon acquired a clear and 
critical knowledge. 

By this period Mr. Good had married a second time. The 
object of his choice was the daughter of Thomas Fenn, Esq. 
of Ballingdon Hall, an opulent and highly respectable banker 
at Sudbury. The experience of thirty-eight years amply 
proved with what success the refined friendship of domestic 
life " redoubleth joys, and cutteth griefs in sunder." Of the 
six children who were the result of this marriage, only two sur- 
vive ; both daughters. 

Sometime in the year 1792, Mr. Good, either by becoming 
legally bound for some friends, or by lending them a large 
sum of money, under the expectation that it would be soon 
returned, but which they were unable to repay, was brought 
into circumstances of considerable pecuniary embarrassment. 
Mr. Fenn most cheerfully stepped forward to remove his dif- 
ficulties, and lent him partial aid ; an aid indeed which would 
have been rendered completely effectual, had not Mr. Good 
resolved that perplexities, springing from what he regarded as 

D 2 


his own want of caution (though in no other respect open to 
censure), should be removed principally by his own exertions. 
Thus it happened, that a pecuniary loss, from the pressure of 
which, men with minds of an ordinary cast would have gladly 
escaped as soon as assistance was offered, became with him the 
permanent incentive to a course of literary activity, which, 
though it was intercepted repeatedly by the most extraordi- 
nary failures and disappointments, issued at length in their 
complete removal, and in the establishment of a high and 
richly-deserved reputation. Mr. Good's exertions, on this 
occasion, were most persevering and diversified. He wrote 
plays ; he made translations from the French, Italian, &c. ; 
he composed poems; he prepared a series of philosophical 
essays ; but all these efforts, though they soothed his mind, 
and occupied his leisure, were unproductive of the kind of 
benefit which he sought. Having no acquaintance with the 
managers of the London theatres, or with influential men con- 
nected with them, he could not get any of his tragedies or 
comedies brought out ; and being totally unknown to the Lon- 
don booksellers, he could obtain no purchasers for his literary 
works : so that the manuscript copies of these productions, 
which in the course of two or three years had become really 
numerous, remained upon his hands. Yet nothing damped 
his ardour. At length he opened a poetical correspondence, 
under the signature of ". The Rural Bard," with Captain Top- 
ham, the editor of the World newspaper, and became a re- 
gular contributor to one of the Reviews ; and though these 
together brought him no adequate remuneration, they served 
as incentives to hope and perseverance. 

Early in the year 1793 Mr. Good was cheered with the 
prospect of surmounting his difficulties, by removing to Lon- 
don. He received a proposal to go into partnership with a 
surgeon and apothecary, of extensive practice in the metro- 
polis, and who had also an official connection, as surgeon, 
with one of the prisons. Accordingly, in April of that year, 
at the age of twenty-nine, he removed to London. He was 
then full of health and spirits, ardently devoted to his pro- 


fession, and anxious to distinguish himself in the new sphere 
of action in which he was placed. His character soon began 
to be duly appreciated amongst medical men ; and, on the 7th 
of November of the same year, he was admitted a member of 
the College of Surgeons. But a change of scene only carried 
with it a change of perplexities. His partner, in a short 
time, became jealous of his talents, and of his rising popu- 
larity, and' had recourse to the basest means of injuring his 
reputation. The result may easily be anticipated. The 
business failed, and the partnership was dissolved. Mr. Good 
was again generously assisted by his affectionate friend at Bal- 
lingdon Hall. As before, however, he shrunk from the full 
reception of the aid offered him by Mr. Fenn, though he 
gratefully received essential help. An increasing family, pro- 
ject after project defeated, the frequent occurrence of unfore- 
seen vexations, served but as new incentives to his professional 
activity, and to the most extended literary research. Thus 
circumstanced, for three or four years he concealed his 
anxieties from those he most loved, maintained a cheerful de- 
meanour among his friends, pursued his theoretical and prac- 
tical inquiries into every accessible channel, and at length, 
by God's blessing upon his exertions, surmounted every diffi- 
culty, and obtained professional reputation and employment 
sufficient to satisfy his thirst for fame, and to place him in 
what are usually regarded as reputable and easy circum- 

In March, 1794-, Dr. Lettsom, a member of the "Me- 
dical Society" (meeting in Bolt Court, Fleet Street), offered, 
through the medium of that useful institution, a premium of 
twenty guineas for the best dissertation on the question : 
" What are the diseases most frequent in work-houses, poor- 
houses, and similar institutions ; and what are the best means 
of cure and prevention?" The prize was to be awarded in 
February, 1795. Mr. Good was one of the competitors; and 
had the satisfaction to learn, that his dissertation was success- 
ful, and to receive the request of the council that he would 
publish it ; with which request he immediately complied. 

D 3 


From this time Mr. Good was a member of the Medical 
Society, and for two or three years was one of its secretaries. 
He also became an active member of a society, constituted in 
the year 1794-, under the title of "The General Phar- 
maceutic Association," the main design of which was to pre- 
serve the distinction between the apothecary and the drug- 
gist, which had for so many years prevailed, but which, from 
recent circumstances, it was apprehended would be merged 
and lost, unless some special efforts were made to prevent it. 
At the request of some of his colleagues in the association, 
Mr. Good drew up, and published, in 1795, "A History of 
Medicine, as far as it relates to the profession of the Apo- 
thecary, from the earliest accounts to the present period." 
Although thus warmly engaging in the objects of this asso- 
ciation, and in others connected with the science and practice 
of medicine, Mr. Good continued to pursue his literary 
studies. In the years 1793, 1794, and 1795, he made several 
translations from the poets of France and Italy. By this 
time the rich diversity and extent of his talents and acquire- 
ments began to be known ; and literary men evinced as great 
an eagerness to cultivate his acquaintance as he did to avail 
himself of theirs. Besides several of the leading men in the 
medical profession, he numbered, among his frequent asso- 
ciates at this period, Drs. Disney, Rees, Hunter, Geddes, 
Messrs. Maurice, Fuseli, Charles Butler, Gilbert Wakefield, 
and others ; most of them individuals of splendid talents, 
and recondite attainments, but belonging to a school of theo- 
logy, which, though he then approved, he afterwards found 
it conscientiously necessary to abandon. 

In the year 1797 Mr. Good commenced his translation of 
the didactic poem of Lucretius " On the Nature of Things." 
The undertaking stimulated him to the study of various other 
languages ; at first, in order to the successful search of 
parallel passages, but, ere long, with much more enlarged 
views. Having gone with tolerable ease through the French, 
Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese, he now began the German* 
and, subsequently, the Arabic and Persian ; and, in a short 


time, gave proofs of his proficiency in those languages, both 
by private communications to his friends, and by articles in 
the Reviews ; to some of which, and to other periodical pub- 
lications, from the year 1797 to 1803 or 1804, he largely 
contributed. The Analytical and Critical Reviews were those 
in which his productions usually appeared : tho'ugh there are 
a few very interesting specimens of his taste and erudition in 
the British and the Monthly Magazines. Of the Critical 
Review he was for some time the editor ; and the task of pre- 
paring the most elaborate articles often devolved upon him. 
In the beginning of 1803 his labours were still more multi- 
farious. He was finishing his translation of Solomon's 
" Song of Songs," carrying on his Life of Dr. Geddes, 
walking from twelve to fourteen miles a day to see his nume- 
rous patients (his business as a surgeon then producing him 
more than 1400/. per annum), editing the Critical Review, 
and supplying a column of matter, weekly, for the Sunday 
Review : added to which, he had, for a short period, the 
management of The British Press newspaper, upon his 
hands. Such was the energy of Mr. Good's mind, such 
were his habits of activity and order, that he carried all these 
occupations forward simultaneously ; suffering none to be 
neglected, left in arrear, or inadequately executed. Towards 
the end of this busy year Mr. and Mrs. Good were doomed 
to sustain a heavy trial, in the death of their only son ; a 
child who evinced a most cheerful and amiable disposition, 
manners that were remarkably fascinating, with precarious, 
yet constantly aspiring, intellectual powers. 

The translation of Lucretius was finished in October, 
1799, having been carried through in a way very unusual 
with works of such magnitude. It was composed in the 
streets of London, during the translator's extensive walks to 
visit his patients. His practice was, to take in his pocket 
two or three leaves of an octavo edition of the original, the 
text being corrected by collation with Wakefield's ; to read 
over a passage two or three times as he walked along, until he 
had engraven it upon his ready memory ; then to translate the 

D 4 


passage, meditate upon his translation, and correct and ela- 
borate it, until he had satisfied himself. Having accom- 
plished this, the bare sight of the original brought to mind 
his own translation with all its peculiarities. In the same 
manner would he proceed with a second, third, and fourth 
passage ; and, after he had returned home, and disposed of 
all his professional business, he would go to his standing 
desk, and enter upon his manuscript so much of the trans- 
lation as he had been able to prepare satisfactorily. While he 
was carrying on the translation he was also levying his contri- 
butions towards the notes ; a part of the work, however, 
which called for much more labour, and occupied far more of 
his time. The translation was not published until 1805 ; and 
scarcely a day passed, in the six previous years, in which he 
did not either add to the notes, or, in his own estimation, give 
greater accuracy and elegance to some parts of his version. 

In the year 1802, a work, entitled, "Pantalogia; or, a 
Universal Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Words," was 
commenced by Dr. Olinthus Gregory, and Mr. Newton Bos- 
worth, of Cambridge. On the removal of Dr. Gregory to 
Woolwich, in January, 1803, another gentleman was asso- 
ciated in the undertaking ; who, however, in consequence of 
an unexpected accession of property, retired from the labour 
in about twelve months. Shortly afterwards a speculating 
bookseller, who had ascertained that this Universal Dic- 
tionary was in preparation, with a view to anticipate it both in 
object and in name, commenced the publication of a new 
" Cyclopaedia," of which Dr. George Gregory was announced 
as the editor, while, in fact, the late Mr. Jeremiah Joyce was 
the principal, if not the only person, engaged upon the work, 
This manoeuvre suggested the expediency of new arrange- 
ments, as well as of a new title, for Dr. Olinthus Gregory and 
Mr. Bosworth's Encyclopaedia; and Mr. Good, having re- 
cently published his " Song of Songs" at Mr. Kearsley's, the 
bookseller who was the chief proprietor of the new under- 
taking, his high reputation for erudition, and for punctuality 
in the execution of his engagements, pointed him out as an 


admirably qualified individual to co-operate in the important 
enterprise. Some time elapsed before his objections could be 
overcome to placing his name first on the title-page of a work 
of which he was not to take the general superintendence ; but, 
at length, the scruple was removed ; and, from 1 805, when 
the joint preparations commenced, to the spring of 1813, 
when the task was completed, Mr. Good continued, with the 
utmost promptness, regularity, and versatility of talent, to 
supply the various articles and treatises that were compre- 
hended in the extensive portion of the Dictionary which he 
undertook to compose. 

In the autumn of 1810, Mr. Good was invited to deliver a 
series of lectures, at the Surrey Institution, " on any subject, 
literary or scientific, which would be agreeable to himself." 
He acceded to the request of the directors, and delivered his 
first course, in the ensuing winter, to a crowded audience, 
who were so highly gratified and instructed, that he was 
entreated to persevere. This led to the delivery of a second 
and a third series, in the two succeeding winters. The first 
series, in fifteen lectures, treated of the " Nature of the Ma- 
terial World ; and the scale of organized and organic tribes 
that issue from it : " the second series, in thirteen lectures, 
developed the " Nature of the Animate World ; its peculiar 
powers and external relations ; the means of communicating 
ideas ; the formation of society : " and the third, in fifteen 
lectures, was devoted to the " Nature of the Mind ; its general 
faculties and furniture. " This plan would have been rendered 
still more extensive in subsequent years, had not an augmented 
sphere of professional duties compelled Mr. Good to relinquish 
the occupation of a lecturer. In this mode of imparting in- 
struction, however, he was equally qualified to command at- 
tention, and to ensure success. His delivery was goodj he 
had the most entire self-possession ; and was always master, 
not only of his subject, but of his lecture. Although his 
manuscript notes lay before him, he seldom referred to them 
more than by a glance ; so that, instead of merely reading, a 
practice which is as much calculated to neutralize the efforts 


of the lecturer, as it would be to destroy those of the advocate 
at the bar, he gave to his lectures all the correct expression of 
well-studied addresses delivered from memory, but enriched 
with those extemporaneous additions which spontaneously 
occur to a speaker of sentiment and feeling, when surrounded 
by a numerous and attentive auditory. 

To " The British Review," which, from the beginning of 
1811 to nearly the end of 1822, was published quarterly, 
under the able superintendence of Mr. Roberts, the author of 
" The Looker-on, " Mr. Good, who had long been in habits 
of intimacy with Mr. Roberts, contributed several articles; 
among which were, " A Review of the Phrenological System 
of Drs. Gall and Spurzheim, " in No. 11.; " An Account of 
Townsend's Character of Moses ; and of Professor Adelung's 
Mithridates, or History of Languages, " in No. 1 2. ; " A 
Review of Dr. Marshman's Chinese Grammar ; and another 
of Sismondi, in Spanish Literature," in No. 13. &c. 

In the year 1820, Mr. Good entered upon a more elevated 
department of professional duty, that of a physician. His 
diploma of M. D. which was from Marischal College, Aber- 
deen, is dated July 10th in that year, and is expressed in 
terms of peculiar honour, differing from the usual language of 
that class of formularies. He was also elected an honorary 
member of the Medical and Chirurgical Society of Aberdeen, 
Nov. 2. 1820. * 

The new. direction of Dr. Good's medical occupations, 
scarcelj for a single week produced any diminution of his 
labour; and, after a very short interval, his judgment was 

* Dr. Good was a member of several other learned and scientific bodies, at 
home and abroad, viz. 

Member of the College of Surgeons (as before mentioned) Nov. 7th, 1798 ; 
ceased to be such, Oct. llth, 1824. 

Fellow of the Royal Society, 1805, or 1806. 

Linnsean Society of Philadelphia, April, 1810. 

New York Historical Society^ Oct. 26. 1813. 

Literary and Philosophical Society of New York, May 9. 1816. 

Permissio Medicorum Collegii Regalis, Lond. June 25. 1822. 

Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature, April, 1824. 

New York Horticultural Society, Sept. 7th, 1824. 


more sought, and his professional engagements were more 
numerous, than at any preceding period. He did not, how- 
ever, cease to study ; but he gave to his leading literary occu- 
pations an appropriate direction. Probably, indeed, looking 
forward to this, he had laid down the general plan of a system 
of nosology so early as the year 1808. But the work, 
impeded, as it of necessity was, by the author's other pursuits, 
and receiving occasional modifications in minutiae as he ad- 
vanced, was not published until the end of the year 1820, 
when it made its appearance, in a thick octavo volume, under 
the title of " A Physiological System of Nosology, with a 
corrected and simplified Nomenclature. " 

No sooner was this work issued from the press, than its 
indefatigable author commenced a still more extensive, elabo- 
rate, and valuable performance, which was given to the world, 
in 1822, in four large volumes octave, entitled " The Study of 
Medicine." The object of the author, in this great work, 
was to unite the different branches of medical science, which 
had usually been treated separately, into a general system. 
His su.ccess was as remarkable as the attempt was bold. He 
received the most gratifying panegyrics from Sir Henry Hal- 
ford, Sir James M'Gregor, Sir John Webb, Sir Gilbert Blane, 
Drs* Perceval (of Dublin), Baillie, James Johnson, Duncan 
(of Edinburgh), and others among the most eminent physicians 
in Great Britain ; from Drs. Kosack and Francis, of New 
York ; and from several men of considerable eminence on the 
continent of Europe. The sale of the volumes was very rapid 
a circumstance that stimulated the author to prepare an en- 
larged and improved edition, which issued from the press, in 
1825, in five volumes octavo. His own copy of this edition 
contains several notes and improvements, condensed, however, 
into the smallest possible space, with a view to a third edition. 

In the spring of 1826, Dr. Good published, in three volumes, 
entitled " The Book of Nature," the lectures which he had 
delivered at the Surrey Institution. Other literary pursuits, 
which still more engaged his heart and affections, he carried 


on simultaneously ; but the results of these he did not live to 
lay before the world. 

During the greater part of his life his health had been re- 
markably good ; the cheerfulness of his disposition, and the 
activity of his body, having contributed to the preservation of 
a tone of constitution naturally robust. It is probable that the 
change of his habits, when he ceased to visit his patients on 
foot, was too sudden to be otherwise than injurious; and his 
application to the two great works, which have just been 
mentioned, augmented the evil. His friends soon saw, with 
concern, that the corporeal vigour which had carried him, 
almost unconscious of fatigue, through so much labour, was 
now beginning to give way. During the last three months of 
his life his strength declined rapidly, exciting much solicitude 
in the minds of Mrs. Good and his family, but no alarm of 
immediate danger. On the arrival of the Christmas holidays, 
Dr. Good, by whose short but affectionate visit to his beloved 
daughter Mrs. Neale and her children, residing at Shepperton, 
in Middlesex, he had received and imparted delight, expressed 
a more than usual anxiety to go thither again ; although he 
was so much indisposed, before he commenced his journey, as 
to occasion serious apprehensions of his inability to go through 
it. He reached his daughter's house in a state of great ex- 
haustion ; but, after a short time, rallied sufficiently to dis- 
tribute amongst his grandchildren, who, as usual, gathered 
around him, the books and other presents which his affection, 
watchful and active to the end, had appropriated to each. He 
then retired to his chamber, not for repose and recovery, but 
to experience the solemnities of the last awful scene, and the 
transition, from his growing infirmities, to the regions where 
there is " no more pain," the world of pure and happy spirits. 
His last illness, an inflammation of the bladder, was short 
but exceedingly severe ; and it terminated his valuable life on 
Tuesday, the 2d of January, 1827 ? in the sixty -third year of 
his age. 

Those habits of order, the formation of which constituted a 
part of his education, and the consolidation of which was so 

GOOD. 45 

greatly aided by the circumstances of his apprenticeship, were 
evinced through life. The arrangement of his wardrobe, his 
books, his accounts, his papers, his manuscripts, his time, all 
bore the stamp of this peculiarity. Giving, as he did, from 
principle, to his medical engagements his first thoughts and 
chief care in the arrangements of each day, and finding, from 
the very nature of the profession, that it presented hourly 
interruptions to his best-formed schemes, still he had the 
power of smoothing down the irregularities thus incessantly 
occurring, and of carrying on his various pursuits with the 
order which has been already adverted to. After his decease, 
the effects of this love of method and orderly arrangement 
were more than ever evinced ; for, though his professional and 
other occupations continued to employ him daily, until the 
very eve of his journey to Shepperton, yet, when his papers 
came to be examined, they were found with labels and indorse- 
ments, describing the nature of each packet, which was of 
little, which of much, which of immediate, which of remote 
consequence; which related to his profession, which to his 
banker, which to the concerns of his daughter, Mrs. Neale, 
which to any of his friends, which to proposed new editions of 
some of his works, which to a work just ready for the press; 
as completely assorted, described, and specified, as if, for the 
last six months of his existence, he had neglected every thing 
else, and acted with un remitted reference to the injunction, 
" Set thy house in order ; for thou shalt die, and not live." 

The following passages, in a letter received by Dr. Gre- 
gory, from Dr. Good's eldest daughter, Mrs. Neale, will assist 
the reader in forming his estimate of the private character of 
the subject of this memoir : 

" You will, doubtless, have learned much, from my mother 
and sister, of my dear father's affectionate deportment in his 
family, and especially of his parental kindness ; yet I cannot 
avoid mentioning one way in which, during my childhood, this 
was frequently manifested towards myself. My dear father, 
after a hurried meal at dinner, occupying but a very few 
minutes, would often spend a considerable portion of what 

46 DR. MASON G30D. 

should have been his resting-time, in teaching me to play at 
battledore, or some active game, thinking the exercise con- 
ducive to my health. 

" I never saw, in any individual, so rare a union as he 
possessed, of thorough enjoyment of what are usually termed 
the good things of this life, with the most perfect indifference 
respecting them, when they were not within his reach. In the 
articles of food and drink, he always took, with relish and 
cheerfulness, such delicacies as the kindness of a friend, or 
accident, might throw in his way ; but he was quite as well 
satisfied with the plainest provision that could be set before him, 
often, indeed, seeming unconscious of the difference. His love 
of society made him most to enjoy his meals with his family, or 
among friends ; yet, as his employments of necessity produced 
uncertainty in the time of his return home, his constant re- 
quest was to have something set apart for him, but on no 
account to wait for his arrival. 

" I, perhaps, am best qualified to speak of his extreme 
kindness to all his grandchildren. One example will serve to 
show that it was self-denying and active. My fourth little one, 
when an infant of two months old, was dangerously ill with 
the hooping-cough. My father was informed of this. It was 
in the beginning of a cold winter, and we were living sixty 
miles from town, in a retired village in Essex. Immediately on 
receiving the news of our affliction, my father quitted home ; 
and what was our surprise, at eleven o'clock on a very dark 
night, to hear a chaise drive fast up to the door, and to see 
our affectionate parent step out of it. He had been detained, 
and narrowly escaped an overthrow, by the driver having mis- 
taken his way, and attempted to drive through rough ploughed 
fields. We greatly feared that he would suffer severely from 
an attack of the gout, to which he had then become seriously 
subject, and which was generally brought on by exposure to 
cold and damp, such as he had experienced ; and we urged, in 
consequence, the due precautions ; but his first care was to go 
at once to the nursery, ascertain the real state of the disease, 
and prescribe for the infant. 


" Strangers have often remarked to me, that they were 
struck with the affectionate kindness with which he encour- 
aged all my dear children to ask him questions upon any 
subject, and the delight which he exhibited when they mani- 
fested a desire to gain knowledge. Indeed, I do not once 
remember to have heard them silenced in their questions, 
however apparently unseasonable the time, in a hasty man- 
ner, or without some kind notice in answer. He never seemed 
annoyed by any interruption which they occasioned, whether 
during his studies, or while he was engaged in that convers- 
ation which he so much enjoyed. Whenever he silenced 
their questions by the promise of a future answer, he regarded 
the promise as inviolable, and uniformly satisfied their inqui- 
ries on the first moment of leisure, without waiting to be re- 
minded by themselves or others of the expectations he had 
thus excited. These are simple domestic facts ; not, perhaps, 
suited to every taste, but, as they serve to illustrate character, 
I transmit them, to be employed or not, as you may think best." 
Of Dr. Good's intellectual character, the following is Dr. 
Gregory's summary : 

" The leading faculty was that of acquisition, which he 
possessed in a remarkable measure, and which was constantly 
employed, from the earliest age, in augmenting his mental 
stores. United with this, were the faculties of retention, of 
orderly arrangement, and of fruitful and diversified combin- 
ation. If genius be rightly termed ' the power of making new 
combinations pleasing or elevating to the mind, or useful to 
mankind,' he possessed it in a high degree. He was always 
fertile in the production of new trains of thought, new selec- 
tions and groupings of imagery, new expedients for the exten- 
sion of human good. But, if genius be restricted to * the 
power of discovery or of creative invention,' whether in philo- 
sophy or the arts, they who have most closely examined Dr. 
Good's works, will be least inclined to claim for him that dis- 
tinction. Be this, however, as it may, there can be no ques- 
tion that his intellectual powers were of the first order ; that, 
in the main, they were nicely equipoised ; and that he could 


exercise them with an unusual buoyancy and elasticity. His 
memory was very extraordinary; doubtless, much aided by 
the habits of arrangement, so firmly established by sedulous 
parental instruction. His early acquired fondness for classical 
and elegant literature, laid his youthful fancy open to the live- 
liest impressions, and made him draw 

* The inspiring breath of ancient arts, 

^ and tread the sacred walks, 

Where, at each step, imagination burns :' 

and this, undoubtedly, again aided his memory ; the pictures 
being reproduced by constant warmth of feeling. The faci- 
lity with which, on all occasions, (as I have probably before 
remarked) he could recall and relate detached and insulated 
facts, was peculiarly attractive, and not less useful. But the 
reason is very obvious. However diverse, and even exube- 
rant, the stores of his knowledge often appeared, the whole 
were methodised and connected together in his memory by 
principles of association that flowed from the real nature of 
things ; in other words, philosophical principles, by means of 
which the particular truths are classified, in order, under the 
general heads to which they really belong, serving effectually 
to endow the mind that thoroughly comprehends the prin- 
ciples with an extensive command over those particular truths, 
whatever be their variety or importance. 

" With the mathematical sciences he was almost entirely 
unacquainted ; but, making this exception, there was scarcely 
a region of human knowledge which he had not entered, and 
but few, indeed, into which he had not made considerable 
advances ; and, wherever he found an entrance, there he 
retained a permanent possession ; for, to the last, he never 
forgot what he once knew. 

" In short, had he published nothing but his ' Translation 
of Lucretius,' he would have acquired a high character for 
free, varied, and elegant versification, for exalted acquisitions 
as a philosopher and a linguist, and for singular felicity in the 


choice and exhibition of materials in a rich store of critical 
and tasteful illustration. 

" Had he published nothing but his ( Translation of the 
Book of Job,' he would have obtained an eminent station 
amongst Hebrew scholars, and the promoters of biblical 

" And, had he published nothing but his ' Study of Medi- 
cine,' his name would, in the opinion of one of his ablest 
professional correspondents, have ' gone down to posterity, 
associated with the science of medicine itself, as one of its 
most skilful practitioners, and one of its most learned pro- 

" I know not how to name another individual who has 
arrived at equal eminence in three such totally distinct depart- 
ments of mental application. Let this be duly weighed in 
connection with the marked inadequacy of his early education, 
(notwithstanding its peculiar advantages in some respects) 
to form either a scientific and skilful medical practitioner, or 
an excellent scholar, and there cannot but result a high esti- 
mate of the original powers with which he was endowed, and 
of the inextinguishable ardour with which, through life, he 
augmented their energy and enlarged their sphere of action." 


Maria ; an Elegiac Ode. 1789. 4-to. 

A Dissertation on the Diseases of Prisons and Poor-houses, 
1795. 12mo. 

The History of Medicine, so far as it relates to the Profession 
of the Apothecary, from the earliest Accounts to the present 
Period. 1795. 12mo. 

A Dissertation on the best Means of employing the Poor in 
Parish Workhouses. 1798. 8vo. 2nd edit. 1805. 

A Second Address to the Members of the Corporation of Sur- 
geons of London. 1800. 

The Triumph of Britain; an Ode. 1803. 

The Song of Songs; or Sacred Idylls, translated from the 
Hebrew; with Notes, critical and explanatory. 1803. 8vo. 



Memoirs of the Life and Writings of Dr. Alexander Geddes. 
1803. 8vo. 

Lucretius on the Nature of Things, translated from the Latin ; 
with philological and explanatory Notes and the original Text. 
1805. 2 vols. 4to. 

An Anniversary Oration, delivered before the Medical Society 
of London. 1808. 

An Essay on Medical Technology. 1810. 

The Book of Job, literally translated from the original Hebrew, 
and restored to its natural Arrangement ; with Notes, critical and 
illustrative. 1812. 8vo. 

A Physiological System of Nosology ; with a corrected and 
simplified Nomenclature. 1817. 8vo. 

The Study of Medicine. 1822. 4> vols. 8vo, ; 2nd edit, 1825. 
5 vols. 8vo. 

The Book of Nature. 1826. 3 vols. 8vo. 

A Sketch of the Revolution in 1688. 

An Essay on Providence, inserted in Dr. Gregory's Memoirs of 
Dr. Good, p. 38 to 55. 

A Translation of the Book of Proverbs, MS. 

A Translation of the Psalms, MS. 

Contributions to the Pantologia, and to various periodical pub- 

No. IV. 

LADY CAROLINE LAMB was born on the 13th of November, 
1785. Her father was the Right Honourable Frederick 
Ponsonby, Earl of Besborough ; her mother, the Lady Hen- 
rietta Frances Spencer, daughter of John, the first Earl of 
that name. She was an only daughter ; and, from her earliest 
infancy, she had the opportunity of receiving the instruction, 
and improving by the example, of her venerable grandmother, 
the highly accomplished Countess Dowager Spencer *, under 
whose immediate eye she was educated. 

Her character very early developed itself. Wild and im- 
patient of restraint, rapid in impulses, generous and kind of 
heart, these were the first traits of her nature ; and they 
continued to the last. 

On the 3d of June, 1805 (before she had attained the age 
of twenty) her marriage with the Honourable William Lamb 
(now Lord Melbourne) took place. Of three children, the 
issue of this marriage, George Augustus Frederick, so named 
in honour of his present Majesty, his sponsor at the font, is 
the only one now living. 

Mr. Lamb was a man of taste. Lady Caroline's literary 
pursuits were congenial with those of her husband ; and, with 
him, she was accustomed to read and study the classics. She 

* This lady died at the age of 78, in the year 1814. Her mind was richly 
stored with various reading, and what she acquired was applied to the best pui'- 
poses. She had an extensive range of acquaintance, who regarded her correspond- 
ence and conversation as an inestimable treasure. In sprightliness of style, her 
letters would rival those of Sevigne or Montague; while, in solidity of thought 
and ethical purity, they might rank with the epistles of Carter. On the paternal 
side, she was of the ancient family of Poyntz, and her mother was daughter of 
the great Earl of Peterborough. 

E 2 


was mistress of several of the living as well as of the dead 
languages ; as a reader she was greatly admired ; and her 
style of reciting the noblest Greek odes was of the most 
graceful and impressive character. Yet, with all this, not the 
slightest pedantry was apparent. Her powers of conversation 
were lively and brilliant; and her compositions, in verse as 
well as in prose, were evidently the emanations of an elegant 
and benevolent mind. She was an amateur and a patroness 
of the fine arts. Several of her pencil sketches, executed even 
in childhood, are strongly indicative of genius. 

On Lady Caroline Lamb's entrance into the world, the 
singularity as well as the grace of her manners, the rank of 
her own connections, and the talent of her husband's, soon 
made her one of the most celebrated dames du chateau of the 
day. That day was remarkable for the literary debut of Lord 
Byron. Much has been written, and much said, respecting 
the intimacy that subsisted between Lady Caroline and that 
remarkable person ; but it is not amidst gossip that we are to 
look for truth. " The world," says an acute writer of the 
present day, " is very lenient to the mistresses of poets ; " 
and, perhaps, not without justice ; for their attachments have 
something of excuse, not only in their object, but in their 
origin, and arise from imagination, not from depravity. It 
was nearly three years before the intimacy between Lord 
Byron and Lady Caroline was broken off. According to 
Captain Medwin, Lord Byron most cruelly and culpably 
trifled with her feelings. She never entirely recovered it. 
Those who knew her well will painfully remember the bitter- 
ness of reproach and the despondency of reflection to which, 
after that period, she was, notwithstanding her constitutional 
spirits, perpetually subjected. 

" Glenarvon" was written immediately after this rupture, 
and the chief character in it was generally understood at the 
time to be a portrait of Lord Byron. Some of its scenes were 
undoubtedly much too highly coloured. It was, however, the 
first testimony that had been given, in the form of a novel, of 


the dangers of a life of fashion ; and a host of able writers have 
since availed themselves of the hint thus afforded them. 

Subsequently appeared " Graham Hamilton," a book of a 
very different nature. Its design was suggested to Lady Ca- 
roline by Ugo Foscolo. " Write a book," said he, " which 
will offend nobody : women cannot afford to shock." It is 
composed with more care and more simplicity than " Glenar- 
von." The leading object of " Graham Hamilton" is to show 
that an amiable disposition, if unaccompanied by firmness and 
resolution, is frequently productive of more misery to its owner 
and to others, than even the most daring vice, or the most de- 
cided depravity. It has been supposed by some that, in the 
course of the work, Lady Caroline, although, perhaps, uncon- 
sciously, delineated much of her own character. Speaking of 
Lady Orville, Graham Hamilton says "I never heard her 
breathe an unkind word of another. The knowledge that a 
human being was unhappy, at once erased from her mind the 
recollection either of enmity or of error." Again : " Before 
I finish the sad history, upon which my imagination loves to 
dwell, of a being as fair as ever nature created let me at 
least have the melancholy consolation of holding up to others 
those great and generous qualities, which it would be well if 
they would imitate, whilst they avoid her weaknesses and 
faults. Let me tell them that neither loveliness of person, nor 
taste in attire, nor grace of manner, nor even cultivation of 
mind, can give them that inexpressible charm which belonged 
to Lady Orville above all others, and which sprang from the 
heart of kindness that beat within her bosom. Thence that 
impression of sincere good-will, which at once she spread 
around ; thence that pleasing address, which, easy in itself, put 
all others at their ease ; thence that freedom from all mean and 
petty feelings that superiority to all vulgar contentions. 
Here was no solicitude for pre-eminence here was no 
apprehension of being degraded by the society of others 
here was no assumed contempt here was the calm and un- 
assuming confidence which ought ever to be the characteristic 
of rank and fashion." 

E S 


66 Graham Hamilton " also contains some beautiful verses, 
the best the authoress ever wrote. We subjoin them. 

If thou could'st know what 'tis to weep, 

To weep unpitied and alone, 
The livelong night, whilst others sleep, 
Silent and mournful watch to keep, 

Thou would'st not do what I have done. 

If thou could'st know what 'tis to smile, 
To smile, whilst scorn'd by every one. 
To hide, by many an artful wile, 
A heart that knows more grief than guile, 
Thou would'st not do what I have done. 

And, oh, if thou could'st think how drear, 
When friends are changed and health is gone, 

The world would to thine eyes appear, 

If thou, like me, to none wert dear, 

Thou would'st not do what I have done. * 

Lady Caroline's third and favourite novel was " Ada Reis." 
Full of a latent and personal satire very imperfectly under- 
stood, it has seemed the most obscure, and proved, not- 
withstanding its originality, the least popular of her works. 
Besides these three tales, Lady Caroline was the authoress of 
many others never published, and of various trifling pieces of 
poetry of unequal merit. 

For many years Lady Caroline Lamb led a life of compar- 
ative seclusion, principally at Brocket Hall. This was inter- 
rupted by a singular and somewhat romantic occurrence. 
Riding with Mr. Lamb, she met, just by the park gates, the 
hearse which was conveying the remains of Lord Byron to 
Newstead Abbey. She was taken home insensible : an illness 
of length and severity succeeded. Some of her medical attend- 
ants imputed her fits, certainly of great incoherence and long 
continuance, to partial insanity. At this supposition she was 
invariably and bitterly indignant. Whatever be the cause, it 
is certain from that time that her conduct and habits mate- 

* These verses have been erroneously attributed to Mrs. Jordan. 


rially changed ; and, about three years since, a separation took 
place between her and Mr. Lamb, who continued, however, 
frequently to visit, and, to the day of her death, to correspond 
with her. It is just to both parties to add, that Lady Caro- 
line constantly spoke of her husband in the highest and most 
affectionate terms of admiration and respect. 

The next event in her life was its last. The disease 
dropsy to which she fell a victim, beginning to manifest 
itself, she removed to town for medical assistance. Three or 
four months before her death, she underwent an operation, 
from which she experienced some relief, but it was only of a 
temporary nature. Aware of her danger, she showed neither im- 
patience nor dismay; and the philosophy, which, though none 
knew better in theory, had proved so ineffectual in life, seemed 
at last to effect its triumph in death. She expired without 
pain, and without a struggle, on the evening of Friday, the 
25th of January, 1828. There are many yet living, who drew 
from the opening years of this gifted and warm-hearted being 
hopes which her maturity was not fated to realise. To them 
it will be some consolation to reflect, that her end at least was 
what the best of us might envy, and the harshest of us ap- 

In person, Lady Caroline Lamb was small, slight, and, in 
earlier life, perfectly formed ; but her countenance had no 
other beauty than expression that charm it possessed to a 
singular degree : her eyes were dark, but her hair and com- 
plexion fair: her manners, though somewhat eccentric, and 
apparently, not really, affected, had a fascination which it is 
difficult for any who never encountered their effect to conceive. 
Perhaps, however, they were more attractive to those beneath 
her than to her equals ; for as their chief merit was their kind- 
ness and endearment, so their chief deficiency was a want of 
that quiet and composed dignity which is the most orthodox 
requisite in the manners of what we term, par emphasis, so- 
ciety. Her character it is difficult to analyse, because, owing 
to the extreme susceptibility of her imagination, and the un- 
hesitating and rapid manner in which she followed its impulses, 



her conduct was one perpetual kaleidoscope of changes. Like 
her namesake in the admirable story of Cousin William, she 
had no principles to guide her passions ; her intents " halted 
in a wide sea of wax " the one had no rudder, the other no 
port. To the poor she was invariably charitable she was 
more : in spite of her ordinary thoughtlessness of self, for 
them she had consideration as well as generosity, and delicacy 
no less than relief. For her friends she had a ready and 
active love ; for her enemies no hatred : never perhaps was 
there a human being who had less malevolence : as all her 
errors hurt only herself, so against herself only were levelled 
her accusation and reproach. 

Her literary works can convey no idea of the particular 
order of her conversational talents, though they can of their 
general extent ; for her writings are all more or less wild and 
enthusiastic, and breathing of melancholy and romance : but 
her ordinary conversation was playful and animated, pregnant 
with humour and vivacity, and remarkable for the common sense 
of the opinions it expressed. Lady Caroline was indeed one 
of those persons who can be much wiser for others than for 
themselves ; and she who disdained all worldly advice was the 
most judicious of worldly advisers. The friend of Byron, 
Wellington, and De Sta'el intimately known at- the various 
periods of her life to the most illustrious names of France, 
Italy, and England her anecdotes could not fail to be as 
interesting as the inferences she drew from them were sagacious 
and acute. For the rest, it is a favourite antithesis in the cant 
morality of the day to oppose the value of a good heart to that 
of a calculating head. Never was there a being with a better 
heart than the one whose character we have just sketched : 
from what single misfortune or what single error did it ever 
preserve its possessor ? The world does not want good hearts, 
but regulated minds not uncertain impulses, but virtuous 
principles. Rightly cultivate the head, and the heart will take 
care of itself; for knowledge is the parent of good, not good 
of knowledge. We are told in Scripture that it was the wise 
men of the East who followed the star which led them to their 


On the morning of February 4th, Lady Caroline Lamb's 
remains were removed in a hearse and six from the house in 
Pall- Mali, in which her ladyship breathed her last, for the 
purpose of being conveyed to the cemetery belonging to 
Lord Melbourne's family at Hatfield. Two mourning coaches 
and four, in which were Dr. Goddard, Dr. Hamilton, and 
two other gentlemen, followed the hearse. The carnages of 
the Duke of Devonshire, Earl Spencer, Earl Carlisle, Earl 
Besborough, Lord Melbourne, Viscount Duncannon, Mr. 
Wm. Ponsonby, and Mrs. Hunter, followed the funeral pro- 
cession to a short distance out of town. The Honourable 
William Lamb, husband to the deceased, and Mr. William 
Ponsonby, joined the procession at Belvoir, to attend the 
funeral, as chief mourners. 

We are indebted for the foregoing Memoir, principally, but 
not entirely, to the Literary Gazette. 

No. V. 


SIR HENRY TORRENS was a native of Ireland, and was born 
in the City of Londonderry, in the year 1779. His father, 
the Rev. Thomas Torrens, and his mother, having died while 
he was yet an infant, he and his three brothers were left to 
the care of his grandfather, the Rev. Dr. Torrens ; and at his 
death Henry was placed under the guardianship of his uncle, 
the Rev. Dr. Thomas Torrens, a Fellow of the University of 
Dublin, and a gentleman of high literary attainments. In 
November, 1793, being then only fourteen years of age, he 
left the Military Academy of Dublin, where he had been 
educated ; and where, from the hilarity of his disposition, he 
was universally designated " Happy Harry," and commenced 
his military career as an ensign in the 52d regiment. 

In June, 1794, he was promoted to a Lieutenancy in the 
92d regiment ; and in December, 1 795, was removed to the 
63d regiment. 

With this corps he joined the expedition under Sir Ralph 
Abercrombie for the reduction of the enemy's colonies in the 
West Indies. 

During this arduous service, our young soldier was happy 
in having frequent opportunities of distinguishing himself. 
He acted with the grenadier battalion at the taking of St. 
Lucie, and was wounded by a musket ball in the upper part 
of the right thigh, in an action which took place on the 1st 
of May, 1796, during the siege of Morne Fortunee. This 


wound compelled him to remain behind while the army 
under Sir Ralph Abercrombie proceeded to the attack of St. 

At such a period, however, the pain and danger of a pre- 
mature removal appeared preferable to inactive security, and 
before he had recovered from his wound, he rejoined his regi- 
ment, just as the army was advancing to the attack and storm- 
ing of a strong line of redoubts, by the possession of which 
the enemy held the island in subjection. 

After assisting in driving the French from these important 
positions, and in finally expelling them from St. Vincent's, 
Sir Henry Torrens was for six months employed in constant 
skirmishing with the natives of the Carib country, who, 
having joined the French interest, took refuge in the moun- 
tains and fastnesses. At this time, though only holding 
the rank of a Lieutenant, he was intrusted with the command 
of a fort. 

The extensive operations, and the splendid achievements 
by which, in the latter years of the struggle against France, 
the British troops decided the fate of Europe, have in a man- 
ner obliterated from the public mind the colonial conquests 
with which the revolutionary war commenced. Yet never did 
the British soldier display more courage or sustain more hard- 
ship than during the attack upon the French West India 
Islands under Sir Ralph Abercrombie. Even the officers 
were unable to obtain any better fare than the salt rations 
issued from the stores, nor in that burning climate could they 
ever venture to refresh themselves by sleeping without their 

In what manner Sir Henry Torrens bore himself during 
the difficulties and hardships of this his first campaign, we 
have already attempted -to state, and shall merely add two 
facts as marking the opinion entertained of his conduct by 
those who witnessed it : 

On the return of the troops to Jamaica, the General re- 
warded his services by a company in one of the West India 
corps then forming ; and on one occasion, when quitting the 


regiment with which he had been acting, the non-commis- 
sioned officers and soldiers under his command insisted upon 
bearing him in triumph upon their shoulders, as a rude but 
touching mark of their attachment and admiration. 

In 1798, Sir Henry Torrens returned to England; and at 
the close of that year embarked for Portugal as Aid-de-camp 
to General. Cuyler, who commanded the British auxiliary 
army sent to protect that country from the threatened inva- 
sion of the Spaniards under French influence. While hold- 
ing this situation, he was removed from the West India corps 
to the 20th regiment of foot ; and hearing that his regiment 
was to form a part of the force destined for Holland under 
the Duke of York, he immediately relinquished the advan- 
tages of his staff situation for the post of honourable danger. 
He served in all the different actions of this sanguinary cam- 
paign, during which the British army sustained its high cha- 
racter, though the object of the expedition failed. The inun- 
dation of the country, and defeat of the Austrian army upon 
the Rhine, which enabled the French to assemble a force 
four times more numerous than ours, compelled our troops, 
after many a desperate struggle, to evacuate Holland. In 
the last of these contests, which was fought between Egmont 
and Harlaam, Sir Henry Torrens was again desperately 
wounded. A musket ball passed quite through his right thigh 
and lodged in the left, from which it was found impossible to 
extract it. 

The following anecdote is related with reference to the last- 
mentioned occurrence : On the 2d of October, 1 799, a 
severe action was fought near Alkmaar, in Holland ; and 
some of our officers, amongst whom was Sir Henry Torrens, 
imagining that they had purchased security for a few days, 
rode into that town, for the purpose of viewing the place and 
enjoying the rarity of a good dinner. While this dinner was 
in preparation, Sir Henry Torrens sat down in the coffee- 
room to make some notes in his Journal, but seeing Major 
Kemp, then Aid-de-camp to Sir Ralph Abercrombie, ride 
hastily into the town, he started from his unfinished task to 


ask the news. From Major Kemp he learned that the 
French had made an unexpected advance upon the English 
troops, and that the division to which he was attached was 
under orders for immediate action. Without waiting to re- 
turn for his papers and his pocket-book, containing between 
4-0/. and 50/., which he had left on the table, he mounted his 
horse, and in a moment was at full speed. He arrived in 
time to place himself at the head of his company, just before 
the commencement of that action in which, we have already 
stated, that he was dreadfully wounded. A considerable time 
afterwards he revisited Alkmaar, and calling at the inn he 
had so abruptly left, received his papers and his purse, which 
had been with scrupulous honesty preserved. 

On his return from Holland, Sir Henry Torrens was pro- 
moted to a majority in one of the fencible regiments then 
raising. The formation of the corps devolved upon him as 
being the only officer possessing permanent rank ; and he 
subsequently embarked with it for North America. Here he 
remained until the autumn of 1801, when having effected an 
exchange to the 86th, then in Egypt, he joined and took the 
command of the corps in that country. When the expedition 
to Egypt had effected its object, Sir Henry Torrens marched 
his regiment across the desert, and embarked at a port of the 
Red Sea for Bombay. Here he was taken extremely ill in 
consequence of a coup de soleil, and was obliged to take his 
passage to England, in order to save his life. The ship in 
which he embarked for Europe touched at St. Helena; the 
climate and the society of that island restored him to health, 
and gave a new impulse to his feelings, and he prosecuted the 
voyage no further. 

In the society of the Government House, Sir Henry Tor- 
rens was exposed to other wounds than those of war. He 
became enamoured of Miss Sally Patton, the daughter of the 
Governor, and married at the early age of twenty-four. In 
this instance, however, reflection and reason have sanctioned 
the instinctive impulse of the heart ; and the most fortunate 
events in Sir Henry Torrens' meritorious and prosperous 


career were his touching at the island of St. Helena, and 
forming a congenial and happy union, 

" Where mind preserved the conquest beauty won." 

In 1803, Sir Henry Torrens rejoined his regiment in India, 
and remained in the field until he was again driven from the 
country by extreme and dangerous illness. In 1805, he re- 
turned to England, obtained the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel, 
and was employed in the Staff as Assistant Adjutant-General 
for the Kent district; and in 1807, he joined the expedition 
against South America, as Military Secretary to the Com- 
mander of the Forces. At the attack of Buenos Ayres he 
received a contusion from a musket-ball, which shattered a 
small writing apparatus which was slung to his side. When 
this unfortunate expedition returned from South America, Sir 
Henry was examined as a witness on the trial of General 
Whitelock. His situation now became painful and delicate 
in the highest degree, being compelled by his oath to make 
known the truth, and bound by honour not to divulge the 
confidential communications of his chief. His evidence is 
published with General Whitelock's trial ; and it is only ne- 
cessary to say in this place, that he obtained the highest credit 
by the manner in which it was given. 

Sir Henry Torrens had now established a character not 
only for gallantry in the field, but for talent, discretion, and 
integrity in the conduct of affairs. The Duke of Wellington, 
then Sir Arthur Wellesley, saw his rising talents, and ap- 
pointed him his Military Secretary. In this capacity he em- 
barked with the expedition to Portugal in 1808, and was 
present at the battles of Rolleia and Vimiera. When the Duke 
of Wellington was superseded in his command, he returned 
with him to England, and was again to have attended him in 
the same capacity, when that consummate General recom- 
menced his glorious career. But the situation of Military 
Secretary to the Commander-in-Chief being, without solicita- 
tion, offered to him just at this moment, prudence weighed 
with the father of a rising family against the ardour of the 


soldier, and domestic considerations induced him to forego 
the more active operations of the field, and to accept the 
office. How he discharged the difficult and arduous duties 
which now devolved upon him, it is almost unnecessary to 
state. His talents and his laborious attention to the mul- 
tifarious duties of his office, have been universally acknow- 
ledged ; while his conciliatory manners and kind attentions 
procured him the love of his friends and the respect of the 
whole army. From the duties of his office during four years 
of the most active period of the war, he was not a single day, 
scarcely even a Sunday, absent; and never failed, either in 
winter or summer, to rise at five o'clock in the morning. 
These exertions were rewarded by his appointment, in 1811, 
to a Company in the 3d Guards; in LSI 2, by his being made 
Aid-de-camp to his Royal Highness the Prince Regent, with 
the rank of Colonel; and in 1815 (having obtained the rank 
of Major-General in the Brevet of the previous year) by an 
appointment to a regiment. He was also honoured with the 
medal awarded for the battles of Rolleia and Vimiera, and 
with the distinction of Knight- Commander of the Bath. But 
promotion and honours were not the only sweeteners of his 
toil. In his delightful villa at Fulham every domestic endear- 
ment awaited his return after the cares and labours of the day. 
It was impossible for his marriage to be otherwise than 
happy. Sir Henry Torrens possessed an enlightened intel- 
lect and a feeling heart ; and Lady Torrens, who excelled in 
music, in painting, and in dramatic literature, was gifted with 
the powers of reasoning no less than with the principles of 

Sir Henry Torrens was more than eight years ago ap- 
pointed to the situation of Adjutant-General, and his health, 
which had suffered from excessive exertion and close confine- 
ment while he was Military Secretary, was entirely restored. 

The last important work of Sir Henry Torrens in his 
situation of Adjutant-General, was the revision of the army- 
regulations. The experience of the campaign, and more 
particularly the successful adoption of a new and more rapid 


mode of warfare of the Duke of Wellington, induced Sir 
Henry to revise the old regulations, which were founded 
upon the slow German system, and to embody into them, 
with great labour and zeal, the prompt and rapid movements 
which had been so successfully adopted by the British armies. 
This work met with the warm approbation of the Commander- 
in-Chief, and has been generally admired by military men 
for the clear and masterly method of the arrangements. 

On Saturday, the 23d of August, 1828, Sir Henry Tor- 
rens was taking an airing on horseback, near Welwyn, in 
Hertfordshire, accompanied by Lady Torrens and her two 
daughters, and some gentlemen, when he was seized with 
apoplexy. He did not fall from his horse, but was taken off 
the horse's back, and carried into the house. Every effort 
was made to effect his recovery, but in vain. He never spoke 
after the fit, and expired in two hours. By the desire of his 
family, the funeral of this gallant officer was private. It took 
place at Welwyn, on the Thursday following, August 28th. 

We are indebted for the foregoing Memoir to The Globe ; 
and we know that it was derived from an authentic source, 

No. VI. 

F.R.S. AND F.S.A. 


WE have been favoured, by an intimate friend of the late 
Dean Hook's, with the following interesting memoir. 

The Very Reverend James Hook, LL.D. F.R.S. & F.S.A: 
Dean of Worcester, and Archdeacon of Huntingdon, was 
born on the 16th of June, 1771. From his parents he in- 
herited talents for which both were distinguished. His father, 
a celebrated composer of the day, of respectable parentage 
in Norwich, was destined for the medical profession ; but his 
genius for music, and his devoted attachment to it, overcame 
all opposition. Marrying in early life, he was denied the 
advantages of foreign cultivation, and rested on the resources 
of his native talent. His wife was a woman of very superior 
qualities and attainments : she had a refined taste in the polite 
arts, excelled in painting, and was distinguished for her wit 
and various talents. Her maiden name was Madan; her 
mother (a sister of the late General Phipps) having married 
into that family. Mr. and Mrs. Hook had several children ; 
but only two sons survived, James and Theodore ; the latter 
born when his brother had nearly attained to manhood. 

The eldest son James, the subject of this memoir, was 
early .destined for the church: he was educated at West- 
minster and Oxford, having passed some previous years at a 
school at Ealing, where he had for his schoolfellow and friend 
Lord Lyndhurst, the present Lord Chancellor. 

His talents, both for music and drawing, evinced them- 
selves at an early age. Sir Joshua Reynolds told his mother, 



that the sketches of his almost infant pencil betrayed extraor- 
dinary genius, and advised his parents to bring him up as an 
artist. On the piano he played extempore, in a style peculiar 
and surprising. In these pursuits he was discouraged by his 
mother, who feared he might become too much devoted to 
them. The piano was generally closed against him ; and it 
was only occasionally, when his parents were absent from 
home, that he could fly to it as an indulgence to his taste and 
feelings. He had the power of drawing likenesses from 
memory, and when at Westminster formed a little book of 
the leading characters of the day. They were portraits, not 
caricatures. Finding, however, suspicions excited and offence 
unjustly incurred, he checked his pencil, and would not go on 
with his second book. He carefully avoided whatever was 
individual or personal. A few general caricatures he etched 
whilst at Westminster; and amongst them is one which is 
still remembered, from having excited the wit of Mr. Can- 

The Etonians had published a periodical work called the 
" Microcosm ; " the Westminsters one called the " Trifler." 
The print to which we have just alluded represented a pair of 
scales, upheld by the figure of justice ; one scale containing 
three Etonians, the other three Westminster boys. The 
Etonian scale was light in the balance, although his Majesty 
George III., and other friends of the Etonians, were endeavour- 
ing to draw it down. The scale with the Westminsters touched 
the ground. On seeing the print, the following epigram was 
penned by Mr. Canning, at that time an Eton boy : 

What mean ye by this print so rare, 
Ye wits, of Eton jealous, 
But that we soar aloft in air, 
And ye are heavy fellows ? * 

To which Mr. Hook, as a Westminster, replied : 
Cease, ye Etonians, and no more 
With rival wits contend ; 
Feathers we know will float in air, 
And bubbles will ascend. 

* See the Memoir of Mr. Canning, in the last Volume of the Annual Bio- 
graphy and Obituary. 


During his boyhood, in the vacations, as an act of filial 
duty to oblige his father, he employed his pen in two theatrical 
pieces ; but the occupation was so repugnant to him, that he 
entirely abandoned it. 

Shortly after his entry at St. Mary Hall, Oxford, he had 
the offer of an appointment to India, which he rejected ; 
having decided to adopt the profession of the church. In 
1799 he took his degree of M.A. in 1804, B.C.L., and, in 
1806, LL.D. 

Both at Westminster and at Oxford his wit, humour, and 
high flow of spirits, rendered him exceedingly popular ; and 
he was not less beloved for his extreme kindness and good 
nature, and the attaching qualities of mind and character 
which through life endeared him to his friends. 

The spirit of true patriotism and loyalty early took deep 
root in his heart. Firm and uncompromising, he never 
wavered or varied in his opinions, nor in those sound consti- 
tutional principles, in church and state, which were his guides, 
and for which he would willingly have sacrificed his life. 
These sentiments and feelings were soon called into action. 
The French Revolution had given rise to wild and mischie- 
vous speculations and theories, which were insinuating them- 
selves into every corner of the empire, and unsettling all 
received principles on questions of government, morals, and 
religion. The terrors and crimes of the Republican despo- 
tism were appalling. Yet such was the undermining influence 
of the delusive sophistries of French philosophy and French 
Jacobinism, and such were the false notions of liberty excited 
in young and enthusiastic minds, that British patriotism 
seemed waning away under the artifices of metaphysical 
refinement, and the affectation of superior liberality and phil- 
anthropy. To rouse, to convince, and to remove from 
those who were deceived or mistaken the false lights, which 
dazzled, confused, and betrayed them, leading to principles 
which threatened to overthrow religion, and to sap the found- 
ation of our happy constitution, the subject of our memoir 
devoted all the energies of his ardent mind and genius. 

F 2 


Irv 1 796 he published a pamphlet, called " Publicola, or a 
Sketch of the Times and prevailing Opinions." It went 
through two editions. Taking a view of the feelings and 
principles at that time afloat, it traced their consequences to 
an imaginary Revolution in 1800, and gave the opinions of a 
person, who, being supposed to have left England in 1796, 
was represented to have returned in 1810. 

The state of England under a Revolution, which had been 
going on for ten years, is admirably drawn. The following 
critique on the work, from the pen of the well-known George 
Pollen, is descriptive of some of its points : 

" The language throughout has an easy elegance and 
appropriate energy ; in some passages particularly impres- 
sive. The scheme of the work is ingenious, and evidently of 
lively imagination. Such a one alone could remove the 
tediousness of a political novel, and likewise extricate the 
author from the embarrassment arising from biographising 
existing characters. The contrast which inference rationally 
deduces, from the present monarch on a throne, and the 
supreme power of Publicola, alias Thomas Paine, surrounded 
by evils and miseries of evidently artificial and avoidable 
formation, is well conceived, and ably wrought. The sketch 
of LupercitS) Erost?*atus, andSinon,- by whom I understand 
Home Tooke, Godwin, and Thelwall, is very neat and accurate. 
Crispinus I take to be Hardy ; Crinus I know not. Arch 
Arcon is quaint. The moral is excellent, and the object of 
comparison between legal monarchy and usurped tyranny 
skilfully effected." 

In the following year, 1797, he married Anne, the second 
daughter of Sir Walter Farquhar, Bart., and in his revered 
father-in-law he found the fullest sympathy in all the feelings 
and principles of patriotism and loyalty which fired his own 
breast. This best and most benevolent of men became ear- 
nestly and zealously his patron. Sir Walter was the favourite 
physician of His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, our 
present beloved Sovereign, of the illustrious Pitt, and indeed 
of most of the leading men of the day. Singularly skilful 


in his profession, of extraordinary penetration and sagacity, 
and richly gifted with all the higher powers of mind, his win- 
ning manners, the kindness and tenderness of his sympathy, 
and his devoted and affectionate interest in his patients, made 
his attendance in illness a blessing, and endeared him as a 
chosen and beloved friend, whose wisdom, judgment, and 
deep insight into character, were consulted and confided in, 
on all occasions. His warm and generous heart entered into 
the feelings of others with a disinterestedness and devotion 
peculiar to himself. To save and to serve all within the 
sphere of his benevolence and liberality were, during his 
active and laborious life, the object and gratification of a mind 
overflowing with sensibility, and with every generous and 
noble feeling. Some of the beautiful traits of his character 
were thus depicted by his son-in-law, in one of his subsequent 
publications : 

" He, the tenor of whose life is charitable forbearance 
towards his neighbour, and pious acquiescence in the will of 
Heaven, maintains the mastery of his passions : prepared for 
the worst, and confident in the mercies of his God, he bows 
his head in meekness, and lets the wave pass over. This is he 
who can regard in silence the workings of malice, and punish, 
in return, by his benevolence ; who can meet the shafts of ad- 
versity, without sinking under them ; who can reap the recom- 
pense of a well-spent life, and bear the most lavish bounties of 
a prosperous fortune, without the exultation of self-opinion, or 
the lukewarmness of ingratitude." 

Through the influence of this kind and affectionate patron, 
Mr. Hook obtained, from the Lord Chancellor, Loughbo- 
rough, the preferment (Saddington, a small living in Leices^ 
tershire) which enabled him, at an early age, to marry the 
woman to whom he had been for three years attached. From 
the friendship of Lord Sidmouth, Mr. Pitt, and the Hon. and 
Right Rev. Dr. North, the late Bishop of Winchester, for 
Sir Walter Farquhar, more valuable preferment was after- 
wards obtained for him ; and they all acknowledged that, from 


his superior merits and endowments, he was worthy of the 
patronage bestowed. 

In 1804., he became rector of Hertingfordbury, and St. 
Andrew's, in Hertfordshire; and, in 1807 5 Bishop'JNorth pre- 
sented to Sir Walter Farquhar a stall for his son-in-law. In 
order to concentrate his duties, the Hertfordshire livings were, 
in 1817, exchanged with Dr. Ridley for the rectory of Whip- 
pingham, in the Isle of Wight. His becoming private secre- 
tary to Mr. Pitt was once in contemplation, but circumstances 
interfered with the plan. That it had not been carried into 
execution, was, after the death of Mr. Pitt, regretted by Lord 

To a heart so loyal and so devoted, it may easily be sup- 
posed, that his having been honoured by the personal regard 
and favour of the Prince of Wales was peculiarly gratifying. 
He was devoted to his service by every sentiment and feeling ; 
and, to the last hour of his existence, was one of the most 
ardently attached and faithful of his Majesty's subjects. He 
was made private chaplain to his Royal Highness in 1802, 
and was frequently a guest at the Pavilion and at Carlton 
House, where he attracted the notice of Lord Moira, who 
evinced towards him the highest esteem, and, in his admiration 
of his writings, compared his flow of eloquence and power of 
language to that of Burke. 

In 1813, still retaining the distinguished honour of belong- 
ing to the Prince Regent's household, he was appointed, by 
the Marquess of Hertford to be also one of his late Majesty's 

He enjoyed, during nearly the whole of his professional 
life, the friendship of Bishop Tomline; first, as Bishop of 
Lincoln, afterwards as Bishop of Winchester. On all occa- 
sions, the Bishop gave him his advice, with the zeal and kind- 
ness of a true friend, and promised his protection and patronage 
for his eldest son. A sermon, preached in 1800, by Dr. Hook, 
on the scarcity, was approved by his Lordship ; and, on pub- 
lication, dedicated to him. In 1803, the Bishop appointed 


'him to preach the visitation sermon at Gainsborough ; and, in 
18 14-, on Dr. Middleton's elevation to the See of Calcutta, he 
presented him to the Archdeaconry of Huntingdon. 

He had, during the whole of this time, strenuously endea- 
voured to check the corrupting influence of French Jacobin- 
ism ; that " chimera with the head of an Atheist, the heart of 
a cannibal, the tongue of a patriot, and the hue of the came- 
lion * ; " and, whilst thus striving to counteract the practical 
effects of the modern school of philosophy, and the cold calcu- 
lating policy of a thinly-disguised Deism, he also zealously and 
diligently employed his pen in support of those laws and esta- 
blishments which form our glorious Constitution, and of the 
doctrines arid discipline of the Church of England ; or, as he 
justly considered it to be, the Church of Christ, handed down 
to us from the apostolic ages. Anxious to meet every passing 
exigency, he sent to the daily or weekly press the effusions of his 
loyal and constitutional spirit. Some of these articles were ex- 
ceedingly admired, and all were considered to be very service- 
able to the cause they advocated. The Letters of Fitzalbion, 
which appeared originally in the paper of the " True Briton," 
were, from the impression they made, reprinted in 1803, by 
the editor of that journal. On patriotic grounds, and from 
the resources of his own small income, he also published a 
variety of pamphlets, all, at the time, effective. In 1798, 
" Matter of Fact for the Multitude," and " A Letter to the 
Honourable Charles James Fox;" and, in 1801, "The 
Opinion of an Old Englishman, in which National Honour 
and National Gratitude are principally considered ; humbly 
offered to his Countrymen and Fellow-Citizens, on the Resign- 
ation of the late Ministry." In this latter pamphlet, published 
soon after that change of Ministry which removed from the 
helm of State " the pilot who had weathered the storm," the 
character and conduct of Mr. Pitt, from his becoming Chancel- 
lor of the Exchequer at the age of twenty-three, to the period 
of his resignation, are forcibly, beautifully, and most eloquently 

* " Anguis in HerbA,." 
F 4 


delineated ; and the efforts of his wonderful mind traced 
" through a period more eventful, more pregnant with evil, 
more threatening in its aspect, and, in its accompanying signs, 
more awfully predictive of the downfal of every earthly power, 
than can be collected in the aggregate of centuries." 

" Throughout the progress of the French Revolution, 
Mr. Pitt never varied his opinion concerning it. When one 
description of men beheld it in silent wonder when another 
gloried in it as the proudest event that history recorded 
and a third considered it as the expansion of light over the 
globe, the reign of philosophy and philanthropy, and a virtual 
establishmeut of the golden age did he not then view it as 
every rational man of every party now views it ? Did he not 
then form a judgment from his own conception of the subject, 
to which all moderate men now assent, upon conviction and 
experience ?" " He surveyed, from an eminence himself had 
raised, the ruin that desolated France; and his mind, pro- 
spective and profound, clearly foresaw that such an eruption 
could not long be pent up within the narrow bounds where it 
first broke forth ; that its first fury would subside by spreading 
over a wider surface ; and that every corner of Europe would 
be shaken by the event. On this cjfhviction he acted ; on 
this he roused the country to the sense of her situation, and 
anticipated the effects of the poison destined for her de- 
struction, by administering wholesome preventives. He was 
not to be deterred by the narrow policy of men whose minds 
could scarcely discern the objects through which his pene- 
trated. He stood unmoved by the thunder of democracy, 
or the spirit of party. He pursued the line his vast genius 
pointed out, and unremittingly devoted himself to the extir- 
pation of treason, couched under the mask of liberty, and to 
the overthrow of seditious profligacy, assuming the virtues it 
was instituted to annihilate." * 

In 1802, an attack on the Church and the Clergy gave oc- 
casion to the publication of " Anguis in Herba, or a Sketch 
of the true Character of the Church of England and her 

* " The Opinion of an old Englishman/' pages 7, 8, and 18. 


Clergy, as a Caveat against the Misconstruction of artful, 
and the Misconception of weak Men." * This work went 
through three editions. The commendations passed upon 
it were highly honourable to the book and its author. In 
the preface to the third edition, an acknowledgment is made 
for the " very liberal support the Reviewers had afforded to 
his humble though zealous endeavours." The approval of 
the Anti-Jacobin Review, which had so long, ably, and man- 
fully fought in the good cause, was stated to be particularly 
gratifying. From the Gentleman's Magazine the following 
extract may be interesting, as descriptive of the work it 
reviews : 

" The object of this excellent pamphlet, inscribed by the 
author to the ' sober sense of his country/ is to expose the 
designs of the Methodists, who, under the disguise of evan- 
gelical preachers, are labouring to undermine the Church of 
England; and of Infidels, Deists, and avowed Jacobins, who 
labour equally to plunder it, each availing itself of the cla- 
mours and machinations of the other. The author avows 
himself, ' what it is fashionable to term a prejudiced man, 
a preacher of the Gospel, and a monarchist ;' that he ' looks 
upon the Protestant faith, as established in England, to be 
the purest worship on earth ; that he esteems the constitution 
of England the best of all possible constitutions ; that he re- 
gards Jacobinism with execration, modern republicanism with 
contempt, and French politics with distrust; that he views 
the wavering believer with Christian pity, but the corrupting 
infidel with horror/ " 

A contemporary writer says of it, in a pamphlet entitled, 
" A Word of Advice to all Church-Reformation Mongers," 
" It is a masterly performance as to principle, matter, and 
force of argument. This elegant and eloquent advocate of our 
excellent Church discovers a cultivation of talent, a fund of 
information, a display of principle, and an exertion of spirit, 
that, if persevered in, may justly lead to eminent station. I 

* In an edition oF the Dean's theological works, now preparing for the 
press, this pamphlet will be re-published. 


shall take my leave of this strenuous champion, in the common 
cause, by applying to him this encouraging exhortation, and 
merited eulogy : 

Perge modo, et qucl te ducil via dirige gressam. 

* si Pergama dextrd, 

Defendi possent, etiam hac defensajuissent" 

In the year 1803, Buonaparte, in the full career of his mad 
ambition, after conquering and subjugating the nations of the 
Continent, and spreading devastation wherever he turned his 
victorious arms, threatened the destruction of England ; pre- 
pared for an invasion, and talked confidently of success. 
Strange as it must now appear, it is, nevertheless, historically 
true, that a panic had spread through the British nation ; the 
public spirit seemed to be lost in the senseless apathy of 
despair, and there was a general appearance of gloom, in- 
activity, and despondence. At this period of alarm and dis- 
may, to call forth the energies and resources of the country, 
Dr. Hook came forward with those addresses to the people of 
England, to the soldiers and to the sailors, which were 
signed "Publicola." At his own expence he printed, and 
dispersed, a hundred thousand copies of each of the addresses ( 
In the course of a week from their first issue, he received 
applications from Manchester, Liverpool, Birmingham, York, 
Exeter, Oxford, and most of the principal cities and great 
provincial towns in England, for permission to reprint them 
in each. On a moderate computation, a million of copies 
were dispersed through England and Wales. In Scotland, 
editions were printed ; and the addresses were found pasted on 
the walls of houses, even in the distant Hebrides. The effect 
of these loyal, spirited, and eloquent addresses, was imme- 
diate and magical ; they produced a complete revulsion in the 
minds of the population ; the panic ceased, and to apathy and 
torpor succeeded enthusiasm, firmness, and resolution ; con- 
fidence in the resources of the country was restored; and zeal 
and determination were expressed to second any measures the 
administration might be disposed to adopt. The spirit of 


true British patriotism was effectually awakened, and it defied 
the vain boasts of the tyrant usurper. 

A print of " Boney and Tally," with some verses annexed, 
rousing to native spirit and feeling, was also circulated with 
great success. 

The ministers declared, that " the author deserved well of 
the country for those patriotic appeals to the public feeling; 
that they were admirably calculated to arouse the best feelings 
of humanity in defence of social order, liberty, virtue, and 
religion ; and that such an exertion of excellent talents, to a 
most important purpose, ought to be acknowledged both by 
the governors and governed." * 

It was on the occasion of letters which he wrote in the same 
year, under the signature of Llewellyn, that Lord Moira 
compared the eloquence of the author to that of Burke. These 
letters appeared in the public journals of the day. The first 
of them is so striking, that even now it will not be deemed 


" To his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales. 
" SIR, 

" Times like the present draw closer every link in the chain 
of society. The relative distance between rank and obscurity 
is, for a period, lessened, as they converge towards one point, 
and centre in one common cause. Reciprocal advantages pre- 
sent themselves, and beget mutual confidence ; and a more 
immediate intercourse results from the necessity of co-ope- 
ration. This, Sir, must plead in extenuation of the pre- 
sumption which impels one of the humblest individuals in the 
community to offer an opinion at this awful crisis of public 
affairs, and to state the wishes of the multitude, of whose 
number he is, to the HEIR APPARENT of the THRONE. 

" When, Sir, the shores of this country are menaced with 
invasion, and the hostile army is encamped before our very 

* Letters from Lord Auckland, Lord Melville, Lord Malmsbury, &c. 


gates ; when the leader, trusting only to his rashness, agrees 
to couple his cause with desperation, and to make a forlorn 
hope of his whole army ; when such an enemy is to be op- 
posed, it is not by ordinary means that it can be done 
effectually. Against the workings of revenge, or the ag- 
gression of malice, a man is prepared in some degree in 
every department of society ; not so against the craftily -con- 
cealed or desperate purpose of a maniac. I do not despond 
the very tone is contagious, and gives fuel to the basest and 
most sordid feelings of our nature ; but I must equally avoid 
that over-confidence that takes every thing for granted, calcu- 
lates energy by a population, and trusts to its blazing forth, 
unsought, and unexcited. A spirit, your Royal Highness is 
well aware, must be roused before due co-operation, I mean 
of mind and soul, as well as body, can be hoped. It is not 
to the mercenary soldier alone that the rights and liberties of 
such a country as this are to be intrusted; it is not at the 
point of the bayonet that they are to be supported. The life 
of our defence must be in the heart's core of the people : they 
must feel that their all is at stake, that their habits are 
assailed, their altars and their hearths attacked, and their in- 
dependence menaced. 

" For this purpose, Sir, have I presumed to address you. In 
common with my fellow-citizens, I look up to you in this critical 
hour, to set the match to that train which is to run through 
the whole country, and pervade every corner of it ; to light up 
that energy which is to strike terror to the foe, and raise Eng- 
land above itself; to awaken the spirit of our forefathers, and 
rival them in their proudest days. Who so likely to rouse the 
spirit of Britain who so proper to lead the armies of Britain, 
as the FIRST SUBJECT of her land ? To the field, then, Sir ! 
Claim at the hands of his Majesty a command worthy of you. 
The King will glory to see his first-born the champion of his 
own and people's rights. Whilst your Royal brother is oc- 
cupied in the extensive arrangement of the army at large, 
place yourself at the head of the army of reserve ; take the 
command of the 50,000, and let the country's best hope be 


the PRINCE and his army of defenders. Let your Royal 
banner then be unfurled, and the valour and energy of the 
country rally round it ; let our proud usurping foe be taught 
that a revolutionary, diseased, and feverish impetus is not 
necessary to create resources, or brace the nerve of this coun- 
try ; and that the genuine fire of patriotism and liberty burns 
not to blast its native soil, but to consume those who would 
despoil it. I would not flatter, Sir, were it to serve my pur- 
pose. From impenetrable obscurity, a suspicion of it cannot 
attach to me ; and I dare tell your Royal Highness, without a 
blush, that if I conceive you called upon to stand forth the 
champion of your country, from the ostensible and elevated 
situation in which you are placed by your birth, I regard you 
as no less qualified for the important station, from your mili- 
tary talents, those conciliating manners so peculiarly your 
own, and your acknowledged spirit and zeal in the service. 

" In the glorious victory of the Nile, over the devoted 
followers of the enemy we are again about to meet, the 
honours of the day are not attributable alone to the valour and 
intrepidity which displayed themselves, or to the skilful and 
unprecedented conduct of the hero, in action. It was not 
one Nelson, nor twelve Nelsons, nor twelve thousand Nelsons 
who destroyed the flower of the French navy ; it was the fore- 
sight and arrangement of his counsels ; ! it was the spirit which 
he breathed into the breast of every officer in the fleet ; it 
was the confidence he excited in every sailor, and the vene" 
ration for his character which penetrated every breast, that 
carried a day never to be cancelled from the loftiest scroll of 
France, never to be forgotten by the pride of England. Thus, 
then, shall the PRINCE of WALES call to his councils the 
ablest and the most experienced, the active and most enter- 
prising of our commanders. Neither the dictates of wisdom, 
nor the enthusiasm of valour, the holy zeal of patriotism, nor 
the spirit of enterprize, will be found wanting among the 
leaders of the British army : their deliberations will astonish 
the enemy, and unanimity will direct with double effect the 
result of their judgment, Thus will the monarch feel the firm- 


ness and stability of his throne confirmed by the vigour and 
spirit of his Royal son ; thus will the people, proud, as grate- 
ful to their Prince for his exertions in support of their rights, 
open their hearts and purses for the glory of their country . 
then shall the days of our EDWARDS be revived ; and the 
plume which was won on the plains of Cressy wave again 
over conquered Frenchmen ; then shall the representative of 
the hero of Poictiers rival the deeds of his archetype, and the 
name of the PRINCE of WALES become again the dread and 
scourge of France. 

" I remain, with the most profound respect, 

" SIR, 
" Your Royal Highness's most humble 

" and devoted Servant, 
" July 10. 1803. LLEWELLYN/' 

In the autumn of 1810, a change of climate being thought 
essential to the recovery of his wife, whom, during many years 
of illness, he had watched over and cherished with the ten- 
derest fidelity and love, he removed with his family into De- 
vonshire. The year 1811 was spent at Ilfracombe, where his 
eloquence in the pulpit, arid his active assistance and advice 
in the formation and establishment of the schools, will be 
long remembered. The dissenters in that town, in order to 
thwart his zealous labours, having industriously circulated a 
well-known work of the non-conformists, he published a small 
tract, intituled, " Notes explanatory of certain Parts of the 
Protestant Dissenters' Catechism." * The profits arising 
from the sale w r ere applied to the use and benefit of the Sun- 
day and daily schools at Ilfracombe, in the promotion and 
establishment of which he had so deeply interested himself. 

In 1812 he sent to the press a sermon, preached at the 
parish-churches of St. George's and St. James's, with a cor- 
respondence which had taken place between the author and 
Earl Grey, by whom he had been attacked in the House of 

* This Tract will be re-published. 


Lords. The impression made on this occasion was very 
strong, and most honourable to the preacher. The sermon 
contains a forcible and eloquent defence of the established 
church against those who are employed in undermining it; 
and stating the various dangers and difficulties which on all 
sides assail it. When a copy of this sermon was presented to 
the Prince Regent, his Royal Highness received it most gra- 
ciousty, saying, " No man writes better than Hook ;" and, 
with great condescension, added, that her Majesty the Queen 
(our good and exemplary Queen Charlotte) had read the 
sermon, and highly approved it. 

In this sermon the author was among the first to recom- 
mend, as the only sure method of preserving the establish- 
ment, the building of new churches and chapels. We have 
now lived to see the wisdom of this suggestion ; - a society 
has been inc9rporated for the very purpose ; and the crowded 
state of all the free churches and chapels sufficiently shows 
that dissent has been occasioned, in most instances, not from 
hostility to the church, but from want of accommodation in our 
places of worship. At the period when a King's Letter is in 
circulation to raise money for this admirable corporation, the 
researches made by the Dean in 1812, when no such institu- 
tion was in contemplation, become doubly interesting. 

" These pulpits are daily extending themselves, whilst the 
church, from a niggard policy, which appears to be the har- 
binger of her overthrow, neglects to increase her means of de- 
fence, or to add a single church to her establishment. Let 
the truth be proclaimed, lest, in the overthrow of the purest 
church that ever prevailed, her prostrate sons should plead 
ignorance in extenuation of their indolence and neglect ; let 
it be known that the church has not the means of preaching 
the Gospel to those to whom Christ expressly declares to us 
he came to preach it. We have not churches to accommo- 
date the half of the population of the poor ! We have an in- 
stance before our eyes ; we find it to be the case in every 
parish, at least of the western division of the metropolis ; and 
in all the manufacturing, mining, and populous districts 


throughout Great Britain ! Can we then be surprised that 
the uneducated classes of society should be tossed about with, 
every wind of doctrine and sleight of men who lie in wait to de- 
ceive them, when their own church possesses not the means to 
preach to them ; and when she is held up to scorn and re- 
proach for even attempting, by means of education, to instil 
into the minds of the rising generation her principles and doc- 
trines ? What can we look to, if we suffer ourselves to remain 
inactive, from the fear of the censure or ridicule of those who 
are leagued against us ? What must be the result of such a 
state of things ? I have no hesitation in answering, as the 
firm conviction of my mind, the overthrow of the establish- 
ment, and the ascendency of a persecuting, intolerant, and 
exclusive creed, of whose influence and character the country 
has had a fatal foretaste, and a bitter experience. 

" This I do firmly believe will be the result of our present 
inertness, and the mischievous activity of our opponents ! 
Such must be the result if we have not places of worship for 
the mass of the people. If they are shut out from hearing 
the Gospel in a church, they will naturally enter the door 
that stands open to receive them ; and hear it strained 
through the glosses and fancies of the prevailing sect in the 

" If we are, therefore, thus deprived of the means of sup- 
porting the Church, whilst her opponents are unrestrained in 
the adoption and application of theirs, the consequence is 
obvious ; but if we are placed under circumstances as favour- 
able as those enjoyed by the Dissenters ; if we are enabled to 
carry the pure and simple doctrines of Christianity into the 
heart of the population ; if we are supplied with churches to 
preach the only doctrine by which man can be wise unto sal- 
vation, the will of God revealed in the Old and New Testa- 
ment, we may soon hope to dispel the clouds and vapours 
which now darken the hemisphere of religion ; and, by divest- 
ing Christianity of all the fanciful appendages with which the 
vanity or obliquity of man's imagination has incumbered it, 
bring back the wandering children of error within the pale of 


the Church, and finally maintain the unity of the spirit in the 
bond of peace. 

" Upon the whole, we shall find and maintain the true 
path by a steady adherence to the sound doctrines of the 
Church, and a rejection of all that can lead to conclusions 
unwarranted by the evidence of Scripture. Firm in our faith 
in the mercy of the Almighty, and in the atonement of our 
Saviour, which hath opened the gates of glory to all men who 
fulfil the word of life, we may look with a happy assurance, 
through the mean and sufferings of that Saviour, to the 
rewards of a future state. But if we begin to search the 
unfathomable depths of mystery ; if we think to define the 
bounds, or limit the extent, of Omnipotence, we may as well 
attempt to scale the heights of heaven with a rope of sand. 

" Idle zealots may lead themselves, and designing secta- 
rians may lead their followers, astray over strange lands, in 
search of new lights ; artful politicians and philosophical 
sceptics may aid the views and sanction the fallacies of either; 
but if we are true to ourselves, truth and firmness shall be our 
safeguard and defence." * 

In the course of the following years up to 1815, he pub- 
lished the following pamphlets : "A Letter to the Right 
Honourable Spencer Perceval, upon his reported Corre- 
spondence with Lord Viscount Melville, in reference to the 
Return of that noble Lord to Power ;" " The Case stated 
upon the Claims of the Opposition to Public Confidence, 
with some preliminary Observations upon the State of the 
Press in the Commencement of the Year 1813 ;" " Plain 
Facts for Plain Folks, addressed to the Good Sense and other 
Feelings of Englishmen upon the proposed Scheme for new- 
modelling the Constitution, and bringing Royalty into Disre- 
pute ; " " Al Kalomeric, the Son of Maugraby, an Arabian 
Tale, now first translated from the original MSS., discovered 
since the taking of Paris by the Allied Powers of Europe, 
and replete with marvellous Coincidences;" "Bosnian's 

* From a sermon preached in the year 1812, at the churches of St. George's 
and St. James's. 



Balance for weighing a Corn Law." Al Kalomeric depicts," 
in an Arabian tale, the progress of the spirit which worked 
the French Revolution, and which at length embodied itself in 
Buonaparte. It figuratively traces that usurper in his career 
of conquests, until, in the words of the author, " The great 
Captain Al Rouman, who led the armies of the Prince of El 
Copros, drove Al Kalomeric and his hosts like chaff before 
the wind.'* "He spread his banner to the field of battle, 
and gathered laurels for his country at the very walls of Tad- 
mor." It is described by the " British Critic" as " a sort of 
political satire, under the garb of an Arabian tale. Al Kalo- 
meric, the son of Maugraby, the evil genius, is the represent- 
ation of Buonaparte ; Famagouston, the capital of El Copros, 
is the name applied to London ; and by the alins and the 
alouts are humorously designated the ministry and the oppo- 
sition. There is much ingenuity in the design, and much 
liveliness in the execution of this little jeu-d? esprit ; and the 
author is clearly a man who has moved in the higher circles 
of life. The wit is gentlemanlike throughout, and the ludi- 
crous application of the Eastern terms is sometimes particu- 
larly happy." 

Of " Bosnian's Balance," the Reviewers say, "It is 
some relief to our minds, after having so long dwelt upon a 
serious and sober view of this important question, to enliven 
them with a lighter and more pleasing view of the subject. 
Much sound sense may be conveyed under a light and elegant 
garb ; nor is the dignity of discussion violated by its approxi- 
mation in a less serious form, to those for whose stomachs 
sober argument, like Epsom salts, may prove too cold. 
Sound sense and ingenuity are the characteristics of this little 
pamphlet, which, while it amuses the fancy, cannot fail of in- 
forming the mind." 

The pamphlet of " The Case stated," is peculiarly inter- 
esting ; tracing the rise and progress of the Edinburgh Re- 
view ; entering on the subject of the French school of 
philosophy ; and describing the sects of the Encyclopedists 
and Economists, &c. It also touches skilfully on the Roman 


Catholic question, and other points of vital importance to the 

Connected with the celebrated Dr. Rennell, Dean of Win- 
chester, from his having been during eighteen years one of 
the Chapter of which Dr. Rennell was head, and having 
enjoyed his friendship and conversation, of which he felt the 
value and high privilege, he became also intimately acquainted 
with his excellent son, the late learned, pious, and lamented 
Vicar of Kensington, one of the brightest ornaments of the 
Church, and one of her most active and efficient members. 
In 1814, Dr. Hook was earnestly solicited by Mr. Renneli 
to write for the " British Critic," of which at that time he was 
the able conductor. " I well know," he says, " how much 
affection you feel for the cause which the " British Critic" en- 
deavours to support. When, therefore, you add your weight 
of patronage to its efforts, you will support, not so much the 
book itself, as the cause of which it is at present almost the 
only organ. On this ground I take the liberty of requesting 
your assistance : I am fully sensible of its value. Your power 
both in the serious and humorous is well known to us all. 
By complying with my request, you will be rendering the 
Church a service, and granting to myself a considerable favour. 
I know you are the pen of a ready writer ; and can do in a 
week what would take another a month to perform." "I 
have now nothing more to add but my best congratulations on 
your late promotion ; which reflects the same honour on the 
bishop who conferred it, as most of his other gifts. To have 
preferred such men as Maltby, Bayley, Le Bos, and, if you 
will allow me to add, Dr. Hook, does his name honour." 

This letter alludes to his appointment to the archdeaconry 
of Huntingdon, which took place, as has been before observed, 
in 1814. The vigour and earnestness with which he per- 
formed his new duties were soon apparent; for in 1816 the 
Archdeacon published his primary charge, with a copious 
appendix and notes. It met with warm and strongly-ex- 
pressed approbation : it was said to be written " with a per- 
fection of temper, a style so gentlemanly, and such a total 

G 2 


absence of the spirit of controversy, as to enhance all its 
other merits ; " that " it evinced superior talents and a power- 
fully strong mind, possessed of great firmness and a great deal 
of quiet courage ; " that " the illustrations evinced extensive 
and deep research, and were calculated to give much and 
very useful information." The Reviewers were all most fa- 
vourable in the sentence they passed on it. The following 
quotations from the Anti-jacobin Review and the British 
Critic are interesting : 

The Anti-jacobin says, " It is no small gratification to 
find Dr. Middleton succeeded in his late office by a clergyman 
of similar principles, similar firmness, and a similar resolution 
to discharge the important duties attached to it. Dr. Hook 
appears to be fully aware of the signs of the times, and of the 
conduct which they call for. He exposes, with fearless- reso- 
lution, the prevalent errors of the age ; marks the dangerous 
conduct of temporising friends ; and indicates becoming re- 
medies for existing evils." In another part of the Review, 
after quoting from " the Charge" the opinion of a late learned 
prelate, the reviewer continues : " Our readers need scarcely 
be told that this quotation of strong and manly reprobation of 
cowardly conduct, is from that intrepid and most learned 
defender of the faith, the late Bishop Horsley, whose firm 
and comprehensive mind never hesitated between principle 
and expediency / never descended to a compromise in things 
sacred ; never shrunk from the avowal and support of religious 
truth, by whomever assailed, from whatever quarter im- 
pugned. He was, in short, one of the theological giants of 
the age ! We are happy to find Archdeacon Hook treading 
in the steps of such a leader. The Charge before us does 
him honour ; it is written in a spirit of true Christian zeal, 
anxious for the preservation of the faith once delivered to the 
saints. Let him go on and prosper. The notes are nume- 
rous, and contain much useful and valuable matter, chiefly 
relating to the progress of schism and to the Bible Societies. 
Our readers may recollect, that in our observations upon 
Mr. Norris's able exposure of the dangers arising from the 


conduct of the Bible Society, we showed the strong resemblance 
between the proceedings of that society, and those of the 
Puritans in the reign of Charles the First, and during the 
Usurpation. It is a remarkable circumstance, that the Papists 
of those days, though their principles were more remote from 
those of the Puritans, than they were from the principles of 
the Reformed Church, still joined the Puritans in their efforts 
for the overthrow of that Church, as is remarked by Cranmer 
in a letter to Hooker. A reference to this fact, has drawn 
from Archdeacon Hook the following appropriate reflections : 
' That the Papists really united with the Puritans, and were 
actively employed in promoting the intrigues carried on against 
the Church, is indisputably ascertained from the history of the 
times ; and he must be a very superficial observer of what is 
passing in the present day, if he do not perceive how much 
the question of Roman Catholic emancipation has been ad- 
vanced in the progress of the discussions connected with the 
Bible Society. The temper and boldness with which the plea 
of tender consciences, and the abrogation of tests, has been 
treated in the Dublin committees, would alone justify the 
inference, if we did not, at every turn, meet with unequivocal 
proofs of the fact, that liberal men, or those who claim this 
privilege for the purpose of rendering all modes of worship 
indifferent, consider the one question to involve all the argu- 
ments which are applied in support of the other. ' ' 

Of this charge the British Critic observes, " It contains 
much important matter, and presents enlarged views of the pre- 
sent state of opinions, and their consequences. After a luminous 
statement of his general object, the Archdeacon enters upon a 
field of very extended observation ; and meets the delusive and 
destructive errors of the times with vigour, with firmness, and 
with effect. He has brought considerable powers of eloquence 
in aid of the great cause he defends ; this cause he has sus- 
tained, in the words of Quintilian, non fortibus modo, sed 
etiam fulgentibus armis. But what we most admire is the 
courage and the frankness displayed by him throughout, 
which are so fully commensurate to the exigencies of the 

G 3 


times, and to the dangers with which the Church is encom- 
passed. The Archdeacon has spoken with boldness and with 
spirit ; at the same time never losing sight of that unaffected 
temperance, and that Christian charity, which is fully com- 
patible with the most powerful representations of impending 
danger, and the most distinct warnings against both avowed 
and masked hostility. Of the notes and appendix, both in 
the observations suggested, the citations made, and the proofs 
exhibited, we cannot speak in too high terms. They place 
in the hands of the clergy a body of very important documents, 
extracted from sources quite inaccessible to the generality of 
his clerical readers, and yet highly worthy their notice, and 
extremely applicable to the circumstances in which they are 
placed. These copious materials are not introduced with an 
idle parade, or ostentation of research ; but are very judiciously 
selected, and are strictly subservient to the confirmation of the 
positions advanced in the body of the Charge. To theolo- 
gical enquirers they are highly valuable, and indeed to general 
readers very interesting and instructive. From some curious 
extracts from the puritanical writers of the time of the Grand 
Rebellion, and the subsequent Usurpation, now become exceed.- 
ingly scarce, he traces a very singular resemblance, in all their 
traits, between ancient Puritanism and modern Methodism ; 
which Bishop Warburton, with his usual strength and felicity, 
denominated the older and the younger sisters. We heartily 
recommend our readers of all descriptions, particularly those 
in the Church, to avail themselves of materials, so well 
adapted to enable them to form just sentiments of principles 
now advanced, and scenes now passing before them. " 

In 1817 Dr. Hook published " An Address to the Men of 
Hampshire, intended as a Postscript to Cobbett's Weekly 
Register of the 15th March;" and in the same year he 
brought out, in weekly numbers, from the 1st of March to the 
end of September, " The Good Old Times ; or, the Poor 
Man's History of England, from the earliest Period down to 
the present Times ; " which was, at a great expense, widely 
circulated. The numbers were sold, for distribution, at 21. 15s* 


per thousand, 65. 6d. per hundred, and Id. for the single 
number. The sale was so extensive, that, for the first num- 
bers, a reprint was necessary ; and afterwards the press was 
kept standing during each successive week to supply the 
demand. It was subsequently stated, in answer to numerous 
applications received for copies of the early numbers of " The 
Good Old Times," that the new editions being wholly 
exhausted, and, in the present stage of the publication, it 
being impossible to renew them, at the close of the work a 
reprint of all the numbers would take place, and an opportu- 
nity be afforded to all who had occasion to complete their sets. 
This was done, and the numbers collected into a volume, with 
a title-page. The idea of the work was suggested by Bur- 
dett's addresses to the Regent, and his appeals to the people 
to remember the good old times. 

These good old times are described in the pamphlet, or 
rather succession of pamphlets, and the contrast their histo- 
rical details afford to our present state is most striking and 
forcible. Of the effect produced by this little periodical work 
some idea may be formed by the following quotation from 
a publication in July, during the weekly appearance of " The 
Good Old Times." 

" The work is written with so much spirit, ability, good 
sense, and old English feeling, that we trust the writer of it 
will not drop his labours until he has gone through the latter 
periods of the English history with the same talent as he has 
the anterior. Indeed, a work of this nature is of too great 
importance to the welfare and happiness of society to be 
suffered hastily to be dropped ; and when the political series 
of it are concluded, it is to be expected that this able cham- 
pion (and, to use the expression of a venerable and illustrious 
individual, with reference to men of former days) this giant of 
modern times will direct his attention to the religious condi- 
tion of the country. The false feelings of the new morality, 
and the cant hypocrisy and fanaticism of these times, are as 
much within his reach as the political craft he has so admir- 
ably and powerfully exposed." 

G 4- 


A great authority afterwards said of the work, that " that 
penny pamphlet had done more good than volumes of larger 
works. That it had been the only thing effective and oper- 
ative against the poisonous libels of sedition ; that it was indeed 
a most happy thought, that of bringing the imperfect and 
often corrupt periods of our constitution in open contrast with 
its present improved state." 

These pamphlets, which have been imperfectly enumerated 
and described, running through the twenty years of that 
eventful period which followed the French Revolution, are 
marked by a pen of no common vigour, and a heart enthu- 
siastically devoted to the Church, the King, and the Constitu- 
tion. The same time and genius bestowed on works less 
ephemeral would have secured fame, and perhaps fortune; 
but the author was influenced by higher motives and feelings. 
With true Christian charity, and with singular disinterested- 
ness and liberality, he devoted his time, his energies, and 
his health to the endeavour to do good. Unaided, and often 
unknown, through the medium of his own resources, and 
with a deep foreseeing spirit, he pursued his system ; labour- 
ing to check the inundating progress of the Jacobinical lava, 
which threatened to overwhelm all that was most precious and 

Admiring with enthusiasm the greatness of mind, the 
genius, the vigour, the integrity of Mr. Pitt, and believing in 
the necessity of maintaining his steady, firm, uncompromising 
principles, and great line of policy, he warmly advocated that 
minister's measures, and, to the utmost of his ability, sup- 
ported them. But he was not influenced by party spirit. 
Though ardent in zeal, he sought not that victory which 
gives fame to the victor. He sought only the safety and pros*- 
perity of Church and State through a period of extraordinary 
events, and of unparalleled difficulties. " I write not," he 
says, in his address to his countrymen, in the pamphlet 
of " Matter of Fact for the Multitude," " on my own 
account, but in the hope of being serviceable to you ; and if 


unsuccessful, I shall feel the pangs, not of disappointed author- 
ship, but of unavailing patriotism." Those who worked for 
mischief, and under colours likely to mislead, he strove to 
unmask ; but he was too candid not to admire virtue and 
genius, wherever they appeared ; and he ranked amongst his 
most valued friends men with whom, in politics, he 'wholly 
differed. The benevolence and disinterestedness of a heart 
which bore no enmity was conspicuous throughout ; and it 
was at the periods when Mr. Pitt and his great ally, Mr. 
Dundas, were out of power, that he most earnestly pointed 
out to the unsteady multitude their great virtues and powerful 
genius. Free and independent, the eloquence of true feeling, 
and the fearlessness of true patriotism, guided his pen. The 
maintenance of true principle was his spring of action. In 
his pages (the effusions of a free spirit, without other bias 
than principle) may be traced through all the varying con- 
flicts of those eventful times the workings of cause and 
effect, which, during their effervescence, produced evils and 
passions of fearful import ; casting on characters the brightest, 
highest, and most illustrious, the libels of sedition and dis- 
loyalty. Of the Pitt clubs he was an early member in Lon- 
don, and was active in the formation of one in Hampshire. 
In October, 1816, he thus writes from Winchester to Sir 
Walter Farquhar : 

" The times look heavily, and threaten a bad winter. The 
evil spirit of French revolutionary principles is again abroad, 
and, availing itself of temporary distress (exaggerated beyond 
all bounds, except in manufacturing districts,) is labouring 
hard to overturn and involve all our public institutions in 
ruin. The game of these people is always carried on with the 
weakest, but most numerous class of the community; and 
they have the advantage, therefore, of never having their 
former atrocities thrown in their teeth. They are believed by 
the mob, because the mob never records past falsehoods and 
past failures. The disturbers of the public peace and happi- 
ness have been the same ever since the establishment of the 
tribunitian power in Rome ; and the same falsehoods have 


been told, the same professions made, and the same game 
played, over and over, with different degrees of success; 
but always supported by the worst and most unprincipled 
portions of society for upwards of 2000 years. The pre- 
sent proceedings of Common Councils and Southwark patriots 
are just copied, with a variation of topics, from their proto- 
types after the peace of ] 763 ; Wilkes, liberty, and no ge- 
neral warrants, are only superseded by no placemen, no taxes, 
no princes, and a reform of parliament. These latter cries, 
however, are a second edition of the rebellious rally in 1795, 
1796, and 1797. We had then a Pitt to quell them ! Alas, 
alas, where shall we find that vigour now ? Our only hope is 
in his principles. You will see by the enclosed advertisement, 
cut out of this morning's paper, that we think so here ; and I 
am still of opinion that if these meetings (the Pitt Clubs) can 
be extended universally throughout the country, they are still 
likely to rally good men round the constitution, who if they 
cannot defend it by their firmness and courage, will at least do 
their duty in dying for it." 

These exertions in the cause to which he was so ardently 
attached, did not take him from his professional duties. As a 
preacher he was enabled to be very useful. His voice was 
most melodious, and modulated with an exquisite nicety, 
which added to its charm and influence. His manner and 
delivery were earnest and impressive ; full of dignity, forcible, 
and commanding ; equally remarkable for being easy, natural, 
and totally free from affectation. He was a cheerful contri- 
butor to all charities, public and private. Wherever he went, 
he aided or established schools : but all was done quietly, and 
without parade, on the real Christian principle of doing good. 
He riot only improved the houses belonging to his different 
preferments, but adorned and beautified the grounds, and in 
Hertfordshire left a plantation of considerable extent. His 
liberality on these points, and in his publications, was beyond 
what was strictly prudent, and occasioned him many cares and 
anxieties ; but he never considered personal interests ; per- 
haps was too regardless of them. In his expences, as well as 


in every other circumstance of his life, he was free from selfish- 
ness. To do good, to make happy those whom he loved, and 
to endear to them the home his taste embellished, were his 
objects. With a view to counteract the effects of this liberal- 
ity, two works of fancy were published anonymously, in 1822 
and 1 823 ; but the effort was painful to him ; for his heart and 
his thoughts were in those high and interesting topics which 
had so long and deeply engaged him, and for which he had 
from his youth diligently laboured. 

In June, 1818, Dr. Hook preached a sermon at the cathe- 
dral church of St. Paul's, at the yearly meeting of the chil- 
dren, educated in the Charity Schools of London and West- 
minster. It was re-published in 1819, with an appendix and 
notes. The following quotations from the Reviews will give a 
slight sketch of its object : 

" It is a masterly composition," and " brought forward at a 
moment when the subject it discusses is of more than ordinary 
interest, and the arguments peculiarly applicable to public 
affairs." " It is an admirable summary of the arguments by 
which the Church of England enforces her claim to superin- 
tend the education of our people ; and as the Reports of the 
Society have scattered an immense edition of it over the coun- 
try, we trust that it will serve to establish the hesitating, ani- 
mate the indolent, and call forth the general voice, both of 
clergy and laity, on a subject which affects the very existence 
of the Church. The notes which are added in the separate 
edition, contain several important facts respecting the conduct 
of those who are unwilling to intrust the clergy with the 
education of the poor. We strongly recommend every one 
who has his opinion still to form, to consult the facts and rea- 
sonings which are furnished by Archdeacon Hook." 

This sermon was preached after several of those attacks 
which so severely affected his health ; and when every effort 
to do duty in the reading-desk or pulpit was attended with 
difficulties and sufferings, which required all the fortitude of 
a resolute and intrepid mind to encounter. There are many 
points in this sermon applicable to the present times ; and the 


principles and systems still in operation. It is the intention 
of those, who are deeply anxious to fulfil, to the utmost of 
their ability, all the purposes of the Dean, and who well know 
how earnestly he would have used the comparative ease and 
leisure of his new station, in the continued endeavour to serve 
the cause to which through life he had devoted the powers of 
his foreseeing mind, to re-publish this sermon, and others, 
in which his opinions and warnings may be available, and his 
spirit even from the grave have power to influence. Several 
MSS. remain ; some of which will also be published. A 
theological work, which had been planned, but in the execu- 
tion of which bad health interfered, is unfortunately in a state 
too unfinished for the press. 

In the year 1812, after the Prince of Wales, his present 
Majesty, became Regent, His Royal Highness graciously 
expressed his intention to advance the interests of Dr. Hook, 
who was asked whether an Irish bishopric would meet his 
professional views. A delicacy of health, which, even at that 
time, often made exertion difficult, together with the ill health 
of his wife, led him to decline such a change of habits and 
country. Less distinguished preferment in England, he ven- 
tured to represent, would better suit his powers of usefulness. 
This was received with condescending kindness, and the most 
gracious promises. 

In the year 1822, the Deanery of Peterborough was offered 
to him. Attached to Winchester, where, for eighteen years, he 
held a stall, through the friendship of Bishop North for Sir 
Walter Farquhar, he declined a change, which, from the na- 
ture of that deanery, could not be beneficial to his family. 

In 1825, on the elevation of Dean Jenkinson to the see of 
St. David's, Dr. Hook was promoted to the Deanery of Wor- 
cester. Broken in health, he lived not long to enjoy a situa- 
tion, which he was admirably fitted to fill; and which, by 
enabling him to dispense happiness and benefits around him, 
and to give the true welcome of affectionate hospitality, would 
have been a constant source of gratification to his benevolent 


In his character, not only was there a total absence of all 
vanity and presumption, but such true humility, that he was 
only too regardless of the talents which he had at command, 
and considered whatever he did as little worthy of notice. 
Even a passing expression of discouragement from one he 
loved, had undue weight on a mind of peculiar sensitiveness 
and delicacy. These feelings operated in minor concerns; 
but when duty was in question, or in those points which his 
deeply-discerning spirit felt to be important, he was firm and 
resolute. No opinion or influence could then turn him from 
his purpose. Truly might it be said, that 

" Strength of mind, and energy of thought, 
With all the loveliest weakness of the heart, 
A union beautiful in him had found." 

Though calculated to shine, he was more willing to listen 
than to speak, and had an ever-patient ear for those he loved. 
Of quick and almost intuitive discernment into character, he 
was yet neither severe nor fastidious. From the cold, the 
formal, the insincere, he withdrew ; but where he found open- 
ness and candour, his heart and affections expanded with all 
their generous purposes and feelings ; and he was keenly alive 
to all those kindly attentions and considerations, which make 
the charm of the domestic circle, and of intimate society. 
Totally free from all envy or jealousy, he was ever ready to 
see merit in others, and to rejoice, with genuine kindness, in 
their prosperity. In nothing was he more conspicuous than 
in his straight-forward sincerity and truth ; and the total ab- 
sence of all flattery, or any compromising principle. He sought 
not popularity, but usefulness. At the same time, the elegance 
and charm of his manners, the fascinations of his conversation, 
wit, and talents, the purity and kindness of his heart, and his 
exquisite sensibility, drew in strictest bond of attachment to 
him, all within the sphere of his immediate circle. His genius 
and his high-minded feelings and principles, were always in- 
fluential, and have left, in the hearts and characters of those 
who were constantly under their sway, impressions which are 


indelible. By the pen of one of his dearest and most-valued 
friends, some of his talents are described in her beautiful novel 
of " Flirtation," where, in the sketch of Mr. Altamont, she 
intends faintly to pourtray him who, during a long course of 
years, enjoyed her esteem and friendship. His taste in the 
fine arts was felt and acknowledged by those who could best 
estimate it. He was ever ready to give his opinion and advice 
where they could be available; and as he possessed, in the 
fullest sense of the expression, what is called " the prophetic 
eye of taste," he could anticipate the effect of every improve- 
ment and alteration, whether in architecture or in landscape. 
His own pencil, in both figures and landscapes, excelled in no 
common degree. With a rapidity which could scarcely be 
credited but by those who had witnessed it, he sketched 
groups of figures, forming beautiful drawings, and pourtray- 
ing, forcibly, the different expressions of countenance in all 
their variety. In landscape he immediately foresaw the pic- 
turesque point of view ; not that which might, perhaps, strike 
a general observer, but the point which would be most effect- 
ive in picture. The improvements in Winchester Cathedral 
had much assistance from his taste and judgment. With 
respect to the placing of the organ, there was, in Chapter, a 
division of opinion, which gave rise to his writing, in 1825> 
" An Apology for those who object to the lateral position of 
an Organ in Winchester Cathedral." 

His virtues, as a husband, as a parent, as a relation, and as 
a friend, are beyond the power of the feeble peri which writes 
this memoir to pourtray. His matchless constancy of heart, 
and the fidelity of his attachments, can never be forgotten. 
Those who knew him best, deeply feel the perfection of his 
character. As a Christian, he felt that his only merit and 
hope were in the mercies of his Redeemer. 

Always delicate in constitution, though apparently robust, 
in the year 1815 his health began seriously to fail, and often 
interfered with his wishes and exertions ; and this at a time 
when, through the friendship of Bishop Tomline, he was 
placed in a situation of extended usefulness, when, from age 


and station, he had gained authority, and when his merits and 
genius were generally appreciated. In 1816, he was seized, 
whilst reading family prayers, with a spasm, which stopped 
his voice. All endeavours at utterance were ineffectual. This 
afterwards occurred several times in the reading-desk, and 
twice in the pulpit; but he nevertheless continued to preach, 
and to combat the dreadful sensations which often assailed him 
during the effort, till the end of the year 1820. In the summer 
of 1820, he performed divine service before his Majesty, in 
the Royal Yacht. Conscious of his failing powers of utter- 
ance, the internal struggle was severe, though not apparent. 
In the month of December of that year, he preached at St. 
George's Chapel, Portsmouth, for the Portsea National 
Schools. From Professor Inman, of the Royal Naval College, 
he received a letter, expressing the warm and cordial thanks 
of the Committee for his sermon, which, he adds, " has both 
greatly improved the funds of the school, and also very much 
confirmed the feeling of attachment to Church and King." 

This was the last sermon he ever preached. His bodily 
sufferings on that occasion were so serious, that he felt it ne- 
cessary for a few months to give up all attempts to do duty 
in the church, and he was earnestly advised by his medical 
friends no longer to brave the sensation, but to try the effect 
of complete rest. He afterwards, at different periods, en- 
deavoured to assist in part of the Sunday duties; but the 
exertion always brought on spasm and faintness, and their 
distressing effects. Under the mistaken impression of the 
attacks being nervous, he combated them with all the energy 
of his mind, and the resolution and fortitude evinced by such 
efforts are now considered by his medical friends to be 
astonishing. The inability to perform his accustomed duties 
in the church preyed deeply and keenly on his spirits and 
feelings, though he submitted patiently, and seldom spoke on 
the subject. 

After an attack of severe and dangerous illness in 1823, 
from which his recovery was long doubtful, his general health 
improved ; and, aided by the buoyancy of his sanguine mind 


and his naturally fine spirits, he appeared to be restored to a 
better state of health than he had enjoyed for many previous 
years. He again endeavoured to read part of the service in 
church, and once attempted it at Worcester ; but the usual 
difficulties occurred, and rendered perseverance impossible. 

His power of usefulness in the pulpit closed with the year 
1820; but he continued indefatigable in his other duties, and 
in the constant and vigorous endeavour to aid the cause of true 
religion, sound principle, and real patriotism. Many, various, 
and important were the occasions which called for the efforts 
of his true and loyal spirit and pen in subsequent years ; and 
he employed them most effectively in one of the leading and 
most influential journals of the day. 

When he removed to the Deanery of Worcester, he felt 
earnest to fulfil every claim and duty of the situation , which 
was one that peculiarly suited him and met his wishes ; but 
prosperity came too late. The sedentary exertions of an 
anxious life, together with feelings most enthusiastic and 
most sensitive, had prematurely worn out a constitution of 
peculiar delicacy. The year 1827 was one of great excite- 
ment. His pen was not idle; because he thought, in the 
state of the public mind and circumstances, there were points 
in which it could be useful. In all that related to his country 
he felt a keenness of emotion, which is generally excited only 
by domestic events. He took to heart all her difficulties, and 
never lost sight of the possibility of being of service to the 
cause he loved. Such efforts and feelings were beyond the 
subdued state of his constitution to sustain. He was called 
upon in 1827 to discharge the office of Acting Steward to the 
Worcester Music Meeting, and was anxious to increase the 
funds of the charity, and to establish the meeting on an im- 
proved and extended plan. His success was complete. He 
also obtained for the three choirs of Worcester, Hereford, 
and Gloucester the patronage of his Majesty. 

Towards the end of the October following, he was seized with 
a liver complaint, which, though painful and distressing, did 
not keep him from his usual occupations, nor did it assume 


the appearance of danger until the end of December. He 
struggled against the encroachments of disease, and with his 
accustomed kindness and disinterestedness strove to spare 
anxiety to his friends. To the last he retained the vigour of 
his powerful and energetic mind. A short time before his 
death, when too weak to quit his bed, or to speak without a 
painful effort, he was asked whether he felt equal to hear some 
public news, which it was thought would please him; and 
when told of the appointment of the Duke of Wellington to 
the office of Prime Minister, he exclaimed, " I can never be 
so ill as not to rejoice in the welfare of my country ! " 

Pure in heart, humble in spirit, full of loving-kindness and 
charity, trusting in the merits and mercy of his Redeemer, 
he gently resigned his breath, on the 5th of February, 1828, 
his eyes tenderly and mournfully fixed on the companion of 
his life, and by signs blessing his family ; whose best conso- 
lation and dearest inheritance is the remembrance of his 
piety, his genius, and his virtues. Their loss is irreparable; 
but through faith and resignation, they look onward to the 
blessed period of reunion in a better world. 

This memoir cannot be more appropriately closed than by 
inserting a tribute to his memory which appeared in the 
Hampshire paper. 

" The remains of Dr. Hook, Dean of Worcester, were in- 
terred, on Tuesday, in that cathedral. In the procession were 
the Lord Bishop of the diocese, the Archdeacon, Prebendaries, 
Minor Canons, and choristers of the cathedral. The pall 
was supported by Lords Deerhurst and Foley, Sir A. Lech- 
mere, Colonel Davies, General Marriott, Rev. W. Ingram, 
E. Lechmere, Esq., and W. Wall, Esq. The death of this 
able and exemplary person having been known here so short 
a time before our last week's publication, prevented that tri- 
bute of respect to his memory being paid, which all who 
knew him during his having a prebendal stall in this cathedral 
would wish to pay ; and long will the regrets of those who 



knew him here and at his living in the Isle of Wight, be 
sincerely felt. As a divine, Dean Hook was orthodox, 
zealous, and constant in the performance of the sacred duties 
of religion ; as a private friend, he was amiable, sincere, warm, 
and conciliating; and as a public man he was most ardent 
and loyal, and a frequent, nervous, and convincing writer in 
many daily and periodical publications. In his political prin- 
ciples he gloried in adopting those of the immortal Pitt, and 
was an early member of the Pitt Club in London, and an active 
promoter of the founding of the Hants Pitt Club, of which he 
was successively steward, vice-president, and president, and 
at which he never failed to attend during his residence in 
Hampshire. Thus acting, it is not matter of wonder that he 
was particularly noticed by his gracious sovereign ; and, had 
his life been spared, he would no doubt have risen to the 
highest dignity in the church, of which he was an ornament 
and firm supporter ; but he is gone, at an early age, to the 
great grief of his family and friends ; who have, however, the 
consolation, and it is a great one, that he has left an imperish- 
able name. The writer of this speaks, from his own close 
observation and intimate knowledge of the facts, and offers it 
as a tribute to the memory of the deceased, and a gratification 
to his own feelings in offering it. " 

A plain monumental tablet has been placed in Worcester 
Cathedral, with the following inscription : 















No. VII. 


IVlR. LOWNDES was the eldest son of Richard Lowndes, Esq., 
a Lieutenant in the Royal Navy; grandson of William Lowndes, 
Esq., of Astwood, in the county of Bucks, Auditor of his 
Majesty's Land Revenue ; and great grandson of William 
Lowndes, Esq., Secretary to the Treasury, in the reigns of 
Queen Anne and King George I., and Chairman of the Com- 
mittee of Ways and Means in several Parliaments, from which 
circumstance he was familiarly known by the name of " Ways 
and Means Lowndes. " * Lieutenant Lowndes married Bridget, 

* This gentleman was an extraordinary instance of industry and application, 
and a proof amongst many others, that in this happy country integrity and 
abilities will generally prosper. He was originally placed as a Clerk in the 
Treasury, from which he rose to the very important office of Secretary, which he 
filled for many years. He was appointed Auditor of the Land Revenue, and whilst 
in that office he made a collection of records of grants from the Crown, inrolled 
in that office, affecting many of the largest estates in the kingdom, and filling 
above thirty very large thick folio volumes, the greater part written with his own 
hand. These valuable volumes are in the possession of William Selby Lowndes, 
Esq. Mr. Lowndes sat as Chairman of the Committee of Ways and Means 
as before stated : it appears from the Journals of the House of Commons, that 
the great weight of the public business in that House devolved upon him. He was 
four times married, and left three families of children behind him. He married 
his fourth wife in the sixtieth year of his age, and had sixteen children by her : 
four times she had twins. Queen Anne was much inclined to raise him to the 
peerage ; but he represented to her Majesty, that he had three large families to 
provide for, and on that ground begged to be allowed to decline the honour. Her 
Majesty acceded, but granted him an honourable augmentation to his coat of arms, 
and the reversion of the auditorship to his eldest son by his second wife, who 
enjoyed the place upwards of fifty years. 

William Selby Lowndes, Esq. of Whaddon Hall and Winslow Bucks, is the 
representative by the first wife. 

H 2 


daughter of William Dalston, Esq., of Great Salkeld, in the 
county of Cumberland, and sister of Sir John Dalston, the 
last baronet of that ancient family. Tlie other issue of the 
marriage were a son and two daughters ; of whom both the 
latter died in infancy ; the former, Richard, still survives. 

The subject of this memoir was born at Penrith, in Cum- 
berland, in May, 1 752. About five years after his birth, his 
father died in his Majesty's service in the Indian seas ; and 
Mr. Lowndes was thus left to the care of a widowed mother, 
at a great distance from the residence of his paternal relations. 
He was sent, at a very early age, to a grammar school, at 
Crcglin in Cumberland, kept by the Reverend Mr. Noble, 
from whence he was removed to a school of very high repute, 
at Scorton, near Catterick, in Yorkshire, also under the care 
of a Reverend Mr. Noble. Here he remained till he was 
twelve years of age, when hejwas entered at the Charter-house, 
of which Dr. Crusius was then head master. At the Doctor's 
recommendation, he was sent to Cambridge, at the age of 
sixteen, and entered at St. John's College, where, however, 
he did not long remain; Dr. Law, Bishop of Carlisle, and 
master of Peterhouse, who had formerly held the living of 
Great Salkeld, and was by that means acquainted with Mr. 
Lowndes's grandfather, having strongly urged his removal to 
that college, that he might have him under his own care. He 
took the degrees of A. B. and A. M. at the usual periods, and 
left Cambridge with a high reputation as a mathematician. 

His friends originally intended him for the Church, in 
which he had a fair prospect of preferment, there being some 
valuable livings in the family; but his own inclination led 
him to another profession, and his grandfather, the auditor, 
dying in 1775, just before he was of age to be ordained, he 
changed his plan, and betook himself to the study of the law. 

William Lowndes Stone of Astwood, Bucks and Brightwcll House Oxon, of 
the second. 

William Lowndes, Esq. of Chesham, Bucks, of the fourth. 
By the third wife he had no issue. 


III May, 1 775, he was entered of the Middle Temple, and 
became pupil to Mr. Law (afterwards Lord Ellenborough), 
then practising as a special pleader. When Mr. Law was 
called to the bar, several of his clients had recourse to his late 
pupil, and Mr. Lowndes thus became established in consi- 
derable practice as a draftsman under the bar. He had also 
several pupils, among whom were Mr. Adam, now Chief 
Commissioner of the Jury Trial Court in Scotland, and Sir 
Thomas Tyrwhitt, Usher of the Black Rod. At this period 
he became acquainted with Gibbs Crawford, Esq. then Soli- 
citor to the Stamp Office, and was employed by him to pre- 
pare a new stamp act, then about to be introduced into 
Parliament, which he performed highly to the satisfaction of 
that Board. In consequence of this, Mr. Crawford recom- 
mended him to Mr. Rose, then Secretary to the Treasury, by 
whom Mr. Lowndes was frequently employed in the public 
service, and introduced to Mr. Pitt. 

In Hilary Term, 1787, Mr. Lowndes was called to the 
bar, and joined the Northern Circuit; and in 1789 was no- 
minated by Mr. Pitt, notwithstanding the opposition of the 
Lord Chancellor (Thurlow) to succeed Mr. Hargreave, the 
eminent editor of " Coke upon Littleton," in the office of 
drawing public acts of parliament for the Treasury. This 
appointment laid the first foundation of an intimate friendship 
with which Mr. Pitt to the day of his death honoured Mr. 
Lowndes. The labours of the office just mentioned were, 
during the sitting of Parliament, extremely arduous. The 
exigencies of the public service frequently compelled Mr. 
Pitt to require that a bill should be ready for his perusal on 
the day after that on which he had given Mr. Lowndes his 
instructions to draw it ; so that the latter was often obliged to 
sacrifice the rest of whole nights to the performance of his 

In the year 1798, the business of the Tax-office being under 
very inefficient management, the Lords of the Treasury 
thought fit to new-model it, and place Mr. Lowndes there as 
Chief Commissioner; which office he filled for twenty-five 

H 3 


years. They who refer to the parliamentary history of that 
period, or to the Statutes at Large, may form some idea of the 
incessant attention which this office demanded. New taxes 
annually proposed, to an almost incredible amount, required 
the greatest nicety in the framing of the acts to render them, 
effectual : it was the employment of almost every man to 
evade them, and it was Mr. Lowndes's part to contrive the 
means of defeating so general a combination. It was in this 
year, 1798, that the income-tax was first imposed, and Mr. 
Lowndes drew the act by which it was granted. Mr. Pitt 
boasted, and with reason, to his friends, that he had been 
able in three hours to make Mr. Lowndes comprehend the 
scheme of this tax; and it was surely not less creditable to 
the talents of the latter to have been able to embody Mr. 
Pitt's ideas in an act of parliament which, though prepared 
on a very short notice, and containing upwards of a hundred 
clauses, yet, with some small alterations of which experience 
discovered the necessity, was found completely to answer its 
purpose. It is well known that the income-tax was afterwards 
converted into a tax upon property. This latter tax was 
suggested by Mr. Lowndes, and from its origin to its cessa- 
tion, carried into effect under his immediate direction. This 
measure increased the revenue from five to fourteen millions 
per annum. Mr. Lowndes also bore a principal part in the 
arrangements for the redemption and sale of the land-tax. 
This was a great addition to his labours. He took wholly 
upon himself the correspondence with the several commis- 
sioners in the country, amounting to several thousand letters ; 
and he drew twenty acts of parliament relating to this 

Upon the death of Mr. Pitt, Mr. Lowndes ceased to draw 
the acts relating to the public business in general, but he con- 
tinued to prepare those relating to the taxes ; and his skill and 
experience in this department were so highly appreciated, that 
the preparing of the tax bills for Ireland was also committed 
to him. From the year 1 798 to the time of his retirement, 
he prepared no fewer than fifty-five acts of parliament relating 


to the taxes, many of them of great length and intricacy. He 
continued to hold his office with the highest approbation, and 
to enjoy the fullest confidence of all the ministers who suc- 
ceeded Mr. Pitt; and when he began, at an advanced period 
of life, to feel the necessity of consulting his own ease by 
retiring, Mr. Vansittart, then Chancellor of the Exchequer, 
most earnestly pressed him to retain his situation during his 
own continuance in office. However, in 1823, finding his 
health decline, he left the Board of Taxes, and retired alto- 
gether from public life. A pension was granted to him under 
a Treasury Minute, dated January 31. 1823, from which the 
following is an extract : 

" The records of this Board bear ample testimony to the 
zeal and ability of Mr. Lowndes, during the time he has acted 
as Chairman of the Board of Taxes ; and as my Lords are 
satisfied that he has rendered very important public services, 
they feel it due to Mr. Lowndes to mark their sense of those 
services, by making his a case of exception to the general 
regulations of the act, 3 Geo. 4. c. 113. In the exercise of 
the authority reserved to them by the fifth section of that act, 
my Lords, taking into consideration Mr. Lowndes's advanced 
age and important services, are pleased to grant him a retired 
allowance of 1800/. per annum." 

Laborious as was Mr. Lowndes's official life, he was still, 
by his unwearied industry and careful economy of time, 
enabled to render considerable services to his country in other 
departments, as well as to devote much attention to the study 
of different branches of natural history, in which he took a 
great interest. In the early part of the revolutionary war, he 
commanded, as Major, a body of volunteer infantry, raised at 
Watlington in Oxfordshire and the adjoining parishes ; and 
alien as was such an employment from all his previous pur- 
suits, he acquired such a knowledge of tactics, as enabled him 
to fulfil his military duties in a more scientific manner than 
most officers of similar corps. ' For several years he sat as 
Chairman of the Quarter Sessions for the County of Bucks ; 
and filled the office as might have been expected from his 

H 4 


legal attainments and habits of business. When the close of 
the war in 1815 had somewhat lightened his labours at the 
Tax-office, he applied himself to the study of botany, and 
made a considerable collection of rare and valuable plants at 
his country-house in Oxfordshire. He afterwards turned his 
active mind to crystallology ; and the splendid cabinet of 
minerals which he left behind him bears ample testimony to 
the zeal with which he devoted himself to that pursuit. 

It is not necessary to draw the virtues of his private life 
from the shade ; yet it may not be useless to record that the 
Holy Scriptures were the subject of his latest, and by no 
means of his least diligent studies; and that his extensive 
charities, many of which have only since his death come to 
the knowledge of his friends, testify abundantly the warmth of 
his benevolence towards his fellow-creatures. 

Mr. Lowndes died at his house in Weymouth-street, on 
the 27th of February, 1828 ; in the 76th year of his age. 

We are indebted for the foregoing Memoir to a private 
friend of the deceased. 


No. VIII. 

ANOTHER enterprising and undaunted being, the victim of 
the attempts to penetrate into the heart of Africa. " We 
trust," to use the words of a writer in the Quarterly Review, 
" there will now be an end to the sacrifice of valuable lives, 
in prosecuting discoveries on this wretched continent, of 
which we know enough to be satisfied that it contains little at 
all worthy of being known ; a continent that has been the 
grave of Europeans, the seat of slavery, and the theatre of 
such crimes and misery as human nature shudders to think 

The family of Captain Clapperton originally came from the 
north of Scotland, and were formerly of eminence both in the 
Church and in the Army ; a bishop of that name being buried 
at Inch Colm, in the Firth of Forth, and another individual 
of the same name at Stockholm, in Sweden, where he 
attained the rank of field-marshal. The family subsequently 
came to the south, and resided upon the border of Scotland, 
in Teviotdale. The grandfather of Captain Clapperton ap- 
pears to have been a man of considerable talent. He studied 
medicine in Edinburgh and Paris ; and, on his return from 
the latter city, married a cousin of Colonel Archibald Camp- 
bell, of Glenlyon, Perthshire ; and at length settled as a phy- 
sician at Lochmaben, in Dumfriesshire. He had a numerous 
family, as had also his eldest son George, surgeon in Annan. 
Dr. Clapperton was a man of some attainments as an anti- 
quary, for he seems to have assembled a large quantity of 
coins and other antiquities illustrative of the Border Countries, 
together with a collection of Border Songs, genealogical 


accounts, &c. Several of these appear to have fallen into the 
hands of Sir Walter Scott, and to have been published in his 
" Notes," &c. to his poems, &c. Mr. George Clapperton 
married Margaret, daughter of John Johnstone, of Thorwhate 
and Lochmaben Castle, by whom he had ten or eleven sons, 
and a daughter. He married a second time, and died at 
Annan, leaving a widow, with three sons and three daughters. 
By the two marriages there are eight children surviving, 
Captain Clapperton was the youngest son by the first mar- 
riage. One of his brothers, John, obtained a commission in 
the marines, and was First Lieutenant on board the Elephant, 
with the gallant Nelson, in the memorable action off Copen- 
hagen. John died on a voyage from the West Indies in 1803 
or 1804". The next brother, George, died at Annan, of a dis- 
ease contracted in the West Indies, where he was Assistant- 
Surgeon in the Navy; the next, William, an old Navy Surgeon, 
is still living, as is also a sister, Margaret Isabella. The next 
brother, Charles Douglas, died a First Lieutenant and Quar- 
ter-Master of the Chatham division of Royal Marines, March 
23. 1828, after twenty-three years' service. Another brother, 
Alexander, died on the coast of Africa; and the eldest son, 
by the second marriage, died at Demerara. 

Captain Hugh Clapperton was born at Annan, in the year 
1 788. From circumstances that need not here be detailed, he 
did not receive any classical education. When he could do 
little more than read and write indifferently, he was placed 
under the tuition of Mr. Bryce Downie ; a man of general 
information, though chiefly celebrated as a mathematician.* 
Under him, he acquired a knowledge of practical mathe- 
matics, including navigation and trigonometry. Mr. Downie, 
though now blind with age, still possesses a vigorous memory, 
and speaks with affection of the lamented traveller. He 
describes him as having been an apt scholar, as well as a most 
obliging boy ; and we are told that at this period the extremes 

* Mr. Downie was mathematical teacher to the Ilev. Edward Irving. 


of temperature made little impression on Clapperton's "iron 

At the age of seventeen Clapperton was bound an appren- 
tice to the sea, and became the cabin-boy of Captain Smith, 
of the Postlethwaite of Maryport, to whose notice he was 
kindly recommended by the late Mr. Jonathan Nelson of 
Port-Annan. The Postlethwaite, a vessel of large burden, 
traded between Liverpool and North America, and in her he 
repeatedly crossed the Atlantic, distinguished even when a 
mere youth for coolness, dexterity, and intrepidity. On one 
occasion, the ship, when at Liverpool, was partly laden with 
rock-salt, and as that commodity was then dear, the mistress 
of a house which the crew frequented very improperly en- 
ticed Clapperton to bring her a few pounds ashore in his 
handkerchief. After some entreaty the youth complied, pro- 
bably from his ignorance of the revenue laws, was caught in 
the act by a custom-house officer, and menaced with the ter- 
rors of trial and imprisonment unless he consented to go on 
board the Tender. He immediately chose the latter alter- 
native, and after being sent round to the Nore, was draughted 
on board the Clorinde frigate, commanded by a very gallant 
officer, who is now the Hon. Captain Briggs. Here he was 
ranked as a man before the mast; but feeling a desire to 
better his situation, he addressed a letter, detailing his mishap 
and recent history, to a friend, Mr. Scott, banker, in Annan, 
who had always taken a warm interest in the family. Mr. 
Scott, as the likeliest channel that occurred to him, applied to 
Mrs. General Dirom, of Mount Annan, who happened to be 
related to the Hon. Captain Briggs ; and through the influ- 
ence of that lady, combined with his own professional merit, 
the brave Clapperton was speedily promoted to the rank of 
midshipman ; a circumstance which tended, in no mean 
degree, to fix his destiny, and shape his future fortunes in life. 
It has often been remarked, that what at first appears to be a 
misfortune, is sometimes the happiest thing that can befal us, 
and so it chanced in the present instance. Had he remained 
in the American or coasting trade, he might have become first 


a mate, then a master, then ship's husband and part owner, 
and, finally, have returned to his native burgh with a fortune 
of a few thousand pounds, and vegetated tranquilly for ten 
or twenty years, reading the newspaper or playing at billiards 
in the forenoon, and smoking cigars and drinking whisky- 
punch or negus in the evening. But where would have been 
his laurels where his glory where his zeal in the cause of 
science where his defiance of death and danger where his 
place in the annals of Britain ? 

Previous to 1813, our sailors, in boarding, used the cutlass 
after any fashion they pleased, and were trained to no parti- 
cular method in the management of that formidable weapon. 
It was suggested, however, that this was a defect ; and, with 
the view of repairing it, Clapperton, and a few other clever 
midshipmen, were ordered to repair to Portsmouth Dock- 
yard, to be instructed by the celebrated swordsman Angelo, 
in what was called the improved cutlass exercise. When 
taught themselves, they were distributed as teachers over the 
fleet ; and our countryman's class-room was the deck of the 
Asia, 74, the flag-ship of Vice Admiral Sir Alexander Coch- 
rane, since engaged at Navarino. The Asia was then lying at 
Spithead, and continued there till the end of January, 1814 ; 
but her Admiral had been intrusted with the command of our 
whole naval force on the coast of North America, and was 
making every thing ready to sail for his final destination. 
Clapperton's services as an instructor were to be performed 
during the passage out to Bermuda ; and he was afterwards to 
make the best of his way to the Canadian Lakes, which had 
then, or were just about to become, the scene of important 
naval operations. While at Bermuda, and on the passage 
out, nothing could exceed Clapperton's diligence in discharg- 
ing the duties of his new occupation. Officers as well as men 
received instruction from him in the cutlass exercise ; and his 
manly form, and sailor-like appearance on the quarter-deck, 
tended, in the opinion of all who saw him, to fix the attention, 
and improve the patriotic spirit of the crew. At his own as 
well as the other messes, where he had the honour of being a 


frequent guest, he was the very soul and life of the party; sung 
a good song, told a merry tale, painted scenes for the ship's 
theatricals, sketched views, drew caricatures, and, in one word, 
was an exceedingly amusing and interesting person. Even the 
Admiral became very fond of him, and invited him to remain 
on board the Asia, under the promise of speedy promotion. 
But the warm work going forward on the Lakes had more 
attraction for his enterprising mind ; and, having procured a 
passage in a vessel to Halifax, he bade adieu to the flag-ship, 
to the regret of every individual on board, from the venerable 
Admiral down to the cabin-boys. From Halifax he proceeded 
to Upper Canada ; and, shortly after his arrival, was made a 
Lieutenant, and subsequently appointed to command the Con- 
fiance schooner, having on board nearly all the unmanageables 
of the squadron. To discipline these men was no easy task ; 
but the measures adopted by Clapperton, although seldom 
enforced by flogging, at length made them so subordinate, 
that the Confiance became as proverbial for its good order, as 
it had hitherto been for its irregularities. 

While the Confiance rode at anchor on the spacious shores 
of Lake Erie, or Lake Huron, her enterprising commander 
occasionally repaired to the woods, and, with his gun, kept 
himself in fresh provisions. In these excursions he cultivated 
an acquaintance with the aborigines; and was so much charmed 
with a mode of life full of romance, incident, and danger, that 
he at one time entertained serious thoughts of resigning his 
commission when the war was ended, and becoming a denizen 
of the forest himself. But the fit, fortunately, was not perma- 
nent ; his country had stronger claims on his talents, and the 
tinge of romance, which formed a part of his nature, yielded 
to more patriotic impressions, and the spirit-stirring scenes in 
which he was engaged. At this time, he occasionally dined 
on shore ; and, as few men excelled him in swimming, he not 
unfrequently plunged into the water, and made for the schooner, 
without either undressing, or calling for a boat. This he did 
for the double purpose of showing his manhood, and keeping 
his crew on the qui vive. 


In the year 1817, when our flotilla on the American lakes 
was dismantled, Lieutenant Clapperton returned to England, 
to be placed, like many others, on half-pay; and ultimately re- 
tired to his grandfather's native burgh of Lochrnaben. Inhere 
he remained till 1820, amusing himself with rural sports, 
when he removed to Edinburgh, and shortly after became 
acquainted with the amiable and lamented Dr. Oudney. It 
was at Dr. Oudney's suggestion that he first turned his 
thoughts to African discovery ; and, through all the varieties 
of untoward fortune, suffering and sorrow, sickness and death, 
he clung to his friend with the constancy of a brother. 

We have now arrived at that period of Clapperton's life in 
which he first became introduced to public notice, or, rather, 
when an opportunity first presented itself for the developement 
of his active mind. On the death of Mr. Ritchie, at Mour- 
zouk, and the return of Captain Lyon, Earl Bathurst, then 
Secretary of State for the Colonial Department, relying on the 
strong assurances of his Majesty's consul at Tripoli, that the 
road from thence to Bornou was open and safe, resolved that 
a second mission should be sent to explore the state of this 
unhappy quarter of the globe, which annually sends forth 
so many thousands of its population into hopeless slavery. 
Dr. Oudney, who was a naval surgeon, was appointed, on 
strong recommendations from Edinburgh, to proceed in the 
capacity of consul to Bornou ; being allowed to take with him, 
as a friend and companion, Captain, then Lieutenant Clapper- 
ton. About that time, the late Colonel, then Lieutenant 
Denham, having volunteered his services in an attempt to 
pass from Tripoli to Timbuctoo, and it being intended that 
researches should be made from Bornou, as the fixed resi- 
dence of the consul, to the east and to the west, Lord Bathurst 
added his name to the expedition. At a very early stage of 
the journey, Dr. Oudney caught a severe cold, which fell on 
his lungs, and he died, January 12. 1824-. Colonel Denham 
and Captain Clapperton returned to England ; and their nar- 
ratives were published, and have since gone through three 
editions. The portions of the expedition related by Captain 


Clapperton, are a journey from Kouka to Murmur, from 
Murmur to Kano, and from Kano to Sackatoo, the capital of 
the Felatah empire. 

Clapperton 's narrative of his journey through the new and 
untrodden country of Soudan could not fail of being interest- 
ing; and the unaffected and manly style in which it is written 
is highly creditable to him. We will select a few of those 
particulars which will serve to illustrate his personal character. 

On the advance of Captain Clapperton and Dr. Oudney 
towards Murmur, attended by an escort, arriving at a spot in 
which, of all others, their Arab companions said they were most 
likely to encounter the Bedites (an ancient race of native Bor- 
nouese who have not embraced Islamism, and who are held in 
dread and abhorrence by all the faithful), two men, dressed in 
the Bornouese costume, made their appearance. " 1 was a little 
way in front of our party," says Captain Clapperton, " and 
first met them : they saluted me very civilly, and I passed on 
without farther notice ; when the other horsemen meeting 
them, and putting some questions which the strangers did not 
answer to their satisfaction, immediately seized, stripped, and 
bound them. Considering it a matter in which I had no 
authority to interfere, I merely requested that their drawers 
might be returned to them, remarking it was better not to 
treat them ill, as they might prove to be honest men. * Oh ! 
d n their fathers,' (the strongest imprecation in Africa) re- 
plied the captors, { they are thieves : what would they be 
doing here if they were honest men ? ' I still urged the pro- 
priety of taking them to Bedeguna, at least, to afford them a 
chance of being recognised by the townspeople, before treat- 
ing them as robbers. I now rode off to water my horse : 
when I returned, I found the magnanimous El Wordee 
guarding the two unfortunate wretches, one of whom was a 
Shouaa Arab, the other a Negro. The latter, while I was 
absent, had received a dreadful cut under the left ear, from a 
Bornouese, who pretended that the negro had made an attempt 
to escape, an attempt little likely in his desperate situation. 
Notwithstanding the wound, they were leading the poor fellow 


by a rope fastened round his neck. He was covered with 
blood ; and Dr. Oudney assured me, if the wound had been 
a little lower down, it must have caused instant death. I 
could not refrain from beating the merciless Bornouese ; 
and I obliged him to use his own tobe in binding up the 
wound, at the same time threatening to lodge the contents of 
my gun in his head, if he repeated his cruelty. The occasion 
prompted me to impress on the minds of the Arabs generally, 
how unworthy it was of brave men to behave with cruelty to 
their prisoners, and to suggest that it would be far better to 
sell them, or even to put them to death, than wantonly to 
inflict such barbarities. The Arabs threw the blame on the 
Bornouese ; and, although evidently exulting in secret over 
their captives, they were fairly shamed into good behaviour, 
and promised to liberate the men, if innocent ; or if guilty, to 
surrender them to justice at Bedeguna." On reaching this 
place, the prisoners were found to be well known, and were 
accordingly liberated. 

The governor of Katagun sent out a guard of honour to 
meet the travellers, and conduct them to the city. This gover- 
nor Captain Clapperton astonished by his skill in firing at a 
mark : 

"January 7. The Governor paid us an early visit this morn- 
ing : he came at once into my tent while I was writing, and I 
was again obliged to show him my instruments. On opening 
my chest, there was a small box of powder I had brought from 
England, still untouched ; I was very loth to tell him what it 
was, but it attracted his attention, and I was compelled to yield 
to his solicitations for a small supply. To humour him further, 
I attended him to fire at a mark ; I fired twice with my rifle, 
and happened to hit the mark both times, at a distance of 
sixty or seventy yards, when he called out, ' Ouda billa mm 
Sheateen a rajeem,' ' The Lord preserve me from devils ! ' 
yet, in token of his approbation, he threw over my shoulders, 
with his own hands, a very handsome tobe." 

It was at Murmur, that Dr. Oudney, who had been exceed- 
ingly ill during the whole journey, expired. He had been 


watched and nursed with unremitting care by Captain Clap- 
perton ; the excellence of whose heart is manifested in the 
following brief description of the afflicting event : 

" January 12. Dr. Oudney drank a cup of coffee at day- 
break, and by his desire I ordered the camels to be loaded. 
I then assisted him to dress, and with the support of his 
servant, he came out of the tent ; but, before he could be lifted 
on the camel, I observed the ghastliness of death in his 
countenance, and had him immediately replaced in the tent. 
I sat down by his side, and with unspeakable grief wit- 
nessed his last breath, which was without a struggle or a 
groan. I now sent to the governor of the town, to request 
his permission to bury the deceased, which he readily granted ; 
and I had a grave made about five yards to the north of 
an old mimosa tree, a little beyond the southern gate of the 
town. The body being first washed, after the custom of the 
country, was dressed by my directions, in clothes made of tur- 
ban shawls, which we were carrying with us as presents. The 
corpse was borne to the grave by our servants, and I read 
over it the funeral service of the Church of England, before it 
was consigned to the earth : I afterwards caused the grave to 
be enclosed with a wall of clay, to keep off beasts of prey, and 
had two sheep killed, and distributed among the poor. Thus 
died, at the age of thirty-two years, Walter Oudney, M. D., a 
man of unassuming deportment, pleasing manners, steadfast 
perseverance, and undaunted enterprize ; while his mind was 
fraught at once with knowledge, virtue, and religion. At any 
time, and in any place, to be bereaved of such a friend, had 
proved a severe trial ; but to me, his friend and fellow-travel- 
ler, labouring also under disease, and now left alone amid a 
strange people, and proceeding through a country which had 
hitherto never been trodden by European foot, the loss was 
severe and afflicting in the extreme." 

Captain Clapperton speaks highly in praise of the Felatah 
women. In illness they attended him with as much kindness 
as if they had been his near relations. Nor was he in return 
ungrateful, or insensible to their charms. An attack of ague 



had obliged him to halt, and to rest all day under the shade 
of a tree : 

" A pretty Felatah girl, going to market with milk and 
butter, neat and spruce in her attire as a Cheshire dairy-maid, 
here accosted me with infinite archness and grace. She said 
I was of her own nation ; and, after much amusing small talk, 
I pressed her, in jest, to accompany me on my journey, while 
she parried my solicitations with roguish glee, by referring me 
to her father and mother. I don't know how it happened, 
but her presence seemed to dispel the effects of the ague. To 
this trifling and innocent memorial of a face and form, seen 
that day for the first and last time, but which I shall not rea- 
dily forget, I may add the more interesting information to 
the good housewives of my own country, that the making of 
butter such as ours is confined to the nation of the Felatahs, 
and that it is both clean and excellent." 
On another occasion he says : 

" The weather clear and fine. We rode to-day through 
little valleys, delightfully green, lying between high ridges of 
granite ; and to add to the beauty of the scenery, there 
were many clear springs issuing out of the rocks, where 
young women were employed in drawing water. I asked 
several times for a gourd of water, by way of excuse to enter 
into conversation with them. Bending gracefully on one knee, 
and displaying at the same time teeth of pearly whiteness, and 
eyes of the blackest lustre, they presented it to me on horse- 
back, and appeared highly delighted when I thanked them for 
their civility ; remarking to one another, * Did you hear the 
white man thank me ?' ' 

After having passed through Kano, Captain Clapperton- 
proceeded towards Sackatoo. On his road, he was met by 
an escort of 150 horsemen, with drums and trumpets, which 
Bello, the Sultan, had sent to conduct him to his capital. Our 
traveller was now received at every town and village with 
flourishing of horns and trumpets, as the representative of the 
king of England. Approaching Sackatoo, he was met by a 
messenger from the Sultan to bid him welcome ; and conducted 


to the house of the Gadado, or Vizier, where apartments had 
been provided for him. On the following morning he was 
ushered into the Sultan's presence. He found him without 
state, sitting on a small carpet between two pillars, which sup- 
ported the thatched roof of a house not unlike an English 
cottage. The pillars and the walls were painted blue and 
white in the Moorish style ; and by the side of the wall was a 
skreen, and on each side of it an arm-chair supporting an iron 
lamp. The Sultan bade him hearty welcome, and asked a 
great many questions about Europe and the prevailing reli- 
gious distinctions, and whether the English were Nestorians 
or Socinians, to which, taking him somewhat out of his lati- 
tude, Clapperton bluntly replied, " We are called Protest- 
ants." " But what are Protestants?" he rejoined. " I at- 
tempted," says our traveller, " to explain this to him as well 
as I was able." The sheikh of the Koran was proceeding 
with other theological questions, which were put a stop to by 
the sailor's candidly declaring himself " not sufficiently versed 
in religious subtleties to resolve such knotty controversies." 

On receiving the presents in the name of the King of Eng- 
land, the Sultan examined them with great attention, and 
then exclaimed, " Every thing is wonderful, but you are the 
greatest curiosity of all ! " and then added, " What can I give 
that is most acceptable to the King of England ? " "I replied," 
says Captain Clapperton, " the most acceptable service you 
can render to the King of England, is to co-operate with his 
Majesty in putting a stop to the slave-trade on the coast." 
" What ! " said he, " have you no slaves in England ?" No : 
whenever a slave sets his foot in England, he is from that mo- 
ment free." " What do you then do for servants ?" " We 
hire them for a stated period, and give them regular wages ; nor 
is any person in England allowed to strike another ; and the 
very soldiers are fed, clothed, and paid by Government." 
"God is great," he exclaimed ; " you are a beautiful people." 
He also appeared anxious to establish a friendly connexion with 
England, and in answer to an enquiry after our newspapers, 

i 2 


when told that many thousands were printed every morning, 
he exclaimed, " God is great; you are a wonderful people !" 

In a subsequent interview with the Sultan, Captain Clap- 
perton's presence of mind and self-command were strikingly 
manifested. He was about to show the African prince how 
to take an observation of the sun : 

" The case of the artificial horizon, of which I had lost the 
key, was sometimes very difficult to open, as happened on this 
occasion. I asked one of the people near me for a knife to 
press up the lid. He handed me one much too small, and I 
quite inadvertently asked for a dagger for the same purpose. 
The Sultan was instantly thrown into a fright ; he seized his 
sword, and half drawing it from the scabbard, placed it before 
him, trembling all the time like an aspen leaf. I did not 
deem it prudent to take the least notice of his alarm ; although 
it was I who in reality had most cause to fear ; and on re- 
ceiving the dagger, I calmly opened the case, and returned 
the weapon to its owner with apparent unconcern. When the 
artificial horizon was arranged, the Sultan and all his attendants 
had a peep at the sun, and my breach of etiquette seemed en- 
tirely forgotten." 

It is quite obvious that Captain Clapperton, in the various 
interviews which he had with Sultan Bello, succeeded in 
strongly inclining him to a friendly communication with Eng- 
land ; for at every interview the subject was pressed : thus 

" The Sultan sent for me in the afternoon. I was taken 
to a part of his residence I had never before seen : it was a 
handsome apartment, within a square tower, the ceiling of 
which was a dome, supported by eight ornamented arches, 
with a bright plate of brass in its centre. Between the arches 
and the outer wall of the tower the dome was encircled by a 
neat balustrade in front of a gallery which led into an upper 
suite of rooms. We had a long conversation about Europe : 
he spoke of the ancient Moorish kingdom in Spain, and ap- 
peared well pleased when I told him that we were in posses- 
sion of Gibraltar. He asked me to send him from England 


some Arabic books, and a map of the world ; and, in recom- 
pense, promised his protection to as many of our learned men 
as chose to visit his dominions. He also spoke of the gold 
and silver to be obtained in the hills of Jacoba and Add- 
mowa; but I assured him that we were less anxious about 
gold mines than the establishment of commerce, and the 
extension of science. He now gave me a map of the country, 
and, after explaining it to me, he resumed the old theme of 
applying, by letter, to the King of England for the residence 
of a consul and a physician at Sackatoo." 

When the traveller waited upon him to take leave, the 
Sultan treated him in the most friendly manner. " After 
repeating the Fatha," says Clapperton, " and praying for my 
safe arrival in England and speedy return to Sackatoo, he 
affectionately bade me farewell." Of Bello's opinion of Cap- 
tain Clapperton, the following passage in the letter of the 
Chieftain addressed to George IV., and brought home by 
Clapperton himself, affords a marked proof: " Your Ma- 
jesty's servant, Bay es-Abd- Allah (Clapperton's travelling 
name) came to us, and we found him a very intelligent and 
wise man; representing, in every respect, your greatness, 
wisdom, dignity, clemency, and penetration." It should be 
added, that Captain Clapperton always took care to impress 
upon the Africans, that he should be despised, on his return 
to England, if in any instance he acted deceitfully and trea- 
cherously, he being a " servant of the King of England." 

On the 4th of May, 1824, Captain Clapperton left Sacka- 
too on his return to Kouka. When he arrived at Murmur, 
he found that a kafila of Arabs, belonging to Augela, had 
destroyed the clay wall round Dr. Oudney's grave, and made 
a fire over it ; telling the inhabitants he was a Kafir. Cap- 
tain Clapperton's indignation at this occurrence does him 
great credit : 

" At sunrise I sent for the Governor, to enquire who had 
committed the outrage ; when he protested it was the Arabs, 
and not the people of the town. I felt so indignant at this 
wanton act of barbarity, that I could not refrain from applying 

i 3 


my horsewhip across the Governor's shoulders, and threat- 
ened to report him to his superior, the Governor of Katagum, 
and also to despatch a letter on the subject to the Sultan, 
unless the wall was immediately rebuilt : which, with slavish 
submission, he promised faithfully to see done without delay." 
Again, on receiving a visit from the Governor of Katagum, 
" I made a formal complaint," says Captain Clapperton, " of 
the insult committed to Dr. Oudney's grave ; enforcing, in 
the strongest terms, the disgrace of disturbing the ashes of 
the dead, whose immortal part was now beyond the power of 
malignant man. He frankly acknowledged the enormity of 
the act, and faithfully promised to have the wall rebuilt ; even 
offering to send for the Governor of Murmur, and to have 
him punished." 

On the 8th of July, Captain Clapperton reached Kouka, 
where he was joined a few days afterwards by ColonelDenham, 
who did not know him, so altered was he by fatigue and illness. 
" On my arrival again at Kouka," says Colonel Denham, 
" I found that Captain Clapperton, with a small kafila, had 
returned from Soudan. It was nearly eight months since we 
had separated, and, although it was mid-day, I went imme- 
diately to the hut where he was lodged ; but so satisfied was 
I that the sunburnt sickly person that lay extended on the 
floor, rolled in a dark blue shirt, was not my companion, that 
I was about to leave the place, when he convinced me of my 
error by calling me by my name : the alteration was certainly 
in him most striking." 

The travellers now prepared for their return to their native 
country. Their journey over the desert was exceedingly 
harassing. Having at length reached Tripoli, they there em- 
barked for Leghorn. From Leghorn they crossed the Alps, 
and arrived in England on the 1st of June, 1825. 

Captain Clapperton was not allowed much time for repose. 
An answer being prepared to the letter from Sultan Bello to 
the King of England, it was, with a letter to El Kanemy, the 
Sheikh of Bornou, intrusted to Captain Clapperton, who, with 
Captain Pearce of the navy, Doctor Morrison, and Mr. 


Dickson, were conveyed in his Majesty's ship Brazen to the 
coast of Africa. The first three were landed at Badagry in 
the bight of Benin, on the 28th of November, 1825; Mr. 
Dickson, at his own request, having previously been put on 
shore at Whydah. The King of Badagry readily undertook 
to afford to the travellers protection and assistance as far as 
his influence extended, namely, to a place called Jannah, 
the frontier town of the kingdom of Hio or Eyeo, which was 
found to be in lat. 6 56' N., and on the same meridian as 
Lagos. A great part of this journey was performed on foot, 
along narrow paths, leading through deep forests : they reached 
this spot on the 18th of December. 

From Jannah to Katunga, the capital of Youriba, was 
described as a journey that would require thirty-three days. 
The passage of the low swampy forest produced the usual 
pestilential effects on some of the party ; and on the 27th of 
December Captain Pearce, after a few days* illness, died. He 
was an excellent officer, but of a delicate habit, and, in the 
opinion of his friends, not calculated to bear the heat and 
fatigue to which he would necessarily be exposed in the course 
of an expedition of this kind ; but all remonstrances were in 
vain, and he determined to make the attempt. Dr. Morrison 
also falling sick, was advised by Captain Clapperton to return 
to the coast, to which he readily assented ; and Mr. Houtson, 
a merchant, who had voluntarily undertaken to accompany 
the mission as far as Katunga, returned with him. They had 
proceeded no farther, however, than Jannah, when Morrison 
became alarmingly ill, and died in the course of the day. 

Mr. Houtson, having decently interred his companion, 
rejoined Captain Clapperton. They now proceeded across a 
mountainous and beautifully romantic country, which con- 
tinued so for many days ; and beyond this range the surface 
became gradually more uniform, but still undulated with hill 
and dale, and in an excellent state of cultivation. Towns and 
villages were constantly occurring ; the former generally sur- 
rounded with mud walls, and ditches, and many of them con- 

i 4- 


taining from 10,000 to 12,000 inhabitants; the people every 
where civil and obliging, and the head men receiving them 
with the utmost kindness and hospitality. 

On the 27th of February, 1826, Captain Clapperton wrote 
from Katunga of his intention to proceed thence through 
Youri to Sackatoo, and to request Bello to forward him on to 
Timbuctoo, and after that he would endeavour to visit Ada- 
mowa, and proceed thence to Bornou, and circumambulate 
the shores of the great lake Tsad. Mr. Houtson, who returned 
from Katunga alone, and without molestation, stated, that on 
the 7th of March Captain Clapperton set out from that place 
for the Borgho country, the nearest way to Youri ; that before 
lie (Houtson) left Katunga, he had heard of his arrival at, 
and departure from, Yarro, a province of that kingdom ; that 
the King had met him at some distance from Yarro, at the 
head of 500 horse, treated him with great kindness and dis- 
tinction, furnished him with abundance of provisions, and 
every thing necessary for his journey : he stated, farther, that 
from Yarro he was about to proceed to Wawa, only four days 
distant from Youri. Mr. Houtson added, that Captain Clap- 
perton was in high health and spirits when he left Katunga. 

On the 26th of April Mr. James, a merchant residing on 
the coast, wrote from Whydah, that he had received authentic 
information of the safe arrival of Clapperton at the capital of 
his old friend in the Felatah country. Here ended all inform- 
ation respecting the traveller; and two whole years had 
elapsed without the least intimation respecting Captain Clap- 
perton, when, some time in February, 1828, his servant, 
Richard Lander, accompanied by a black man of the name of 
Pascoe, made their appearance at Badagry, having been nine 
months on their journey from Sackatoo. On the 24th of 
April, Lander arrived at Portsmouth, in the Esk sloop of war. 
From him it has been ascertained that Captain Clapperton 
died April 13. 1827, at Sackatoo, where he had been detained 
for five months, in consequence of the Sultan Bello not per- 
mitting him to proceed, on account of the war between him 
and the Sheikh of Bornou. He had waited there hoping to 


obtain permission to proceed to Timbuctoo, and lived in a 
small, circular, clay hut, belonging to the Sultan's brother, 
the size of which dwelling was about fifty yards each way. 
He was attacked with dysentery; and, latterly, fell away 
rapidly, and became much emaciated. 

Lander states, that two days before he died he requested 
that he might be shaved, as he was too weak to sit up. On 
its completior, he asked for a looking-glass, and remarked he 
was " doing better," and should certainly " get over it." The 
morning on which he died he breathed loud, and became rest- 
less, and shortly afterwards expired in his servant's arms. He 
was buried by him at Jungali, a small village, five miles south- 
east of Sackatoo, and was followed to his grave by his faithful 
attendant and five slaves. The corpse was conveyed by a 
camel, and the place of interment marked by a small, square 
house of clay, erected by Lander, who then obtained the Sul- 
tan's permission to return home. He accordingly journeyed 
to Badagry, which occupied him seven months, and was taken 
off the coast by Captain Laing, of the merchant brig Maria 
of London, in January, 1828. He states that he nearly lost 
his life while at Badagry, from the Portuguese setting the 
minds of the natives against him, and their attempting to 
administer poison to him in his drink. By some fortunate 
chance it failed to affect him; which, when the natives saw, their 
superstitious notions were excited in his behalf. They believed 
that he bore a charmed life, and was protected by the Great 
Being ; and, accordingly, they not only treated him better, but 
suffered him to depart. The King of Badagry, however, de- 
manded and obtained for his ransom goods to the amount of 
sixty-one pounds, viz. guns, powder, romals, taffety, &c. He 
landed at Cape Coast, whence he was brought by the Esk. The 
route taken by Lander, on his return to the coast, differed from 
that which he followed with Captain Clapperton in going up the 
country. He travelled seventeen days in an entirely different 
direction, endeavouring to trace if the Niger fell into the 
river of Benin, and if he could escape by descending that 
stream. He was compelled, however, to abandon this project, 


being pursued by the Felatahs, with the design of murdering 
him. He traversed parts of Housa, Nyffe, Hio, and other 
countries unknown to Europeans, and at length reached Ba- 
dagry. Amidst all his dangers and difficulties, he contrived to 
conceal a watch of his late master's, which was originally meant 
to be presented by Captain Clapperton to Bello, on his taking 
leave of that chieftain. 

It appears that Bello broke faith with Captain Clapperton 
in every way. During the former expedition by Captain 
Clapperton and Colonel Denham, the latter had made a pre- 
sent of some Congreve rockets to the Shiekh of Bornou, who 
employed them successfully in burning a town of the Felatahs 
and terrifying the inhabitants. It is probable that this occur- 
rence produced an unfavourable impression on the mind of 
the Sultan ; which impression was strengthened by insidious 
representations from the Bashaw of Tripoli. On Clapperton's 
revisit with his presents for Bello (including a fine copy of the 
Koran, purchased abroad by Clapperton, and afterwards 
bound and superbly encased, as a present from the King of 
England), he found the Sultan at war with El Kanemy, the 
Sheikh of Bornou. Clapperton was suspiciously received, but 
his presents were accepted by the wily Bello, who would not 
allow the traveller to return to Kano ; whence he came alone 
to Sackatoo with such presents only as were intended for 
Bello, leaving those intended for El Kanemy with Lander at 
the former place. Neither was he allowed to proceed to 
Bornou with his Sovereign's letter for El Kanemy ; but the 
treacherous Bello, having first inveigled Lander to Sacka- 
too, and obtained possession of the letter and presents, then 
refused both master and servant permission to leave by way 
of the first-mentioned town. 

Captain Clapperton was, in the best sense of the phrase, 
" a fine fellow ; " a term well calculated to express a general 
idea of his whole character. In person he was about five feet 
eleven inches in height, with a high and commanding fore- 
head (the index of a noble mind), and a set of features full 
of pleasing and intelligent expression. Previous to his 


death, at the age of thirty- eight, his fine athletic form was 
almost reduced to a skeleton. He is represented to have 
been a man of frank and generous disposition, and to have 
possessed a happy mode of adapting himself to circumstances 
it will be owned, a valuable endowment for one whose 
short life was one continued scene of enterprize and hair- 
breadth escapes. 

Harassed with the vexations of disappointment and delay 
(sometimes insurmountable checks to a weak mind), he must 
have possessed an extraordinary share of fortitude, not to say 
philosophy, to have withstood even a portion of the trials and 
fatigue which he endured. His intrepid offer to Dr. Oudney, 
without any previous communication on the subject, to accom- 
pany him on the expedition to Bornou, redounds as highly to 
his memory as did his fervent zeal, when at Bornou, to pro- 
ceed beyond that limit into the interior of the country. At 
the end of twelve days' journey, himself scarcely able to 
stand, he closed the eyes of the dying Oudney, prayed over 
him, and buried him. This leaf of his journal, which may 
be read over again and again with advantage, is a better por- 
trait of Captain Ciapperton than the most elaborate language 
can ever succeed in producing. How many men would have 
drooped from full health, and even died under such an accu- 
mulation of suffering ! But Ciapperton, though previously in 
ill health, recovered the shock, and, bereft of his companion, 
proceeded 700 miles farther into the interior. 

His conduct towards the natives even endeared him to 
them as if he had been one of their caste. He assumed the 
gravity of the Tauricks, their manners, and even their dress, 
and so completely identified himself with them, that they 
frequently expressed their belief that he would ultimately 
become a convert to Mahommedanism. We can readily 
imagine how companionable these qualities must have ren- 
dered him, especially in such a desert as that between Mour- 
zouk and Bornou, a dreary waste, in which " towns, villages, 
wandering tribes, and kafilars, or caravans, sometimes occur 
to break the solitude of that dismal belt, which seems to 


stretch across Northern Africa, and on many parts of which 
not a living creature, even an insect, enlivens the scene. Still, 
however, the halting-places at the wells, and the wadeys or 
valleys, afford an endless source of amusement to the traveller, 
in witnessing the manners, and listening to the conversation, 
of the various tribes of natives, who, by their singing and 
dancing, their story-telling, their quarrelling and fighting, 
make him forget, for a time, the ennui and fatigue of the 
day's journey." 

Fortunately, the whole of Captain Clapperton's journals 
were saved, and have been brought back by his servant. 
They contain a-minute and interesting account of his journey 
from Badagry to Sackatoo, by the route across the Kong 
mountains, through Katunga, Wawa, EJerghoo, Boosa (where 
Mungo Park was wrecked and drowned), Nyfe or Noofe, 
Gouri, and Kano ; in the course of which the geographical 
position of several hundred cities, towns, and village, has 
been ascertained, by observations of their latitude and longi- 
tude; thus completing the geography of the central part of 
Northern Africa, from Tripoli to the bight of Benin. We are 
glad to observe that this narrative, which must be highly 
interesting, is on the point of being published. 

The foregoing memoir has been derived from " Discoveries 
in Africa," the Quarterly Review, the Literary Gazette, the 
Dumfries Journal, &c. 


No. IX. 

1 HERE are few more gratifying spectacles than that of a 
woman of rank, beauty, and accomplishments disdaining the 
frivolous, and too frequently vicious pursuits, by which so 
many females in the higher circles of society are unhappily 
absorbed, and occupying herself with studies of an intellectual 
character; studies, the tendency of which is to refine and 
elevate the tone of her mind, to secure to her sound, rational, 
and permanent enjoyment, and, eventually, to place her name 
among those whom posterity will contemplate with feelings of 
admiration and respect. 

The highly-gifted subject of the present memoir was born in 
the year 1748, and was the only child of Field-Marshal the 
Right Honourable Henry Seymour Conway, brother to 
Francis, first Marquis of Hertford, by Lady Caroline Camp- 
bell, only daughter of John, fourth Duke of Argyll, and 
widow of Charles, Earl of Aylesbury and Elgin. 

Marshal Conway lived on terms of intimacy with most of 
the men of genius and information who were his contempo- 
raries. The celebrated Horace Walpole, afterwards Earl of 
Orford, was one of his oldest friends. Struck, at a very early 
period, with the dawning talents of Miss Conway, Mr. Wal- 
pole employed every means within the power of extensive 
knowledge, cultivated taste, and polished manners, to render 
her as complete in every endowment of mind, as nature had 
made her in person. Of all the minor accomplishments in- 
dispensable to an elegant woman she soon became mistress. 
Nor did she rest satisfied with these ; but made herself con- 
versant with the best authors in the English, French, and 
Italian languages; and also acquired a tolerable acquaintance 
with the Latin. The taste for letters thus early imbibed, 


continued with her to the last ; and she eventually possessed 
one of the best-selected and most valuable libraries ever formed 
by a female collector. 

Accident, in a great measure, determines the various pur- 
suits of ingenious minds. Cowley remarks, that had instru- 
ments of music been thrown in his way in his youth, instead 
of books of poetry, he should, probably, have become an emi- 
nent musician. It was to a casual occurrence that the devo- 
tion of the fair subject of this memoir to the severe art of 
sculpture was originally owing. When yet very young, hap- 
pening to see David Hume talking with one of the Italian 
boys who carry plaster- casts about the streets, she, in a sub- 
sequent conversation with the historian, depreciated the talent 
by which such works were produced. Mr. Hume frankly 
told her that, with all her attainments, she was wholly incom- 
petent to any similar performance. Piqued at this observ- 
ation, Miss Conway immediately procured some wax, and 
assiduously, but privately, modelled a head sufficiently well to 
excite Mr. Hume's surprise, when she showed it to him. He 
remarked to her, however, that it was much easier to model 
than to carve. She instantly obtained a piece of stone and a 
chisel, and cut out a rude bust that still more strongly called 
forth Mr. Hume's wonder and praise. From that moment 
she became enthusiastically attached to sculpture ; took les- 
sons from the celebrated sculptor, Ceracchi, who at the time 
happened to be in London * ; learnt the technical part of 
working in marble in the atelier of Mr. Bacon, the royal aca- 
demician ; studied the elements of anatomy under Mr. Cruik- 
shank ; subsequently made journeys into Italy to contemplate 
the chefs-d'oeuvre of the art, in order that she might perfect 
herself in the pure and simple style of the Greeks, which she 
always endeavoured to follow, and repeatedly declared that 
she preferred the distinction of being an artist to any other 
that could be offered her. 

On the 1 4th of June, 1767, Miss Conway was married to 

* Ceracchi was executed at Paris, in the year 1802. 


the Hon. John Darner, eldest son of Joseph, first Lord 
Milton, and brother to George Earl of Dorchester. The 
union was an unhappy one. Mr. Darner was heir, in ex- 
pectancy, to 20,0001. a year ; but was of much too gay and 
eccentric a turn to be confined within the limits of any for- 
tune. He shot himself at the Bedford Arms, in Covent- 
Garden, on the 15th of August, 1776, leaving his widow 
without issue. It may give some notion of the extravagance 
of this gentleman to state that, after his death, his wardrobe 
sold for 15,000/. It must be recollected, however, that those 
were the days of silk, lace, and embroidery. 

In early life Mrs. Darner took an active part in politics, an 
occupation which was then much more common among the 
ladies of this country than it is at present. She was a decided 
Whig. When Westminster was divided by Mr. Fox's friends 
into three districts, the Duchess of Devonshire assumed the 
management of one, Mrs. Crewe of another, and Mrs. Darner 
of the third ; and at the various elections she canvassed for 
her favourite with great activity and success. 

Mrs. Darner was also very fond of dramatic amusements. 
When the Duke of Richmond (grand-uncle to the present 
Duke), who distinguished Mrs. Darner by a very marked 
portion of his esteem, patronised private theatricals, he was 
so fortunate as to obtain Mrs. Darner's assistance. She was 
the Thalia of the scene. She appeared, with unbounded ap- 
plause, in the character of Violante, in " The Wonder," 
when Lord Henry Fitzgerald supported the part of Don 
Felix. Her Mrs. Lovemore, in " The Way to keep Him," 
and her Lady Freelove, in " The Jealous Wife," likewise 
excited great admiration. 

These, however, were merely relaxations from that which 
she had made the serious business of her life, and in which 
she persevered with exemplary ardour and constancy. The 
elegant, tasteful, and classical productions of her chisel are 
numerous, and widely scattered. We cannot pretend to give 
any thing even approaching to a complete list of her works ; 
but among them were the following : 


A statue in marble, eight feet high, of his late Majesty 
George the Third, placed in the Register's Office at Edin- 

Two colossal heads, in relief, executed in Portland stone, 
representing Thame and Isis ; forming the ornaments of the 
key-stone of the middle arch of the bridge at Henley-upon- 

A bust, in marble, of her mother, the Countess of Ayles- 
bury, erected as a monument in Sunbridge Church, Kent. 

A bust, in terra cotta, of her father Field-Marshal 

A group of two sleeping dogs, executed in marble, and 
given to her brother-in-law, Charles Lennox, Duke of Rich- 

A bust, in marble, of Lady Viscount Melbourn, now 
placed in the collection of Earl Cowper, at Penshanger. 

A bust, in marble, of Lady Elizabeth Forster, afterwards 
Duchess of Devonshire. To the merits of this and the last- 
mentioned work, as well as to Mrs. Darner's general skill as 
a sculptor, Dr. Darwin paid a just tribute in the following 
lines : 

" Long with soft touch shall Darner's chisel charm, 
With grace delight us, and with beauty warm ; 
Forster's fine form shall hearts unborn engage, 
And Melbourn's smile enchant another age." 

A bust of herself, executed in marble, in 1778, and placed 
in the Hall of Ancient and Modern Painters, in the Royal 
Gallery of Florence. 

Another bust of herself, in the collection of the late R. P. 
Knight, Esq. transferred with that collection to the British 
Museum, and placed at the entrance opposite to the great 

A bust in marble of Bacchus (portrait of Prince Lobo- 
mirski) placed in the Gallery of the University of Oxford. 

A bust, executed in bronze, of Sir Joseph Bajiks, the late 


President of the Royal Society ; presented to the British 

A dog, executed in marble, presented to her late Majesty, 
Queen Charlotte, and now in the possession of her Royal 
Highness the Landgravine of Hesse Homberg. 

Two kittens, in white marble, presented to the Right Ho- 
nourable Horace Walpole. 

An Osprey eagle, in terra cotta, also presented to Mr. Wal- 
pole ; and to which he affixed the following elegantly compli- 
mentary inscription : 

Non me Praxiteles fecit, at Anna Darner. 

A bust, in marble, of the Right Honourable Charles James 
Fox, which Mrs. Darner presented in person to Napoleon 
Buonaparte, on the first of May, 1815, at the Palace Elysee, at 
Paris. This bust had been promised on a journey which 
Mrs. Darner made to Paris, at the period of the treaty of 
Amiens. Mrs. Darner quitted Paris shortly after her pre- 
sentation of the bust of Mr. Fox ; but, before her departure, 
she received, by the hands of Count Bertrand, a magnificent 
snuff-box, with the portrait, surrounded by diamonds, of the 
French Emperor, who begged her acceptance of it, in remem- 
brance of him. 

Paris, a small bust, in marble. 

Thalia, a small bust, in marble. 

Isis, a bust, in Greek marble, in the collection of Thomas 
Hope, Esquire. 

Bust, in marble, of Sir Humphry Davy, late President of 
the Royal Society. 

A bust, in marble ; portrait of the late Honourable Pen- 
niston Lamb, in the character of Mercury. 

A bust, in terra cotta, of the late Queen Caroline. 

A small bust ; head of a Muse, in bronze. 

A bust, in marble, heroic size, of Lord Nelson. For this 
bust Lord Nelson, who was a great friend of Mrs. Darner's, 
sat to her immediately after his return from the battle of the 
Nile. Mrs. Darner made a present of it to the city of Lon- 



don, and received a letter of thanks in return. It was put up 
in the Common-Council Chamber at Guildhall, where it now is. 
In the year 1826, Mrs. Darner completed a bronze cast from 
this bust, which cast she sent as a present to the king of Tanjore, 
<* as the most appropriate mark she could show him of the 
admiration which she, as an artist, entertained of his Royal 
Highness, in consequence of the liberal and enlightened man- 
ner in which he had encouraged the introduction and culti- 
vation of European arts and sciences amongst his subjects ; 
and in consequence of the respect which he had paid to the 
naval and military heroes of Great Britain, by erecting a 
splendid monument in his country, to commemorate the great 
achievements which they performed during the late arduous 
and protracted contest which prevailed between France and 
Great Britain." The circumstances in which this transaction 
originated are so interesting, that we transcribe them from 
The Oriental Herald." 

" The character of the King of Tanjore ; the nature and 
peculiarity of the early education which he received ; the state 
of the people who inhabit his dominions ; the fame of the 
hero whose bust is sent to him ; the importance of the battle 
of the Nile to the British ascendancy in India ; the circum- 
stances which led Mrs. Darner, from her feelings as an artist, 
to make the bust in question ; the high rank, the genius, and 
the celebrity of the artist herself, as well on the continent of 
Europe as in England are considerations which render the 
present a subject of more than ordinary interest to all those 
who are acquainted with the character of the Hindoos, and 
who think it of importance, with a view to give them a taste 
for the arts and sciences of Europe, and to encourage a 
Hindoo prince to continue the prudent and well-directed 
efforts by which he has already succeeded in removing from 
the minds of the natives of the highest caste in his country 
the prejudices which they formerly entertained against the in- 
troduction of any European institution. The King of Tan- 
jore is a Hindoo sovereign of rank, influence, and wealth, who 
was originally educated by the late Rev. Mr. Swartz, a Euro- 


pean missionary, of the greatest respectability throughout In- 
dia, and who has, ever since he has been upon the throne, 
used his rank, influence, and wealth, in acquiring himself, and 
in promoting amongst the people of the highest caste and 
highest rank in his country, a knowledge of the arts and 
sciences of Europe. The country of Tanjore is, for its size, 
the most populous and the best-cultivated part of the southern 
division of the peninsula of India. In it the effects of the 
Mohammedan conquest are less visible than in the more 
northern parts of that peninsula ; and the Hindoo religion, 
laws, usages, and manners, are, from the sovereign of the 
country being himself a Hindoo, kept up in full force. 

" Sir Alexander Johnston, a relation of the Hon. Anne 
Seymour Darner, while Chief Justice, and first member of 
his Majesty's council on the island of Ceylon, formed a plan 
of giving the natives of that island a direct interest in the 
government of their country, by imparting to them an im- 
portant share in the administration of justice amongst their 
countrymen, and of introducing trial by jury amongst them, 
under such modifications as would, at the same time that it se- 
cured to the people the full benefit of this popular mode of 
trial, make it strictly conformable to their respective religions, 
laws, manners, and usages. 

As all the inhabitants of the northern provinces of Ceylon 
are Hindoos, and are descended from, and agree in religion, 
laws, manners, and usages, with the Hindoo inhabitants of the 
opposite peninsula, Sir Alexander was extremely anxious, 
with a view to the regulations which he was about to make 
for adapting trial by jury to the feelings of the Hindoo in- 
habitants of Ceylon, not only to acquire a thorough know- 
ledge of the peninsula of India, but also of the wise and 
prudent measures which the King of Tanjore, from his know- 
ledge of the Hindoo character, had pursued for adapting the 
arts and sciences of Europe to the feelings and prejudices of 
the Hindoo inhabitants of his country. 

" For this purpose, Sir Alexander made two journeys 
through the southern provinces of the peninsula of India, and 

K 2 


paid a visit to the King of Tanjore, who received him with 
great attention, and gave him a full opportunity of observing 
the progress which his Royal Highness himself, as well as the 
persons of the highest caste and rank at his court, had made 
in acquiring a knowledge of European arts and sciences, and 
in accustoming the people of the country, notwithstanding the 
prejudices which had formerly prevailed amongst them, to view 
such studies with feelings of the highest respect. Sir Alex- 
ander was very much struck with the effects which the King of 
Tanjore had been able to produce upon the character of his 
Hindoo subjects, by cautiously removing from their minds the 
prejudices which they had previously entertained against the 
study and adoption of some of the most useful of the arts and 
sciences of Europe ; and -was fully convinced that it would be 
of the utmost importance to the British interests in India to 
seize the favourable opportunity which was afforded, by the pe- 
culiar character of the king of Tanjore, to introduce with suc- 
cess a taste for those arts and sciences amongst the Hindoo 
inhabitants of India. It seemed to him also to be the true 
policy of Great Britain to encourage, by all means which could 
be devised, the King of Tanjore to proceed in the course in 
which he had already made so great a progress, of exciting, by 
his example and influence amongst the Hindoos of his country, 
a very general taste and respect for studies of that nature ; and 
to consider the King of Tanjore and his Hindoo subjects as the 
medium through which such a taste and respect for the arts 
and sciences might be disseminated, with safety and success, 
amongst all the Hindoo inhabitants of Asia. 

" Under this impression, Sir Alexander Johnston, as soon 
as the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 
(one of the principal objects of which is to communicate to 
Asia such of the arts and sciences of Europe as are applicable 
to the situation of the people) was permanently established, 
proposed the King of Tanjore as the first honorary member 
of that society ; and Sir Alexander Johnston, being fully 
aware of the beneficial effect which would be produced upon 
a character like that of the King of Tanjore, who himself. 

HON. MRS. DA31ER. 133 

upon principles of policy, had encouraged persons of the 
highest caste and rank, in his country, to study the arts and 
sciences of Europe, to receive, as a mark of respect, for such 
conduct, from an artist of high rank and celebrity in Europe, 
one of the finest specimens of her art, mentioned the sub- 
ject to his relation, the Hon. Anne Seymour Darner ; who 
immediately, with the liberality which is peculiar to her cha- 
racter, and with the zeal which she displays, on every occasion, 
when she can promote a knowledge of the arts and sciences 
of her country, proposed, of her own accord, notwithstanding 
the expense and the labour which she would inevitaby incur, 
to execute, with her own hands, the bust, in bronze, of Nel- 
son, and to send it, as a present, to the King of Tanjore ; 
feeling that no present could be more appropriate to a king, 
who had been so faithful an ally of the British government, 
than a bust of that hero, who, by the victory of the Nile, had 
freed the British dominions, in India, from the danger of being 
invaded by the French, and who had, thereby, finally secured 
for the King of Tanjore himself that tranquillity which 
enabled him to prosecute, without interruption, the plan which 
he had so wisely adopted of encouraging, amongst the people 
of his country, the arts and sciences of Europe. " 

At the request of his Royal Highness, Mrs. Darner pre- 
sented the Duke of Clarence with one of the best plaster-casts 
she had made of her bust of Lord Nelson, which his Royal 
Highness placed on a piece of the foremast of the Victory 
(the ship which Nelson commanded, and in which he fell at 
the battle of Trafalgar,) and set it up in an open building 
constructed for the purpose, in a conspicuous and appropriate 
spot, in the grounds attached to his house at Bushy Park. 
When the Duke of Clarence, however, became Lord High 
Admiral of England, his Royal Highness was very desirous 
that Mrs. Darner should execute for him a bust of Nelson, in 
bronze, similar to that which she had sent to the King of 
Tanjore. Mrs. Darner, notwithstanding her great age, being 
at the time in her seventy-ninth year, began the undertaking 
immediately ; and, in spite of her infirmities and weakness 

K 3 


(owing to ill health), succeeded in finishing it, to her 
great satisfaction, a very few days before her death. Lady 
Johnston, who is the daughter of the late Lord William 
Campbell, the uncle of Mrs. Darner, and who was, therefore, 
Mrs. Darner's cousin, (being likewise her residuary legatee) 
knowing Mrs. Darner's anxiety that this bust, as the very last 
work of her hand, should be safely delivered to the Duke of 
Clarence, shortly after her cousin's death went, accompanied 
by Sir Alexander, to Bushy Park; and presented the bust 
to his Royal Highness, in the presence of the Duchess of 
Clarence and the Duchess of Meinengen. His Royal High- 
ness, with the greatest respect and attention, caused it to be 
fixed on the same piece of the mast of the Victory, on which 
the plaster cast had formerly stood, and placed in the drawing- 
room at Bushy. Lady Johnston at the same time presented 
to his Royal Highness the coat which Nelson wore at the 
battle of the Nile, in which he sat to Mrs. Darner for the bust, 
and which he afterwards gave that lady. His Royal Highness 
has since presented the coat in question to Greenwich Hos- 
pital ; where it is deposited in the Painted Hall. 

In 1797, on the death of Lord Orford, Mrs. Darner (who 
was appointed executrix of his will, and residuary legatee,) 
found herself owner, for life, of his pretty villa of Strawberry 
Hill, w r ith a legacy of 20GO/. to keep it in repair ; on con- 
dition that she lived there, and did not dispose of it to any 
person unless to the Countess of Waldegrave ; on whom and 
on whose heirs it was entailed. Mrs. Darner resided at this 
celebrated house until she was induced to give it up to Lord 
Waldegrave. During her abode at Strawberry Hill, Mrs. 
Darner drew around her a select circle, for whose amusement 
she fitted up an elegant little theatre. Among her occasional 
visitors were the accomplished Mrs. Berry, Mrs. Siddons, and 
the relict of the immortal Garrick. It was on the miniature 
stage of that theatre, that a comedy entitled " Fashionable 
Friends," and attributed to the pen of Lord Orford, was first 
represented. Mr. Kemble obtained permission to transplant 
the promising flower to Drury Lane ; but, alas ! it was a hot- 


liouse plant, that could not withstand the rude blasts by which 
it was assailed in that quarter. It seemed to be considered by 
the public that the author of the play, in his exhibition of 
fashionable manners, had raised the curtain too high. The 
gods exerted their prerogative, and the piece was damned. 

In 1818, Mrs. Darner, who was very partial to the situation 
and neighbourhood of Twickenham, purchased York House, 
from Prince Stahremberg, the late Austrian ambassador. 
York House was originally the property of Lord Clarendon, 
the Chancellor in Charles the Second's time. He gave it to 
James the Second, when that prince married his daughter; 
and called it York House, in honour of the Prince, who was 
then Duke of York. This liouse contains the room, in which, 
it is said, Queen Anne was born. That, and other consider- 
ations, rendered it a great favourite with Mrs. Darner. For 
the remainder of her life she always resided there during the 
summer ; and had she survived, it was her intention to live 
there entirely, and to give up her house in town. Since 
Mrs. Darner's death, York House has been purchased by Sir 
Alexander Johnston, for the purpose of keeping together, in 
the place in which Mrs. Darner wished them to be kept, the 
whole of her busts, in bronze and marble, of her various friends 
and of celebrated characters, and her terra cottas, as well as the 
celebrated paintings worked in worsted, by her mother, the 
late Countess of Aylesbury ; all of which Mrs. Darner settled 
as heir-looms upon Lady Johnston, and Sir Alexander and 
Lady Johnston's daughters. 

Mrs. Darner's decay was very gradual; and her death, 
which took place at her house, in Upper Brook Street, 
Grosvenor Square, on the 28th of May, 1828, was one of 
enviable tranquillity. Her near relations, the Duke of Argyll 
and Sir Alexander Johnston, were with her at the time. She 
lost her vision for a few previous hours ; but retained her 
hearing and her other faculties to the last moment. 

In early life, Mrs. Darner travelled much; and she had written 
descriptions of her various tours, which, at one period, it was 
her intention to publish. By her will, however, she directed 

K 4 


her executors to destroy all her papers ; which is the more to 
be regretted, as she was in possession of numerous letters from 
Lord Orford, and other distinguished persons. Retaining 
to the last her attachment to the fine arts, she desired that 
her working apron and her tools might be deposited in her 

For much of the foregoing Memoir we are indebted to pri- 
vate communications. The remainder has been derived from 
" The Gallery of Florence," Dallaway's " Anecdotes of the 
Arts in England," The Oriental Herald," " The Public 
Characters," and other publications, 


No. X. 




1 HIS accomplished and amiable prelate was a branch of the 
ducal family of Manners, descendants from the sister of King 
Edward the Fourth. He was the fourth son * of Lord George 
Manners Sutton (third son of John, third Duke of Rutland, 
K.G.), by Diana, daughter of Thomas Chaplin, Esq. of 
Blankney, in Lincolnshire. Lord George, and his elder bro- 
ther, Robert, added the name of Sutton to that of Manners, 
in compliance with the will of their maternal uncle, Lord 

* The eldest son, George Manners Sutton, Esq. M.P. died in 1804. The 
second, who upon that event became the head of the family, died Feb. 17. 1826, 
(like his brother the Archbishop, at the age of seventy-three) ; and his eldest 
surviving son, the Rev. Frederick Manners Sutton, Aug. 30. following. The 
third son of Lord George was blown up in his Majesty's ship Ardent in 1 754 ; 
the fifth died young ; the sixth is the present Lord Manners ; and the youngest 
died a captain in the army in 1781. There were also five daughters; the eldest 
the wife of Francis Dickens, Esq. formerly Knight in Parliament for Northamp- 
tonshire ; the second died young ; and the three youngest were all married to 
gentlemen of the name of Lockwood. 



Lexington, who divided his estates between them ; and the 
former died in 1779, at the age of eighty-three. 

His Grace was born on the 14th of February, 1755. He 
received his education with his brother, Lord Manners, at the 
Charter House, and thence removed to Emanuel College, 
Cambridge, where the brothers had the late excellent Dr. 
Bennet, Bishop of Cloyne, for their tutor. 

In 1777, on taking the degree of B. A., Mr. Charles Man- 
ners Sutton was the fifteenth wrangler, his brother Thomas, 
at the same time, being fifth wrangler. Previous to this he 
had become a member of the Hyson Club, a social institution, 
consisting only of fellows and students of correct deportment 
and eminent abilities. In allusion to this period of the Arch- 
bishop's history, a learned divine, now living, thus addressed 
him some years since: " You, my Lord, were fortunate 
enough to possess all the precious advantages of a classical 
education at one of our best schools. You afterwards pro- 
secuted your studies at a college which, within your own 
memory, or that of your contemporaries, could recount 
amongst its members the venerable Mr. Henry Hubbard, the 
learned Dr. Anthony Askew, the ingenious Dr. Richard Far- 
mer, the celebrated Bishop Hurd, the accomplished and 
amiable Dr. Bennet, Bishop of Cloyne, and the well-known 
Dr. Samuel Parr. For the various and arduous duties of the 
exalted station which your Grace now fills, you were qualified 
not only by the aid of books, and the conversation of scho- 
lars, but by numerous opportunities for acquiring an extensive 
knowledge of human life, and by the familiar intercourse of 
men whose well-regulated, and, I had almost said, hereditary 
politeness, is worthy of their exalted situations." * 

Soon after taking his bachelor's degree, Mr. Sutton entered 
into holy orders. He proceeded M.A. 1780, D.D. 1792. In 
1785 he succeeded Richard Sutton, D.D. in the rectory of 
Averham with Kelham (at which place is the family seat of 
the Suttons), in Nottinghamshire, and in that of Whitwell, in 

* Dedication of a Visitation Sermon, preached at Stamford, in 1816, by the 
Rev. S. T. Bloomfield, A. M. yicar of Bisbrooke, in Rutland. 


Derbyshire ; his brother being the patron of the former, and 
the Duke of Rutland of the latter. In 1791, on the death of 
Dr. Tarrant, he was appointed Dean of Peterborough ; and 
in the following year, on the decease of Bishop Home, he 
was elevated to the see of Norwich, then resigning all his 
other preferments. The Deanery of Windsor was, however, 
conferred on him in commendam in 1794, on the resignation 
of Bishop Cornwallis, who then obtained, in exchange, the 
Deanery of Durham, vacant by the death of Bishop Hinch- 

The Deanery of Windsor of course rendered Dr. Manners 
Sutton well known to the Royal Family, with whom both he 
and his lady were great favourites ; and it was accordingly to 
be expected that further preferment was in store for him. 
The author of the " Pursuits of Literature " appears, indeed, 
to have been so well persuaded of the fact, that he actually 
anticipated for him the honours of archiepiscopacy as early as 
1797. To these lines, 

Nay, if you feed on this celestial strain, 

You may with gods hold converse, not with men ; 

Sooner the people's rights shall Horsley prove, 

Or Sutton cease to claim the public love; 

And e'en forego, from dignity of place, 

His polish'd mind and reconciling face 

he appended the following note : " Dr. Charles Manners 
Sutton, Bishop of Norwich ; a prelate whose amiable demean- 
our, useful learning, and conciliating habits of life, particularly 
recommend his episcopal character. No man appears to me 
so peculiarly marked out for the HIGHEST DIGNITY of the 
Church, sede vacante, as Dr. Manners Sutton." 

This prophecy (as it may almost be termed) was fulfilled, 
eight years after, on the death of Archbishop Moore in 1805. 
His Majesty's conge d'elire having been issued, Dr. Sutton 
was duly elected on the 1 2th of February, and confirmed on 
the 21st, when he was also nominated a member of the King's 
Most Honourable Privy Council. It was probably an un- 


prececlented circumstance, that, having been ordained both 
deacon and priest by Archbishop Markham, he should for 
three years sit with him as a brother Archbishop. 

In the expensive and but ill-paid see of Norwich we 
believe that the liberality of Dr. Sutton's disposition, the 
claims of a numerous family, and perhaps the habits of high 
life, involved him in some embarrassments ; these must have 
been painful to one who knew that it was the duty of a Chris- 
tian, and much more of a Christian Bishop, " to owe no man 
any thing ; " and, on his subsequent promotion to Canterbury, 
he adopted, with a becoming energy of character, a system 
which enabled him to discharge all his incumbrances. We 
find it stated, in 1809, that his Grace had already greatly 
raised the revenues of the see, so that they were then said to 
be upwards of 20,000/. a year. At his accession to the see, 
they had been estimated at 12,000^. Two years after his 
translation, the Archbishop obtained an important acquisition 
by the sale of the old palace and estate of Croydon, under the 
sanction of a special Act of Parliament in 1807. By virtue of 
that authority, a purchase of Addington Park, in the county 
of Surrey, was made, in the autumn of the same year, of 
William Cole, Esq., who had bought it of the heirs of Alder- 
man Trecothick, for the sum of 25,000/. Here the Arch- 
bishop built an elegant mansion for his summer residence; 
and he also beautified the parish church, in which he caused 
a vault to be constructed for himself and his family. 

The palace of Lambeth, though much improved in the 
time of his predecessor, now underwent some internal alter- 
ations for the better, and particularly the library, which, by 
the admirable management of Mr. Todd, was put in a state of 
complete order. The books and manuscripts were classified 
anew : and considerable additions were made to the collection, 
by purchases at home and abroad. A catalogue of the manu- 
scripts was also printed in an elegant folio volume, at the 
expense of the Archbishop, for private circulation. 

Blessed with general good health, the Archbishop was 
scarcely ever absent when important occasions required his 


high official functions. lie performed the ceremony at the 
marriage of the Duke of Cumberland, in 1815, the Princess 
Charlotte of Wales, and the Duke and Duchess of Glouces- 
ter, in 1816; and the Princess Elizabeth, the Duke of Cam- 
bridge, and the Duke of Clarence, in 1818 ; and he placed the 
crown on the head of his present Majesty, in 1821. He was 
also constantly present at the royal funerals ; but, on those 
occasions, attended only in the character of a mourner. His 
fine dignified person at all times elicited admiration ; and it is 
remarkable, that the two Archbishops were, at the same time, 
the most exalted and the tallest prelates of the Church of 

Dr. Manners Sutton appeared little as an author. In two 
instances, publication was demanded by the general usage on 
similar occasions. Both these happened whilst he was Bishop 
of Norwich ; and produced " A Sermon preached before the 
Lords Spiritual and Temporal, at the Abbey Church of St. 
Peter, Westminster, on the Fast Day, 1794," 4-to. ; and " A 
Sermon before the Society for Propagating the Gospel iu 
Foreign Parts, 1797," 4to. In the latter year he contributed 
to the Linnean Transactions, " A Description of Five British 
Species of Orabanche." (Vol. iv. p. 173.) But, although his 
Grace never courted literary reputation, he was a good judge, 
and a liberal encourager, of talent and learning. His selection 
of domestic chaplains is a proof of this ; and the manner in 
which they were rewarded, reflected honour upon their patron. 
Instead of keeping an active and meritorious divine about his 
person for years, and then dismissing him, when old and infirm, 
to a living, the Archbishop took care to settle his chaplains 
while yet in the vigour of their faculties and capacity of use- 
fulness. One of these, Dr. Mant, is now an ornament of the 
Irish Church ; while Dr. Wordsworth, another of his Grace's 
chaplains, was advanced to the Deanery of Bocking, and the 
Mastership of Trinity College, Cambridge; and Dr. D'Oyly 
was presented to the valuable rectory of Lambeth. In addition 
to these instances of munificence, we may mention two great 
living prelates, who owe their rise in the Church entirely to 


the unsolicited patronage of the late illustrious Prelate. These 
are, Dr. Richard Lawrence, the profoundly-learned Arch- 
bishop of Cashel, in Ireland, and Dr. William Van Mildert, 
the exemplary Bishop of Durham. The former, on publish- 
ing his powerful Bampton Lectures, in which he vindicated 
the Anglican Church from the charge of Calvinism, was imme- 
diately presented, by his Grace of Canterbury, to the valuable 
Rectory of Mersham, in Kent. This preferment was followed 
soon after, through the same interest, by a nomination to the 
Regius Professorship of Divinity at Oxford ; from whence, in 
no long time after, he was transferred to the Archiepiscopal 
dignity. The advancement of the other eminent Prelate was 
somewhat similar in origin and circumstance. Dr. Van Mil- 
dert, while Rector of St. Mary-le-Bow, was appointed to 
preach the lecture founded by Mr. Boyle. On completing the 
course, he published the whole, with illustrations, in two vo- 
lumes, under the title of " A Historical View of the Rise and 
Progress of Infidelity ; " and dedicated the same to the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, who, as a testimony of his approbation, 
gave the author a valuable Rectory in the county of Surrey, 
afterwards recommended him as a proper person to succeed 
Dr. Howley in the Divinity Chair at Oxford, and next pro- 
cured his nomination to the Bishopric of Llandaff, with the 
Deanery of St. Paul's ; from whence, on the death of Bishop 
Barrington, he was translated to Durham. A long list of 
other names might be adduced in evidence of the late Arch- 
bishop's liberality and discernment ; but we must not omit to 
state, that to him the infant Church of India is indebted for 
the inestimable benefit derived from the spiritual administra- 
tion of the late zealous and accomplished Reginald Heber. 

His Grace did not hesitate to speak in the House of Lords, 
whenever ecclesiastical subjects formed an appropriate topic 
for the delivery of his opinion ; but he followed the laudable 
rule of abstaining from debate on ordinary questions of secu- 
lar policy. He was a steady and consistent opponent of the 
demands of the Roman Catholics. In the debate on the 13th 

of May 1805, on Lord Grenville's motion for a Committee on 




the Roman Catholic Petition, the Archbishop of Canterbury 
observed that, " before their Lordships consented to resolve 
themselves into a committee for the purpose of considering in 
what manner they could best carry into execution the prayer 
of the petition, it would surely be matter of prudence to en- 
quire whether the principle on which the petition rested was 
such as their Lordships could safely admit. If, in this en- 
quiry, it should appear, that under no possible modification 
could the principle and substance of the petition be conceded, 
without danger to the establishment in church and state, their 
Lordships would hardly be disposed to employ their time and 
talents in devising the best possible means for the downfal of 
both. What then was the history, and what the substance of 
the petition ? He could not help considering the petition as 
the consequence, and the natural consequence, of a long series 
of concessions obtained by the Roman Catholics of Ireland 
during the present reign : of which series, the subject matter 
of the petition, if granted, would assuredly riot constitute the 
ultimate term. He begged to be distinctly understood as in 
no degree calling into question the wisdom of those conces- 
sions. Many of them, in his judgment, were absolutely neces- 
sary, most of them extremely reasonable, and perhaps all of 
them in policy expedient. In adverting to them he wished 
only to discover the causes which had led to the petition in 
its present form. The Roman Catholics had obtained all that 
belonged to toleration ; and it was not to be wondered at that 
they should desire, at least, the acquisition of power. After 
the 18th of his Majesty, which removed from the Roman 
Catholics the restraints that affected the grant and acceptance 
of leases, and provided against the consequences of the con- 
rmity of the son with the established church, so far as those 
consequences concerned the estates of the Roman Catholic 
parent; blotting for ever from the Irish statute-book that cor- 
rupt and unhallowed mode of conversion : after the 22d of his 
Majesty, which enabled the Roman Catholic, on taking the 
oath of allegiance, to purchase and dispose of lands in like 
manner as his Majesty's Protestant subjects ; and, on the same 


terms, freed the ecclesiastic of that persuasion from the pains 
and penalties of former acts : after the statute of the same 
year, authorizing Roman Catholics to teach schools, and giving 
new facilities to the guardianship of Roman Catholic children : 
after the 32d of his Majesty, which removed disqualifications 
from lawyers and attorneys of that persuasion, sanctioned the 
intermarriages of Protestants with Roman Catholics, and re- 
pealed laws that prohibited foreign, and embarrassed domestic 
education : after the 33d of his Majesty, which was said to 
have left the Roman Catholic nothing to ask (and well might 
the assertion be credited) : after the 33d of his Majesty, which 
swept from the Irish statute-book almost all the disqualifica- 
tions of that description of his Majesty's subjects, modelled the 
oath of allegiance to the taste and scruples of the Roman 
Catholics, put down the oath of abjuration, the declaration, the 
sacramental test, and enabled the Roman Catholics to vote 
at elections, to hold commissions of the peace, to execute 
offices civil and military, and to enjoy all manner of places of 
trust and emolument, except such as related to the established 
church, and such as were expressly specified in the body of 
the act : after this long string of statutes, each of which, in its 
turn, was supposed to comprehend and redress all that was of 
grievance among them, followed, and, in his view of the ques- 
tion, naturally followed, the petition which was then on their 
Lordships' table. It was for their Lordships to determine, in their 
characters of statesmen, and legislators, to what extent these 
concessions could with safety be carried ; but it was idle to com- 
plain of the eagerness with which they were pursued. The 
substance of the petition was compressed, for their Lordships' 
use and convenience, into one short but pregnant sentence : 
6 an equal participation on equal terms of the full benefits of 
the British laws and constitution.' If he had been at liberty 
to understand the sentence according to the ordinary accept- 
ation of the words, he might have answered, that such partici- 
pation was already possessed ; but the framers of the petition, 
who were doubtless the best commentators on their own work, 
would not suffer him so to interpret them. Equal participa- 


tion, on equal terms, in their language signified, admission to 
places of power and trust, without giving that security for the 
due discharge of them, which was demanded and given, of their 
Lordships, and every other subject of the realm. The object of 
the petition, couched in very decent and moderate terms, was, 
nevertheless, of great size and importance. It was no less than 
a request on the part of the Roman Catholics to legislate for a 
Protestant country ; to dispense the laws, to command the 
armies and navies, and to take a share in the executive coun- 
cils of a Protestant kingdom : a request that struck at the 
principles of the Revolution, and by plain, broad, and inevit- 
able consequence, called into question the justice and policy 
of the act of settlement. Such, in his view of it, was the his- 
tory, and such the substance, of the petition on their Lordships' 
table. The noble Baron, who on a former night moved the 
question, and who never rose in that house without making a 
deep impression upon it (the effect of great talents, profound 
information, and singular perspicuity), had endeavoured to 
connect and implicate the substance of the petition with the 
general principles of toleration. He (the Archbishop) was as 
sincerely attached to the general principles of toleration as any 
of their Lordships. He considered it as the brightest orna- 
ment and fairest grace of that reformed church which was 
established in the kingdom : but he could not prevail upcn 
himself to confound toleration with equality, much less with 
power and eventual superiority. It was not a figure of rhe- 
toric, but a plain fact, resting on historical evidence, that 
toleration was a virtue that grew naturally out of a sense of 
security, and could not exist for a moment where danger was 
apprehended. If their Lordships should determine to destroy 
those fences which the wisdom and experience of their ancestors 
had, with so much deliberation and care, erected around the 
established church, they would do, unintentionally, without 
doubt, but in his judgment effectually, all that was in their 
power to excite and provoke that bad spirit of animosity and 
religious intolerance, that marked and disgraced the worst 
pages of their history, subsequent to the Reformation." 



When, on the first of July, 1812, Marquis Wellesley 
moved a resolution that the House of Lords " would, early 
in the next session of parliament, take into its most serious 
consideration the state of the laws affecting his Majesty's Ro- 
man Catholic subjects in Great Britain and Ireland, with a 
view to such a final and conciliatory adjustment as might be 
conducive to the peace and strength of the United Kingdom, 
to the stability of the Protestant establishment, and to the 
general satisfaction and concord of all classes of his Majesty's 
subjects," in the course of the discussion which ensued, the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, in reply to the Earl of Harrowby, 
said, " that the noble Earl had laid it down that those who 
were for either a general or a partial concession to the Ca- 
tholics, must, of necessity, vote for the present motion, and 
that only those who would shut the door upon the Catholics 
could oppose it. That, however, was not his case. If he 
thought that there were no means of consideration except that 
which was now suggested, he should say, in that awkward di- 
lemma, ' Let us adopt the motion ;' but when he reflected that, 
whether it was adopted or not, the subject must be discussed 
in the next session, he no longer saw the necessity of adopting 
it. If the motion were intended to give all that the Catholics 
demanded, then was it not only useless, but mischievous ; 
and, on the other hand, if no more were intended than was 
expressed, it still was useless ; for it pledged the legislature to 

On the motion by Earl Grey, on the tenth of June, 1819, 
for the second reading of the Roman Catholic relief bill, the 
Archbishop of Canterbury strongly opposed the measure. 
" By some persons he had been described as so surrounded 
with prejudices, and so influenced by interest, as to be capable 
of taking only a limited view of the subject. He might 
be liable to the charge of prejudice, but he could assure their 
Lordships that he had no interest in the question, except a 
common interest with all of them in the security of the Pro- 
testant government in church and state." " He sincerely be- 
lieved that the noble Earl who had introduced the bill was as 


firmly attached to the constitution as any man ; but he re- 
quested their Lordships to look at the character in which Ro- 
man Catholics sat in parliament, at the period to which the 
noble Earl had alluded. They sat there under the danger of 
a pr&munire. If we brought them back now, we should 
bring them back absolved from all those penalties. They 
would be brought back very different creatures from what 
they were in the reign of Charles II. This was a very peril- 
ous experiment, and he knew nothing equal to it, except in the 
reign of James II., when the government was administered by a 
Catholic King, assisted by a Protestant House of Lords and a 
Protestant House of Commons. It was now proposed, that a 
Protestant King should reign, and that the laws should be 
framed by a Roman Catholic House of Lords and a Roman 
Catholic House of Commons. In this dangerous age of expe- 
riments, when so many innovations had been made when, 
in a neighbouring country, morality, social order, and good 
government had been overthrown, and even Christianity itself 
annihilated ought this nation, in the pursuit of a political 
experiment, to throw away the blessings of a constitution which 
had saved us from so many perils ? He was aware that in- 
dividuals, and sometimes states, did not avail themselves of 
the advantages which belonged to experience ; but he hoped 
that their Lordships would not lose sight of the dangers we 
had passed, and that they would hesitate before they exposed 
their country to new and hazardous experiments." 

The Marquis of Lansdown having, on the tenth of June, 
] 828, moved as a resolution of the House of Lords, " that it 
was expedient to take into consideration the state of the laws 
affecting the Catholics of Ireland with a view to such con- 
ciliatory amendments as might be satisfactory to all parties," 

The Archbishop of Canterbury, in a low tone of voice (the 
effect of indisposition), opposed the motion. His Grace ob- 
served, " that if it were an easy matter to satisfy all parties, 
he would most readily concur in the noble Marquis's propo- 
sition. If so desirable an object could be attained, no man 
would evince more zeal and earnestness on the subject than 

L 2 


himself. But he might be allowed to hesitate, if he saw no 
prospect of success. Every fresh discussion on this question 
was attended with fresh impatience, and fresh disappointment. 
It was admitted, on all hands, that as the justice of the legis- 
lature would not withhold from the Catholics whatever they 
might be entitled to as a right, so neither would the wisdom 
of the legislature allow them to concede any thing that might 
be prejudicial to the constitution. In every state, upon the 
principle of self-defence, the government was justified in ex- 
cluding from offices of high power all those who might be 
hostile to the established system of polity ; and on that point, 
in his opinion, the whole question turned. He was persuaded 
that if it were intended to maintain the rank and integrity 
of this great empire, no farther concession ought to be made 
to the Roman Catholics." 

The claims of the Protestant Dissenters were, however, 
treated by his Grace in a different manner. On the motion, 
by Lord Sidmouth, for the second reading of the Protestant 
Dissenting Minister's bill, May 21. 1811, the Archbishop of 
Canterbury observed, that " with respect to the difference of 
opinion on religious subjects in the Christian church, the 
basis of the Christian religion was the Bible ; and he held 
those to be the most orthodox Christians who adhered the 
most strictly to the doctrines laid down in that sacred volume. 
To explain it was the duty of all mankind; and its interpretation 
was confined to no particular sect. To use coercion in com- 
pelling uniformity, was not only impolitic, but, while man was 
constituted as man, it would be impracticable. The very 
basis of toleration depended on abstaining from the attempt. 
That basis would never be infringed by the Church of Eng- 
land, if that Church endured in its existing form. Were it 
overturned, history afforded them many examples of the direc- 
tion which religious intolerance might take. As for the bill- 
before their Lordships, it appeared to him to embrace two very 
important considerations, of extreme interest to society and the 
religious establishments of the country ; namely, to unite and 
give uniformity to the acts already in existence, and to render 



the Dissenters more respectable, by precluding from their body 
those who were unworthy to belong to any class of religious 
instructors. Of both of those objects he approved, as they 
must be of the utmost utility to the community, and highly 
beneficial to the country ; but as the Dissenters, who at first 
approved of the bill, now, it appeared, disapproved of it, he 
considered it unwise and impolitic to press it against the in- 
clination or consent of those who, it must be allowed, were 
the best judges of what they deemed to be for their own 

Although he opposed the Dissenters' marriages bill, in the 
session of 1823, on the ground that, although no man had a 
greater regard for toleration than himself, yet that the pro- 
posed bill went beyond the point namely, that of giving 
relief to scruples of conscience to which it ought to go ; he 
supported the Unitarian Marriage Relief Bill of the next 
session ; and, on the 4th of May 1 824, in answer to some 
objections which had been made to the bill, observed, " that 
it was certainly true, that the Unitarians denied the doctrine 
of the Trinity ; but that he desired those who opposed the bill 
to consider well what it was for which they contended. Was 
it their wish to enforce a seeming acquiescence in doctrines 
against the consciences of men ? The consequence of main- 
taining such a practice must be, that ceremonies would be 
administered in one sense, and received in another. And 
what was that but a system of the grossest prevarication ?" 

This support his Grace followed up. The Marquis of 
Lansdovvn having, on the 3d of June, 1825, moved the 
second reading of the Unitarian Marriage Bill, the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury said, " he had voted for the bill of last 
session, and would give his support to the present, because 
its tendency was equally to relieve Unitarians and ministers 
of the Established Church. The scruples of the Unitarians 
he believed to be sincere ; but he was chiefly anxious to 
remove the difficulties in which ministers of the church were 
involved by Unitarian marriages. By this, or some other 
measure, he wished to do away with that unhallowed equivo- 

L 3 


cation which, sanctioned by law, now took place at the foot of 
the altar." 

In the same liberal spirit, when too feeble to attend the 
House of Lords, in the session of 1828, his Grace gave his 
vote by proxy, and expressed his sentiments, as far as in 
absence he could, through the medium of the Bishop of 
Chester, in favour of the Bill for repealing the Test and Cor- 
poration Acts. 

The zeal of the Archbishop for the purity of public morals, 
and more especially for the preservation of the sacred 
character of marriage, appeared on various occasions. His 
very first speech after his accession to the Archiepiscopal 
dignity was on Moor's Divorce Bill, in the year 1805, when 
he availed himself of the occasion, " to deprecate every thing 
that might give facility to divorces ; which, if carried beyond 
a certain extent, tended in fact to afford a direct encourage- 
ment to the practice of adultery itself." 

Again ; on the 2d of May, 1809, Lord Auckland moved 
as an order of their Lordships' House, " that no bill, grounded 
on a petition to that House to dissolve a marriage for the case 
of adultery, and to enable the petitioner to marry again, 
should be received by that House, unless a provision were 
inserted in such bill, that it should not be lawful for the 
person, whose marriage with the petitioner should be dis- 
solved, to intermarry with any offending party on account of 
whose adultery with such person it should be therein 
enacted, that such marriage should be so dissolved." The 
Archbishop of Canterbury supported the motion ; observing, 
" that though he was not so sanguine as to hope by this 
measure to extinguish this great crime ; yet, that he was 
happy to adopt any practical mode of preventing the facilities 
to the commission of adultery. It was, he lamented to say, 
very seldom that he could see their Lordships' table pure 
and clear from the pollution of divorce bills, now becoming 
daily more frequent. So common indeed were they, that, to 
use the words of an old author, they seemed to be considered 
as the proper fruits of marriage. There was, he feared, 


hardly a pedigree that was not stained and broken by this sad 
frequency of crime. It was impossible that such things could 
last long. Marriage was the basis of all our relations and 
duties in social life. It began with the creation, and it 
existed in the rudest elements of society. Its importance and 
sanctity were recognized by the universal consent of mankind. 
In this country, indeed, we did not exalt it into a sacrament ; 
but we justly regarded it as a sacred institution. It was 
both a civil contract, and a religious rite. The misery that 
the crime of adultery caused to families was of a most serious 
nature. There was one result of such criminality which it 
was the highest duty and soundest policy of any state to pre- 
vent; he meant the neglect of children, which was its natural 
consequence. He would not take upon himself to say how 
far, in ancient times, the barbarous practice of the exposure 
of children might have arisen from this offence; but he was 
sure that its frequency might be fairly considered as leading to 
the greatest indifference, and most shocking carelessness and 
neglect of offspring. The proposed measure he considered 
as an act of mercy. It went to take out of the mouth of the 
seducer his specious, delusive, and fatal arguments and 
temptations, to prevent him from recommending himself to 
the weak by saying that he meant nothing dishonourable, 
and by pointing out a future marriage as a source of future 
and augmented felicity ; the means by which female virtue 
was but too often and too successfully assailed." 

The resolution passed the House of Lords, but was lost in 
the Commons, as similar ones had formerly been. His 
Grace however retained, and subsequently repeated, his 
opinions on the subject. When, on the 1st of June, 1815, 
the Earl of Lauderdale moved the rejection in the Earl of 
Roseberry's Divorce Bill of the clause by which the offend- 
ing parties were prevented from contracting a legal marriage, 
the Archbishop expressed his strong sense of the necessity of 
the clause. " In his opinion, the interests of sound morals 
would have been better consulted if such a provision had been 
made general ; but at least it ought to be resorted to in par- 

L 4 


ticular cases ; and there could not be any case which called 
for it more imperiously than the present. If their Lordships 
rejected the clause, they would ruin the peace of families, 
destroy the best affections of the human heart, and poison the 
very sources of domestic security and happiness." 

At a subsequent period, in a committee on the Marriage-act 
Amendment Bill, June 19. 1822, on the clause being read for 
giving to parents and guardians a certain period after the mar- 
riages of minors, without consent, to institute suits for annulling 
such marriages, the Archbishop of Canterbury opposed the 
clause, and said, " that every means that could be devised by 
human ingenuity ought to be resorted to for the purpose of pre- 
venting improper marriages ; but that, when those marriages 
had been celebrated under the solemn sanction of religion, they 
ought to be indissoluble; nor could he conceive any thing 
more repugnant to religion or morality, than that persons 
should be placed in the situation of not knowing whether 
they were lawfully married or were living in a state of con- 
cubinage ; that a mother should be placed in the situation of 
not knowing whether her children were to be considered as 
ornaments, or a disgrace to her." The clause was thrown 
out of the bill. 

His Grace was always warmly alive to the character of the 
sacred profession of which he was the head. On one occasion 
(May 17. 1813), Lord Redesdale having attacked the lower 
orders of the clergy, complaining of their residence far from their 
parishes, in market-towns, for the sake of a game at cards, of 
their riding with indecent speed from church to church, and 
hurrying through the service with unbecoming levity, &c. ; and 
having attributed this imperfect performance of their sacred 
duties to the inattention of the dignitaries of the church, the 
Archbishop, with considerable energy, repelled this attack, and 
denied its general accuracy. " He insisted that residence 
was far more general than formerly, and that clergymen were 
more attentive to their functions, not merely in churches, 
but throughout their parishes. He reprobated very severely 
ttiese charges, which could produce no benefit, and only in- 


crease the enemies of the establishment, already too numerous. 
Since his appointment to his see, he had never met with a 
more painful circumstance than the unjust attack which had 
been thai night made." On the 28th of June, 1816, he also 
defended the Church of England from a supposed imputation 
on the part of Lord Holland, that the diffusion of religious 
instruction among the black population of the West India 
Islands had been neglected by the Church of England, or at 
least, that the Church of England had not done every thing 
in furtherance of that object which the public had a right to 
expect from it. 

From the even current of the Archbishop's life, much 
variety of incident is not to be expected in his personal his- 
tory. He was an ardent supporter of the national schools for 
the education of the children of the poor ; and he of course 
took an active part in the important measure recently adopted 
of erecting additional churches and chapels throughout the 
kingdom. The Society for promoting Christian Knowledge, 
and that for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, 
may be almost said to have assumed a new and more efficient 
constitution under his Grace's administration, who, as long 
as he was able, regularly attended their meetings. The last ap- 
pearance of this amiable prelate in public was on a remarkable 
occasion, and one whicji will, no doubt, be productive of very 
important consequences. The projected establishment of a 
collegiate institution, denominated the London University, for 
the purpose of an extensive system of education in every 
branch of knowledge, had, for reasons on the discussion of 
which it would be improper here to enter, created considerable 
alarm, not only among the clergy of the Established Church, 
but among the friends of religion generally. It was therefore 
deemed expedient to counteract its alleged tendency, by 
founding a college on different principles. His Grace the 
Archbishop of Canterbury had, so long back as in the year 
1807, declared in his place in the House of Lords his une- 
quivocal opinion, that the education of the people generally 
should be under the direction of the ministers of the Esta- 


blishment. When it was proposed, on the llth of August in 
that year, to read the Parochial Schools Bill a second time, 
his Grace expressed his hope that he should not be con- 
sidered as hostile to the principle of diffusing instruction 
among the poor, although he should oppose the further pro- 
gress of the measure. One of his principal objections to the 
bill was, that its provisions left little or no control to the 
minister in his parish. " This," his Grace observed, " would 
go to subvert the first principles of education in this country, 
v/hich had hitherto been, and he trusted would continue to 
be, under the control and auspices of the Establishment; 
r.nd their Lordships would feel how dangerous it might be to 
innovate in such matters. Their Lordships' prudence would, 
no doubt, guard against innovations that might shake the 
foundation of our religion, and it would be a chief object of 
their vigilance and care 6 ut castd maneant in religione ne- 
potes.'" It was natural, therefore, that the Archbishop should 
be one of the most prominent individuals in an assembly 
consisting of personages of the first rank in church and state, 
the Duke of Wellington in the chair, convened at the Free- 
masons' Tavern, on the 21st of June, 1828, for the purpose 
of establishing the new institution. After the resolutions for 
that purpose had been passed, and after it had been stated 
that his Majesty had been graciously pleased to signify his 
approbation of the design, and, as the patron, wished to have 
the intended building called the "King's College of London," 
the Archbishop of Canterbury moved, that the cordial thanks 
of the meeting should be given to his Grace the Duke of 
Wellington, for the great kindness and condescension which 
lie had evinced in taking the chair, and for the able manner 
in which he had conducted the business ; and added, " Under 
the patronage of his Majesty, and with the entire concurrence 
and sanction of his Majesty's government, we may look for the 
success of this undertaking with great hope, if not with full con- 
fidence. But the magnitude and importance of the object itself 
would carry it through to a great extent; as it is to instruct the 
youth of the metropolis in that religious knowledge, which is 


the basis of all that is good." The venerable Prelate then 
headed the subscription with a donation of one thousand pounds; 
and his example was quickly followed by others. Although 
the Primate appeared cheerful on this occasion, it was obvious 
to all who contemplated his pallid countenance and debilitated 
frame, that his dissolution could not be at any very great 
distance. Still little apprehension was felt, by those imme- 
diately around his person, because his Grace, from the firm- 
ness of his mind and unwillingness to create uneasiness, for- 
bore complaining even when suffering much from internal 
pain. At length the spasmodic attacks, to which he was sub- 
ject, became rapidly successive, and on the 21st of July, 1828, 
he calmly breathed his last in the arms of his son, the Right 
Hon. Charles Manners Sutton, Speaker of the House of 

On the announcement of his Grace's decease, the inha- 
bitants of London were struck by the gloomy sound of the 
great bell of St. Paul's Cathedral, which is tolled only on 
ilie decease of one of the Royal Family, the Bishop of London, 
the Dean of St. Paul's, the Lord Mayor, or the Primate of 
all England. The Archbishop's funeral took place on Tues- 
day, the 29th of July ; his body being interred in a family 
vault which had been formed under Addington church not 
six months previously. The ceremony was, by desire of the 
deceased, conducted with as little display as possible. The 
train issued from Lambeth Palace about twenty minutes after 
seven. After the usual number of porters and mutes em- 
ployed in private funerals, came the hearse, on the draperies 
of which were embroidered the arms of Sutton, and the see 
of Canterbury ; then two mourning coaches, drawn by six 
horses each, in which were the Rev. Dr. D'Oyly, the Rev. 
John Lonsdale, the Rev. Mr. Vaux, Charles Hodgson, Esq., 
Mr. Cocking Lane, and some other members of the late Arch- 
bishop's household; then followed his private carriage; and 
then eight carriages belonging to his relatives and friends; 
amongst them those of the Duke and Duchess of Rutland, of 
Lord Manners, and of the Speaker of the House of Com- 


mons. In this manner the procession moved on to the turn- 
pike at Kennington-common. At the turnpike the private 
carriages left the procession, which then proceeded at a slow 
pace through Brixton, Streatham, and Croydon, to Adding- 
ton. The bells of the churches and chapels in these parishes 
tolled minute-bells as it passed through their limits. It reached 
Addington church at a few minutes before 11 o'clock. In 
the front of the church, the children of the female charity 
school of the parish were drawn up with mourning scarfs 
around their necks; several of the peasantry had also similar 
scarfs in their hats. A few minutes were occupied in remov- 
ing the body from the hearse, and at 1 1 o'clock, the members 
of his Grace's family having previously marshalled themselves 
in the churchyard, the Rev. John Lonsdale read the com- 
mencement of the burial service, and preceded the corpse 
into the church. It was followed by the Speaker of the 
House of Commons, and by the late Lord Chancellor of 
Ireland, both of whom appeared to be deeply affected, by 
the Bishop of Carlisle, the Archdeacon of Canterbury (the 
two sons-in-law of the Archbishop), by Dr. D'Oyly his ex- 
amining chaplain, and three or four other clergymen. 

Dr. Manners Sutton was a man of mild but imposing pre- 
sence, mingling the humility of the religion of which he was 
the eloquent teacher, with the dignity of high birth and lofty 
station. His voice was full and tuneable, his elocution was 
distinct and unaffected, his arguments were well weighed, 
his words well chosen, his manner was grave and simple, his 
learning accurate, his knowledge comprehensive, and his 
judgment sound. He spoke fluently and impressively on 
most subjects, even on those which might have appeared most 
averse from his general course of study. He was of the most 
humane disposition, very extensive in his charities, very dili- 
gent in the discharge of the duties of his high dignity, and 
altogether exemplary in the relations of life, as husband, 
father, brother, and friend. To his clergy he was of easy 
access, willing to attend to their business and requests ; and 
never relinquishing in his behaviour towards them that gen- 


tlemanly demeanour which they so generally merit, and which 
so well became himself. In saying that his Grace passed 
through life with the character of a most accomplished gentle- 
man, let it be understood that he was a Christian gentle- 
man. Such was Nelson, the excellent author of the " Fasts 
and Festivals," in whom it was remarkable that the most un- 
sullied purity of morals, and the most devout piety, from 
which his morals sprang, were adorned by the most polished 
manners. The late Archbishop, however, had not the learn- 
ing or talents of the eminent person whose name has beea 
introduced ; but his Grace was deficient in neither ; and to his 
natural powers of mind, and attainments by study, he added 
dignity of manner, and affability of address. His expenses 
were splendid and liberal ; but his personal habits temperate 
and abstemious. 

For a considerable period of the time during which his 
Grace was at the head of the Church of England, his brother 
was Chancellor of Ireland, and his son Speaker of the House 
of Commons of the United Kingdom ; an extraordinary in- 
stance of such high dignities having centred in so near 

The Archbishop married, April 3. 1778, his kinswoman 
Mary, daughter of Thomas Thoroton, of Scriveton, in Not- 
tinghamshire, Esq. (of the same house as Dr. Thoroton, the 
old historian of that county, who died in 1678). By that lady, 
who survives him, he had a family equally numerous with his 
father's. They consisted of three sons and ten daughters : 
1. Mary, married in 1806 to the Hon. Hugh Percy, now 
Bishop of Carlisle ; 2. The Right Honourable Charles, 
Speaker of the House of Commons, who married in 1816, 
Charlotte, daughter of John Dennison, Esq. and has two sons 
and one daughter; S.Diana; 4. Francis, a Colonel in the 
army, who married in 1814, Mary, eldest daughter of Laver 
Oliver, Esq., but died without surviving issue in 1825; 
5. Louisa; 6. Charlotte, married in 1812 to the Rev. James 
Croft, now Archdeacon of Canterbury, and died in 1825; 


7. Frances; 8. Anna-Maria; 9. Isabella; 10. Catherine; 
11. Rachel, who died in 1805; and 12. Caroline. 

His Grace's will was proved in Doctors' Commons by his 
son, the Speaker of the House of Commons, who is the execu- 
tor. The personal property is taken at 180,000/. His Grace 
leaves the interest of 50,000/. three per cent, consolidated 
annuities to his wife, and at her death the principal to his son, 
the Right Hon. Charles Manners Sutton. He gives 3000L 
to the Hon. Hugh Percy, Bishop of Carlisle, who married 
one of his daughters ; and 3000/. to the Rev. James Croft, 
Archdeacon of Canterbury, who married another daughter. 
After leaving various other legacies, he orders all his estates 
and effects to be sold, and the residue to be divided among his 
children. At the Archbishop's death he left behind him 
seven daughters unmarried, who are amply provided for. By 
a codicil his Grace leaves all his options, which common 
report has said are worth 5 or 6000/. a year, to his successor 
the present Archbishop. The will is written on twelve sheets 
of paper, and a long codicil on one other sheet ; the whole in 
the handwriting of the Archbishop. The value of the nomi- 
nation to the Registry of the Prerogative Court, secured to 
his Grace by an Act of Parliament passed only a few days 
before his death, is supposed to be worth upwards of 100,000^. 
to the family, in addition to the great wealth the Archbishop 
left behind him. 

The materials for this Memoir have been derived from 
various periodical and other works, from the Parliamentary 
Debates, &c. 


No. XI. 


1 HIS gallant Officer, the second son of the late Cradock 
Nowell, of Tee-Maur, Nottage, Glamorganshire, Esq., and 
nephew of the late Rev. Dr. Nowell, thirty-seven years Prin- 
cipal of St. Mary's Hall, Oxford, entered the naval service in 
1769, on board the St. Antonio, of 60 guns, commanded by 
Captain Clark Gay ton ; and continued to serve in different 
ships until 1776, when he was promoted by his patron (at that 
time Commander-in-Chief at Jamaica *) to the rank of Lieu- 
tenant, and appointed to the Badger sloop, the boats of which 
vessel he commanded at the capture of fifteen sail of French 
merchantmen, laden with warlike stores, near Hispaniola, and 
two American brigs from under the guns of the fort at the 
entrance of Cape Francois. 

The Badger returned to England in April, 1777, and 
Lieutenant Nowell soon after exchanged into the Resolution, 
of 74 guns, commanded by Sir Chaloner Ogle, and at that 
time stationed on the coasts of Spain and Portugal, for the 
purpose of intercepting vessels belonging to the revolted colo- 
nies. She was subsequently attached to the Channel fleet, 

* Captain Gayton became a Rear- Admiral October 18. 1770; was made a 
Vice- Admiral February 3. 1776; and immediately afterwards appointed to the 
chief command at Jamaica. Returning from thence in the Antelope, he fell in 
with a large ship, which was at first mistaken for an enemy, and preparations 
made to receive her accordingly, though of force infinitely superior to the Ante- 
lope. The Vice- Admiral, though so extremely infirm as to be almost unable to 
walk, came upon the quarter-deck, and after concisely exhorting his crew to 
behave like Englishmen, told them, that for his part, " he could not stand by 
them, but he would sit and see them fight as long as they pleased." This gallant 
officer died at Fareham, in 1787. 


under the Admirals Keppel, Hardy, Darby, Digby, and 
Kempenfelt, until the latter end of 1779, when she accompa- 
nied Sir George B. Rodney to the relief of Gibraltar ; and was 
consequently present at the capture of the Caracca convoy, 
and the discomfiture of Don Juan de Langara, Jan. 8. and 
16. 1780. On the former occasion, the St. Firmin, of 16 
guns, and six sail of transports, were taken possession of by 
Lieutenant Nowell. 

In the action with the Spanish squadron, the Resolution got 
alongside of the Princessa, a 70-gun ship, and in 40 minutes 
compelled her to surrender.* The sea at this time ran so 
high, that Lieutenant Nowell, who had been ordered by Sir 
Chaloner Ogle to take charge of the prize, was knocked down 
several times by the cut rigging, before he could get on board ; 
and the weather continued so tempestuous as to prevent the 
possibility of removing the prisoners for three days. The 
situation he found the Princessa in was perilous in the ex- 
treme, owing to the injudicious disposal of the powder. Op- 
posite the guns on the upper decks were open racks, capable 
of containing from twelve to fourteen cartridges each ; these 
he immediately directed to be cleared, and their contents 
thrown ihto the sea. On descending to the lower deck, he 
observed a train of loose powder, and followed it to the gun- 
room, where a large hatch, that communicated with the maga- 
zine, was off; and, on entering the latter, the impression of 
the men employed in filling cartridges during the action ap- 
peared on the surface, the whole being stowed in bulk. The 
circumstance of the Princessa having escaped the fate of the 
St. Domingo can only be attributed to the after-guns not 
being fired : as it was, repeated explosions on board her were 
observed from the Resolution ; and of near 200 men whom 
Lieutenant Nowell found killed, wounded, and blown up, 
the greater part appeared to be of the latter description. 

It was three weeks after the action, before Lieutenant 
Nowell was enabled to anchor at Gibraltar, where, in the pre- 

* The Princessa had previously received the fire of the Bedford and Cumber- 
land 74s, as they passed her. 


sence of Sir Chaloner Ogle and Lord Robert Manners, he 
received the thanks of Commodore Don Manuel de Leon, his 
Captain, St. Felix, and the officers of the Princessa, for the 
particular care he had taken to prevent their property being 
pillaged ; and an invitation from the Commodore, a Grandee of 
Spain, to visit him on the restoration of peace, for the purpose 
of being introduced to his Monarch. 

The Resolution, to which ship Lord Robert Manners had 
been appointed on Sir Chaloner Ogle hoisting a broad pen- 
dant, formed part of the squadron sent to England with the 
prizes, under the orders of Rear- Admiral Digby ; and on the 
passage home captured the Prothee, of 64- guns and 700 men, 
after a close action of 27 minutes, in which the enemy had 97 
men killed and wounded. 

Soon after this occurrence, Lieutenant Nowell distinguished 
himself by his spirited conduct in quelling a mutiny which had 
taken place in the Resolution, the particulars of which are as 
follows: On ordering the capstern to be manned for the 
purpose of unmooring, the crew came up one hatchway and 
went down another, at the same time lowering the ports. This 
was the first hint the officers received of its existence. On 
enquiry, Lieutenant Nowell learnt that the ringleader was one 
of the carpenter's crew, and he immediately volunteered to go 
below and secure him. Accompanied by another officer, 
Lieutenant Shordich, he went down the after-hatchway, and 
made the men haul up the lower deck ports as he advanced 
forward to the birth abreast of the main-mast, where this ras- 
cal was haranguing and cheering the men collected about him. 
Lieutenant Nowell placed a blow under his throat, that 
knocked him backwards over a chest, then seized him, and 
declared he would run any man or men through who should 
attempt his rescue. A compromise now took place, on the 
ship's company promising obedience if their leader was re- 
leased ; but the next day they acted in a similar manner ; and 
it was not until the officers and marines were drawn up under 
arms, and about to attack them, that they proceeded to get the 
ship under weigh, even then declaring they would surrender 

VOL. XIIT. iw 


to the first French man-of-war they were laid alongside of. 
To this threat Lord Robert Manners replied, ' I will take care 
you shall be placed close enough.' Their only plea for these 
acts of insubordination appears to have been, that a draught of 
men lately received on board, one of which was the carpenter 
already alluded to, had not received their advance. No doubt, 
they had been tutored to this before they joined the Resolu- 
tion, as they declared they had no complaint to make against 
any officer in the ship. This batch of villains was sent into 
the Port-Admiral's ship at Plymouth, and nothing mutinous 
took place afterwards. 

The Resolution afterwards accompanied Rear- Admiral 
Graves to the North American station, and from thence pro- 
ceeded with Sir George B. Rodney to the West Indies. 

Early in 1781, Sir George received intelligence of hostilities 
having taken place between Great Britain and Holland, and 
immediately proceeded to attack the Dutch settlements in that 
quarter. On his arrival off' the Bay of St. Eustatia, he made 
the Resolution's signal to anchor within musket-shot of a 
large frigate * lying there, and oblige her to surrender. Lord 
Robert Manners, supposing that Count Byland, who com- 
manded her, knew nothing of the war, sent Lieutenant Nowell 
on board to inform him. The Count appeared greatly sur- 
prised at the information, and at first considered it as a jest ; 
but being undeceived, he said that it was the second time he 
had been placed in a like situation, and that he was determined 
to fight his ship as long as she would swim. Lieutenant 
Nowell, however, assured him that resistance would not avail, 
and remarked that the Count would be blamed for the useless 
sacrifice of lives that must ensue. Being at length convinced 
of his error, he intimated that he would not strike until he 
had discharged his guns ; whereupon our officer desired per- 
mission to see that they were pointed clear of the British ships, 
and their coins and beds taken out, saying that in such case 
he would communicate the Count's wishes to Lord Robert 

* The Mars, of 38 guns, and 300 men. 


Manners, and, if approved of, the Resolution would fire a 
gun clear of him, when he might discharge his broadsides. 
To this the Dutch commander assented; and on Lieutenant 
Noweli's return to the Resolution, he was desired to proceed 
with the affair according to his own arrangement ; which had 
no sooner been carried into effect, than two other line-of-battle 
ships, the Gibraltar and Prince William, opened their fire on 
the Dutch frigate, whose crew very prudently went below, and 
thereby avoided the slaughter which such a precipitate act 
would otherwise have occasioned. The ship, however, sus- 
tained so much damage thereby, that it took Lieutenant Nowell 
many days, with the carpenters and best seamen from the 
Resolution, to set her to rights. 

After the surrender of the Dutch colonies of St. Eustatia, 
St. Martin's, &c., our officer was appointed to the Swallow 
sloop, in which vessel he returned to England, for the pur- 
pose of joining Sir Chaloner Ogle ; but on his arrival, in the 
summer of 1781, finding that that officer was not likely soon 
to hoist his flag, he obtained an appointment as first Lieu- 
tenant of the Hercules, 74, in which ship he again visited the 
West Indies, and had the good fortune to contribute very 
materially towards the defeat of Count de Grasse in the battles 
of April 9. and 12. 1782. 

The Hercules, on the latter day, ranged the whole of the 
enemy's line from van to rear, and was the fifth vessel ahead 
of Sir George Rodney's flag- ship, the Formidable, when en- 
gaging the French Admiral. Lieutenant Nowell, whose station 
was on the quarter deck, received his gallant Captain's orders 
to reserve a full broadside for the Ville de Paris, and not to 
fire until fairly alongside of her. These orders were so punc- 
tually obeyed, that half a minute did not elapse between the 
firing of the first and last gun. The two ships were at this 
time not more than fifty yards apart: fortunately, the Her- 
cules received but a few shot in return from her mighty adver- 
sary. When alongside the French Admiral's second astern, 
Captain Savage received a severe wound, which obliged him 
to quit the deck; but before he was carried below, he re- 

M 2 


quested his first Lieutenant to keep the ship close to the 
enemy, and on no account to strike the colours ; to which 
Mr. Nowell replied, that two ensigns were flying, one at the 
staff, another at the mizen-peak ; the former nailed, and the 
halliards of the latter so belayed that it could not be hauled 

From this period the Hercules was most ably manreuvred 
by Lieutenant Nowell, whose gallant conduct excited general 
admiration. Her loss amounted to 7 men killed, and 19 
wounded ; and the damage she sustained in her masts, sails, 
and rigging, was greater than that of any other ship in the 
British fleet, the Duke alone excepted. It was on this occa- 
sion that our officer introduced the mode of loading with two 
round shot next to the cartridge, and only one wad outside, 
the advantages of which are very apparent. The outer shot, 
by this means, will go to a greater distance than the inner shot 
when two wads are made use of; and the gun can be loaded 
with a single motion after sponging. To prevent accident, 
the shot were besmeared with the blacking supplied for the 
rigging ; and although the officers of the next ship astern of 
the Hercules affirmed that her sides were in a constant blaze 
during the action, not a single instance occurred of the powder 
being ignited when in the act of loading. * 

The high opinion entertained of Lieutenant NowelFs con- 
duct in the above action may be inferred from the circum- 
stance of his gallant commander declining to go to sick-quar- 
ters until assured by Sir George B. Rodney that no other 
person should be appointed to act for him during his absence. 

Whilst at Jamaica refitting, the Hercules narrowly escaped 
destruction; and the impending evil appears to have been 
averted solely through the exertions of the subject of this me- 
moir. Perceiving a large navy store-ship, which lay between 
the Hercules and the dock-yard, to be on fire, he sent a mid- 

* The celerity with which the Hercules' guns were loaded was also greatly 
increased by the use of pike-staves fitted as rammers and sponges, in lieu of the 
unwieldy ones furnished by government. The credit of this invention is due to 
Admiral Savage. 


shipman on board her with orders to cut away her anchors, 
that she might be retained in her situation until scuttled ; but 
some other officers who had arrived to her assistance thought 
proper to cut her adrift and tow her towards Port- Royal, the 
inhabitants of which place cast off her shore-fast ; when, with 
her sails loose and all in flames, she ran aboard the Hercules, 
giving her the stem at the main-chains. Lieutenant Nowell 
had previously caused water to be thrown upon his rigging 
from the engine, and buckets in the tops, and stationed men 
with spars ready to bear her off. Fortunately, the force with 
which she struck the Hercules caused her to rebound, and her 
sternway being increased by the assistance of the spars, she 
drifted astern, and, crossing the hawse of the Namur, went 
on shore between Fort Augusta and Salt Pan Bay. * Had not 
Lieutenant Nowell changed the position of the Hercules in the 
first instance, by heaving her ahead to her anchor, the burn- 
ing vessel must have fallen athwart her bows ; and, from the 
crowded state of the harbour, the destruction of that ship 
would have been attended by that of many others, particularly 
of the Duke and Ville de Paris, which were lying close to her.f 
The Hercules continued on the West India station until the 
peace of 1783, when she returned to England, and was put 
out of commission. On his arrival in town, Lieutenant Nowell 
was introduced by Captain Savage to Lord Rodney, who 
received him very favourably, and spoke highly of his con- 
duct, but lamented his inability to obtain him that promotion 
to which he had established so strong a claim. J From this 

* Now called Port Anderson. 

{ The event alluded to above occurred during the night, which may account 
for a number of men belonging to the Hercules, principally waisters, many of 
whom had behaved uncommonly well in the late battle, jumping overboard whilst 
their shipmates were booming off the cause of their alarm. 

| Soon after the battle of the 12th April, 1782, Mr. Nowell was given to 
understand that Captain Savage was to have the command of Sir George Rod- 
ney's flag-ship, the Formidable, and himself to be appointed first lieutenant, all 
her former officers of that rank having been promoted. This pleasing prospect 
was destroyed by the arrival of Admiral Pigot from England to assume the chief 
command of the fleet. At their interview in London, Lord Rodney reminded 

M 3 


period he remained on half-pay until January, 1787, when, 
at the particular request of Captain (the late Sir Charles) 
Thompson, he was appointed to the Edgar, of 74- guns, in 
which ship the Hon. Leveson Gower afterwards hoisted his 
broad pendant as Commodore of a squadron of evolution. 

Our officer's next appointment was, in 1 790, to the Queen 
Charlotte, a first rate, bearing the flag of Earl Howe, by whom 
he was at length promoted to the rank of Commander in the 
Incendiary ; and from that vessel removed into the Woolwich, 
a 44-gun ship, armed en flute. In the following year he ob- 
tained the command of the Ferret sloop; and after cruizing 
for some time in the Channel, was sent to the Jamaica sta- 
tion, where he appears to have been principally employed in 
convoying vessels laden with provisions, sent by the mer- 
chants of Kingston for the relief of the distressed white inha- 
bitants of St. Domingo. 

It will be remembered by many of our readers, that at this 
period (1792) a civil war was carried on in the French part 
of that fine island, occasioned by the attempts made to deprive 
the people of colour of their landed and other property, which, 
agreeably to the then existing laws, they were entitled to pos- 
sess to an unlimited amount. Whenever any prisoners of 
this description were taken, they were broken on a wheel, de- 
capitated, and sawed in two, and their heads stuck on poles. 
On one occasion, Captain Novvell, being on his way through 
the square to the Assembly of Aux Caves, witnessed some fero- 
cious wretches roasting a Mulatto Chief, a man of excellent 
character, the proprietor of above half the town, and supposed 
to be worth a million sterling. The blacks on their part were 
by no means deficient in cruelty. Captain Nowell, on his re- 
turn from Aux Cayes, anchored off 1'Isle de Vache, for the pur- 
pose of obtaining a supply of wood, water, and fruit. The 
inhabitants of the former place had previously bribed the 

Lieutenant Nowell of what his intentions had been towards him ; adding, "you 
shortly afterwards would have been promoted : I am now in the opposition, and 
have no interest whatever ; I cannot get my own son a ship." 


soldiers, and detached them from their officers. A Colonel, 
the commander of the troops, in endeavouring to escape, was 
driven into a cane patch, and there burnt to death. The chief 
officer of engineers was also overtaken in his flight; but his 
life was granted him on condition that he would undertake to 
fortify the town. He had nearly finished the works, and knew 
that his death would follow their completion ; availing him- 
self, therefore, of so favourable an opportunity as the presence 
of the Ferret afforded him, he came off with his faithful black 
servant in a canoe, and implored Captain Nowell to save him: 
his joy on being assured that he would be protected, and re- 
stored to his friends at Cape Francois, cannot be described ; 
it drew tears from most of the spectators. The blacks at this 
time had possession of Fort Louis on the other extremity of 
the bay, where they kept 80 young French ladies in a state of 
concubinage : in fact, the atrocities committed by all parties, 
but particularly the French, almost exceed credibility. Our 
limits will allow us to add only one other instance to those 
already related : About 500 blacks had been embarked at 
Cape Nichola Mole, for the purpose of being landed on the 
Spanish Main. The wretch to whose care they were confided, 
and who held the rank of a Lieutenant in the French marine, 
fell in with some sandy keys at a distance from the coast, 
landed them with only one day's provisions, and left them 
there to starve. Some days after, they were discovered by a 
party of Englishmen employed in turning turtle, who imme- 
diately returned to Honduras with the information. The 
humane inhabitants, although poor, sent two brigs amply 
victualled to their relief, and forwarded those left alive, num- 
bering about 300, to Port Royal, from whence they were 
sent to Cape Fran9ois by Admiral Affleck and Governor 
Williamson, who received many compliments and thanks 
from the French authorities for their humanity ; but no 
sooner had the English vessels departed, than the poor crea- 
tures were placed in a large unoccupied storehouse, and 
every one of them was sabred in cold blood. 

M 4- 


It happened about this time that Captain Russell, of the 
Diana frigate, was on the Jamaica station, and that he was 
sent, by Admiral Affleck, to convoy a cargo of provisions, as 
an act of perfect charity, from the Government and principal 
inhabitants of Jamaica, to the white people of St. Domingo, 
who were then severely suffering from the depredations of the 
people of colour. They received him, of course, with joy 
and gratitude; as a token of which, he was invited to a public 
dinner, which was given on shore by the Colonial Assembly 
at Aux Cayes. At this repast, Captain Russell represented to 
the Assembly, that there was a Lieutenant Perkins, of the 
British Navy, cruelly confined at Jeremie, on the other side of 
the island, under the pretext of having supplied the blacks 
with arms ; but, in fact, through malice, for his activity 
against the trade of that part of St. Domingo, in the Ame- 
rican war. Captain Russell stated, that, before he had ven- 
tured to plead his cause, he had satisfied himself of his abso- 
lute innocence ; that he had undergone nothing like a legal 
process, a thing impossible, from the suspension of their 
ordinary courts of justice, owing to the divided and distracted 
state of the colony ; and yet, horrible to relate, he lay under 
sentence of death ! " Grant him," exclaimed Captain Rus- 
sell, " grant me his life ! Do not suffer these people to be 
guilty of the murder of an innocent man, by which they 
would drag British vengeance upon the whole i;land ! 

So forcible was this appeal, that the Assembly, in the most 
hearty and unequivocal manner, promised that an order 
should be instantly transmitted, for him to be delivered up 
immediately. On the following day, Captain Russell sent an 
officer to receive the order for Lieutenant Perkins's pardon 
and delivery. In a short time he returned, reporting that 
much prevarication had been used, and that he had not ob- 
tained the order. The day after, the same gentleman was 
sent again, and returned with a downright refusal from the 
Assembly ; "for, as it was a promise made after dinner, they 
did not think it binding" 


Almost at the moment of the officer's return, Captain 
Nowell, in the Ferret sloop, hove in sight. He had been at 
Jerernie, with despatches containing the requests of Lord 
Effingham and Admiral Affleck, that Lieutenant Perkins 
might be delivered up ; which the Council of Commons 
there absolutely refused ; adding, that the imperious voice 
of the law called for his execution. No sooner was Captain 
Russell apprised of this state of the business, than he declared 
that he would sacrifice as many Frenchmen as there were 
hairs on Perkins's head, if they murdered him. His deter- 
mination was soon known amongst the Diana's crew ; the 
anchor was up, sail crowded, and, the wind favouring them 
in an uncommon manner, the frigate and sloop appeared off 
Jeremie in a portion of time astonishingly short. Both of the 
vessels hove-to close to the harbour, and prepared for battle ; 
every soul on board of them panting for vengeance, should 
Perkins be murdered. The Ferret actually entered the bay ; 
and, in consequence of the north wind setting in towards the 
evening, had some difficulty in working out again to join the 

Captain Nowell was sent on shore, with the following 
letter, to demand Lieutenant Perkins instantly ; and with 
verbal instructions for his conduct, should they hesitate : 

" H. B. M.'s Ship the Diana, off* Jeremie, Feb. 24. 1792. 

" Sir, I applied to the Provincial Assembly at Aux Cayes 
for the liberation of Lieutenant John Perkins, of His Britannic 
Majesty's Royal Navy; and my application was immediately 
and of course complied with. M. Billard, the President, pro- 
mised me an order to your Assembly, to deliver him up to 
me. That order had not arrived at PIsle de Vache, where I 
lay, before I sailed, which must be no impediment to your 
sending him off to me in safety immediately. 

" If, however, it should unfortunately be otherwise, let it 
be remembered, that I do hereby, in the most formal and 


solemn manner, DEMAND him. Captain Nowell knows my 
resolution, in case of the least hesitation. 

(Signed) T. M. RUSSELL. 

" To M. Plicque, President of the 
Council, at Jeremie.'' 

Captain Nowell, on landing, was surrounded by at least 
three hundred villains, armed with sabres, and, together with 
Lieutenant Godby, who accompanied him, had occasion to 
keep his hand on his sword during the whole of the confer- 
ence which took place. The President read the letter, and 
said " Sir, suppose I do not ?" " In that case," replied 
the British officer, " you draw down a destruction which you 
are little aware of. I know Captain Russell ; I know his re- 
solution ; beware, if you value your town, and the lives of 
thousands : he has given me sixty minutes to decide : you see, 
sir, that thirty of them are elapsed." The mob now grew 
outrageous. " You shall have him," exclaimed one of them, 
" but it shall be in quarters /" Captain Nowell instantly drew 
his sword ; and, sternly looking at the President, said " Sir ! 
order that fellow out of my sight, or he dies !" The President 
did so ; and, after a few more threats from Captain Nowell, that 
he would return without him, Lieutenant Perkins was given up. 

The Ferret returned to England towards the latter end of 
1792 ; and, on the commencement of the war with the French 
Republic, was placed under the orders of Rear-Admiral 
M'Bride, on the Downs station, where she captured six of the 
enemy's privateers. For this service Captain Nowell was 
presented with a handsome piece of plate by the merchants of 

We next find him serving with the Channel fleet under 
Earl Howe ; but being sent to the North Sea previous to the 
great battle of June 1. 1794, he unfortunately missed that 
promotion to which, as the senior Commander, he would 
otherwise have been entitled. His disappointment on that 
occasion, however, was in some measure compensated by his 


success in intercepting several vessels laden with upwards of 
300,000 quarters of wheat, coming from the Baltic, Hol- 
land, &c., bound to France. In the autumn of the same year 
he was sent, at the request of Earl Howe, to attend upon their 
late Majesties at Weymouth ; and from thence ordered to 
Ostend ; where he met with a serious accident, which com- 
pelled him to retire for a time from active service. During a 
gale of wind, and when in the act of ascending the side of a 
cutter lying outside the harbour of Ostend, from which place 
he was returning, charged with despatches from H. R. H. the 
Duke of York, the man-ropes slipped through his hands, and 
he sank between the vessel and his boat. The sea at the time 
running very high, the next rise brought his head in contact 
with the under part of the cutter's channel, and deprived him 
of his senses. In this state he was conveyed to the Ferret; 
and the necessary precaution of bleeding him having been 
omitted by the surgeon, a violent fever ensued ; on his re- 
covery from which he found that, in addition to the dislo- 
cation of several toes of the right foot, his vision was so affected 
that every object appeared double. On his arrival in London, 
he placed himself under the care of Mr. Ware, from whose 
mode of treatment he derived considerable benefit; but, not- 
withstanding the skill of that celebrated oculist, every attempt 
to restore his sight to its original strength failed of success, 
and he was thus doomed to many years of painful inactivity, 
at a period when, but for this misfortune, the talents and zeal 
which he had already displayed on so many occasions wouldj 
in the common course of events, have secured for him a par- 
ticipation in those honours which are enjoyed by his more for- 
tunate compeers. To the same cause may probably be atari" 
buted the non-appearance of a treatise on sea-gunnery, which 
we have reason to believe he, at one time, had it in contemplation 
to publish ; and which, from his well-known proficiency in 
that art, there can be no doubt, would have met with a most 
favourable reception from the naval world. 

His advancement to the rank of Post- Captain took place 
Oct. 24. ] 794- ; and from that date he remained unemployed 


until the spring of 1803, when he was appointed to the com- 
mand of the Glatton, of 54 guns, in the Baltic, from whence 
he returned to England in the ensuing autumn ; and on his 
arrival at Chatham, was ordered to take the command of the 
Isis, a 50-gun ship, then in dock, and to fit her out with the 
utmost expedition. 

The exertions used by Captain Nowell on this occasion are 
worthy of notice. Notwithstanding he had to fit the ship with 
new rigging, and had but very few seamen among his crew, yet 
on the ninth day she was taken to the Nore fully equipped and 
ready for sea. The Isis formed part of the force assembled 
off the French coast under Lord Nelson, of whom Captain 
Nowell, with several other officers of the same rank, requested 
permission to assist in the attack made upon the Boulogne 
flotilla, but which his Lordship, with his usual consideration, 
handsomely declined to grant, as, in the event of success, their 
presence would probably have been of some hinderance to the 
promotion of those Commanders whom he had selected to 
head the different divisions of boats employed on that occa- 
sion. From the Isis Captain Nowell removed to the Ardent, 
64-; and during the remainder of the war he was intrusted 
with the command of a squadron stationed at the entrance of 
the Thames, to prevent any hostile force from proceeding up 
that river. 

The Ardent was paid off in April 1802, and from that pe- 
riod Captain Nowell remained on half-pay until the year 1811, 
when he assumed the command of the Monmouth, of 64- guns, 
bearing the flag of Sir Thomas Foley, in the Downs. His 
commission as Rear-Admiral bore date Dec. 4-. 1813 ; that of 
Vice-Admiral of the Blue, May 27. 1825. 

Admiral NowelPs residence, of late years, was Court Place, 
Iffley, near Oxford ; and there his active, enterprising, and 
honourable life terminated on the 19th of April, 1828, at the 
age of seventy-three. 

We are indebted to Marshall's Royal Naval Biography for 
thte foregoing Memoir. 



THIS highly-gifted but ill-fated young man, whose lamp of 
life, burning too fiercely, was too soon extinguished, was a 
descendant of the celebrated Sir Anthony Vandyke; to the 
portraits of whom he bore a strong resemblance. He was 
born in London about the year 1798. His father was a 
native of Holland ; his mother of the Cape of Good Hope. 
They came to reside in London about the year 1797. Mr. 
Van Dyk was principal owner and captain of a ship, in which 
he made voyages between London and Demerara. On the 
passage home of his last voyage, he was boarded, on the south- 
west coast of England, by a French privateer, commanded by 
the celebrated Captain Blacke ; and after making consider- 
able resistance, in which he was severely wounded, was taken, 
carried to France, and confined in one of the French prisons, 
where he ultimately died. 

After the death of her husband, Mrs. Van Dyk resided in 
Newington, and young Van Dyk went to school, for a short 
time, in the neighbourhood. For two or three years, how- 
ever, he was unfortunately subject to very little control. At 
about the age of sixteen he became a clerk to a merchant in 
the city, in which situation he remained only a year and a 
half; for his habits at this, and, indeed, at every other period 
of his life, were quite unfit for business ; as may easily be 
conceived, when it is known that at so early an age he formed 
a plan, in conjunction with some of his young friends, to act 
plays in a little private theatre at Walworth ; and was by far 
the best performer of the party. He always retained a strong 
and decided predilection for the stage, was well acquainted 
with every character that Shakspeare has drawn, and almost 


as well with those of every other celebrated dramatist since his 
time. He would indeed have tried the buskin in public ; but 
his own opinion was, that his figure was not suitable, as he 
considered himself to be too tall and thin. 

Shortly after, Mrs. Van Dyk quitted London for Demerara, 
with her family, to take possession of a plantation there, which 
was, in consequence of her husband's death, involved in some 
difficulty. She, however, succeeded in her undertaking, 
resided in Demerara for some years, married, in 1817, Dr. 
Page, a gentleman of the medical profession, and died not 
long afterwards ; when the subject of this notice left the colony 
for Holland, and lived at Westmaas, near Rotterdam, about 
three or four years, with a clergyman who was intimately 
acquainted with his father and mother, and of whom he 
acquired his knowledge of the Latin and French languages. 
He often related anecdotes of " the Dominie," as he called 
him, and spoke of him with much esteem and affection. 

Mr. Van Dyk returned to London in the year 1821, de- 
pending for his support on remittances from his brother, who, 
after the death of his mother, occupied the plantation in De- 
merara, which, owing to many untoward circumstances, 
afforded him very precarious and insufficient means ; and for 
the last three or four years of his life it is presumed he did 
not receive any supplies from this quarter. 

He commenced writing poetry at an early age. Some of 
the small pieces published with his " Theatrical Portraits " in 
1822, are among his earliest productions. There is much 
discrimination in some of these portraits. As a specimen of 
them, we subjoin the character of one of the best comedians 
on the stage. 


" ' I never knew so young a body with so old a head.' 


" Each day's experience confirms the truth, 
That old men, oft-times, love to play the youth ; 


But age, that chastener of human pride, 
Forbids their arms to lay the crutch aside ; 
And art, with all her power, cannot erase 
One furrow'd line or wrinkle from the face ; 
Nor, when th' elastic bound of youth has fled, 
Impart new lightness to their tott'ring tread. 

" But rarely do we find the young delight, 
In casting off activity and might, 
To play the dotard, with his falt'ring knee, 
And palsied hand, and shrill loquacity ; 
To bow the head, and bid the manly throat 
Emit a tremulous and small, still note ; 
And hide the lustre of a fiery eye 
With a pale film of dull senility. 

" Yet FARREN has done this, so chastely true, 
That whilst he lives, Lord Ogleby lives too ! 
His would-be youthful gait, his sunken chest, 
His vacant smile, so faithfully exprest, 
His hollow cheek, nay, e'en his fingers, show 
The aged man and antiquated beau. 

" Yet, he to passion's topmost heights can climb, 
Can touch the heart, and make e'en farce sublime. 
Behold his Lovegold, when the treasure 's gone, 
Which had been all on earth he doted on : 
Behold his Item,* when, with hurried air, 
He sues to Clement, who rejects his pray'r, 
And leaves him to his anguish and despair. 

" Or would you laugh ? then see his ' foolish knightf,' 

Too vain for quiet, yet afraid to fight ; 

Who, with Sir- Toby, nightly breaks the peace, 

By getting drunk with toasting Toby's niece. 

In sooth, few men upon the stage can tickle us 

With such a sample of the true ridiculous : 

His antic capers, his affected grace, 

His braggart words, and pilchard-looking face, 

Would put old Care and all his imps to flight, 

And call forth laughter from an Anchorite. 

* In The Steward." 

t Sir Andrew Ague-cheek. 


" Or would you wish historic truth to see ? 
Look at his Frederick* 'tis identity ! 
Like him in form, in visage, and in years, 
In dress, deportment, habits, he appears ; 
And wanders onward, with impatient tread, 
' In the same figure like the king that's dead.' 

" Oh ! 'twere as easy to form pearls from dew, 
Or gold from sand, or ebony from yew ; 
Or plant a vineyard on the raging seas, 
As hope to rival him in parts like these. 
And O ! ye actors ! be assured of this, 
That 'twere as easy (take it not amiss) 
To change the fam'd Bonassus to a weasel, 
As equal FARREN in Sir Peter Teazle." 

Mr. Van Dyk contributed miscellaneous compositions lo 
various periodical works ; and especially to the first series of 
" The London Magazine." In conjunction with Mr. Bowring, 
he, in 1825, translanted a considerable portion of the "Batavian 
Anthology;" and had done much towards bringing that work, 
in a second volume, down to the present time. Each of the 
translators obtained a very handsome medal from his Majesty 
the King of Holland, through his ambassador in London, with 
a flattering letter, acknowledging the receipt of the copies 
which had been forwarded to his Majesty. 

In the early part of 1827, he published " The Gondola," a 
collection of light and entertaining stories, after the manner of 
Boccaccio. The Gondola is the name of a vessel, supposed to 
be bound for Barbadoes. To beguile the tedium of the voyage, 
the passengers relate some of the previous adventures of their 
lives. The captain is then called upon to contribute to the 
general amusement ; and the tale which he tells exhibits Mr. 
Van Dyk's powers so advantageously, that we will quote it. 


" THE second voyage I ever made was in the Good Intent, of 
Glasgow, bound to Puerto Rico. I have reason to remember 

* Frederick of Prussia, in the " Two Pages." 


it, for the awful and solemn mystery that attended it has im- 
pressed it deeply on my memory, and few who were with me 
have forgotten the perils and horrors of that fated passage. 

" We had light but favourable winds for the first five weeks, 
and the captain and passengers were anticipating a speedy end 
to the voyage, when one night, as we were running about 
seven knots an hour, Gibbie Allan, who had the watch upon 
deck, saw a light to leeward shining upon the water, or rather 
a snowy streak, as it appeared, at the distance of little more 
than a cable's length from the vessel. The captain, although 
he imagined it to be only the foam of a wave, immediately or- 
dered Gibbie to heave the lead, but he found no bottom ; and 
the man at the helm, who at the first alarm had altered the 
ship's course by the captain's orders, was now commanded to 
steer on as before. At that moment, a large black-looking 
vessel, which none of us had previously observed, came sailing 
swiftly over the white spot towards us. Our captain hailed her, 
but no one answered ; and indeed not a soul was to be seen 
upon her deck. Her sails, like her hull, appeared to be per- 
fectly black ; and she seemed wandering like a dark spirit over 
the restless billows of the ocean. That 's an ill token,' said 
Gibbie, as he followed the departing vessel with his eye, ' that 's 
an ill token, or Gibbie kens naething aboot it. As sure as we 
are on the waters, yon 's the Black Trader, and few who meet 
her, be they gentle or simple, can boast much of a prosperous 
voyage. Aw is no' right, and some o' us will find it sae afore 
the morn.' As he concluded, seven small pale blue lights 
were seen dancing on our deck, near the forecastle, and, hav- 
ing remained for a few seconds, suddenly disappeared. The 
captain started, and, muttering something to himself, paced 
up and down in a hurried and agitated manner, w-hilst the rest 
of those on deck eyed him with evident curiosity and appre- 
hension. We had now just approached the glittering streak 
that I spoke of, when suddenly the vessel struck, but without 
suffering any material injury. She struck a second time the 
rudder was lost : a third time the foremast and bowsprit 
were swept away. The cries of the passengers, who were 



awakened from their dreams to a sense of danger enough to 
appal the stoutast heart, burst with a shrill, mournful, and dis- 
cordant sound, on the ears of those who were upon deck. 
They were answered by a loud hoarse laugh ; but whence it 
proceeded no one knew. All stood gazing at each other un- 
consciously, yet with an expression that showed they were 
under the influence of supernatural terrors. We sounded 
the pump, and found that the ship had already more than three 
feet water in the hold. She had fallen with her starboard side 
on the rocks, and her ports were only about two feet above 
water. The vessel still kept striking, and seemed to be set- 
tling more and more, when the captain ordered the main and 
mizen-mast to be cut away, and the motion of the wreck was 
considerably diminished. Whilst we were in this situation, 
the wind began to increase until it swelled into a complete 
tempest, and the rain burst over us in torrents. Our sole 
remaining place of refuge from destruction was on the lar- 
board side, where we contrived to lash ourselves, for the waves 
broke so frequently and so heavily over the wreck, that every 
soul on board of her must otherwise have perished. We were 
now perfectly helpless, and awaited death with the fortitude 
of despair. Then were heard prayers from lips that but a 
short time before had uttered blasphemy and wickedness ; and 
the paleness of the sea-foam was on the sunburnt faces of the 
crew. Amidst us was one fair and trembling girl, our only 
female passenger, who was lashed at the side of her father, 
and kept her arms continually round his neck, as if anxious 
not to be separated even when the wreck should go to pieces. 
It was a heart-breaking sight to see one, who appeared but a 
tender and weakly flower, clinging in her fear to an aged pa- 
rent, and seeming to dread death less than being divided from 
him who had cherished her in his heart, and loved her with 
all the fondness that a father feels for his first-born child. 
She bore up, however, as well as many of our hardiest sea- 
men ; for hopeless danger makes all equal ; and the warrior 
in the field, the mariner on the sea, and the maiden, who 
would tremble if a bee but crossed her path, may feel the 


same emotions, and bear them in the same manner, when de- 
struction seems inevitable. Just at that cold and cheerless 
time between the departure of the night and the break of day, 
the dark vessel again passed us within hail, but to our repeated 
calls no answer was given, except seven loud and discordant 
yells ; and Gibbie Allan, who looked out anxiously, counted 
seven forms leaning over that side of the dark ship which was 
nearest towards us. A superstitious but undefinable sensation 
arose in the minds of all ; but none dared to utter his thoughts 
to his brother-sufferer ; and as the sombre vessel shot out of 
sight, each betook himself to prayer, and endeavoured to 
make his peace with that God, before whose presence all ex- 
pected so shortly to be summoned. As the morning advanced, 
the wind suddenly ceased, but we were still subjected to a 
very heavy swell which broke over us at intervals. One of 
the sailors found means to procure some biscuit, which, al- 
though damaged by the salt water, was peculiarly acceptable 
in our exhausted state. Gibbie Allan also got us a little rum, 
and, after having made a good meal, our hopes began in some 
measure to revive. 

" Towards the evening, a light breeze sprung up, which the 
captain was afraid would increase as on the preceding day ; 
for the clouds, the seaman's barometer, indicated a gale. This 
was cruel news to beings in our desolate situation ; and, what 
was worse, we soon found it realized, for the wind began to 
freshen amain, and the wreck, from its repeated concussions 
against the rocks, seemed every moment in danger of going to 
pieces. At this critical period, when the fears of all were at 
their height, and a lingering, if not an immediate, death ap- 
peared inevitable, the captain, who was looking out with 
the utmost anxiety, suddenly exclaimed, ' Cheer up ! there 's 
a sail ahead ! there 's a sail ahead ! ' and then remained 
breathlessly gazing over the ocean, to mark the direction she 
took. ' 'Tis all right!' said he; 'she is running down to 
us ! See ! see ! how nobly she comes into view. If these 
bits of timber but keep together till she nears us, all will 
be well. But, death ! she alters her course ! What's to 

N 2 


be done ? We have no signals, and we cannot fire a gun. 
Ha ! she changes again. Hurrah ! hurrah ! we are worth 
a thousand dead men yet/ The interval between the first 
appearance and near approach of the strange sail was one not 
merely of suspense, but of agony of positive mental agony. 
At length, she neared and hailed us ; and part of the crew 
having, with great difficulty, lowered her boat, put off at the 
imminent risk of their own lives to rescue ours. After the most 
strenuous exertions had been used, and the greatest perils 
braved, by the daring fellows in the boat, we were all conveyed 
in safety on board the ship, which proved to be the Carib, 
from Montego Bay, bound to Liverpool. The captain treated 
us with great kindness ; and, by his aid, and the assistance of 
his passengers, we were furnished with dry clothes, and pro- 
visions of every kind. So different was our situation, by com- 
parison, that we scarcely heeded the increasing violence of the 
winds, and the swell of the irritated waters, although the cap- 
tain of the Carib by no means seemed to share our insensibi- 
lity, but remained constantly on deck, and gave his orders 
with redoubled activity. As we looked towards the wreck 
that we had quitted, a large dark shadow glided between us : 
and when that had passed away, not a trace of the Good In- 
tent was to be seen. The vessel went gallantly on her way, 
and stood the buffeting of the storm as if she gloried in it. 
The gale continued for two days ; but, on the third morning, 
the wind dropped into a deep sleep, as though wearied out by 
its own powerful exertions. On the night of that day it was 
a dead calm. The ship appeared to be stationary, the sails 
flapped sluggishly against the masts, and the seaman who had 
the watch paced the deck with listless and unchanging steps, 
when the Black Trader again came within hail, and sailed 
steadily past us ; although there was not wind enough to hang 
a pearl-drop on the edge of a wave, or part a single ringlet on 
the forehead of the innocent and lovely girl, who that night 
clung to her father's arm, and watched the cloud-like vessel 
taking her solitary and mysterious way over the melancholy 
main. The same seven figures were seen upon her starboard. 


immovable as before, yet apparently gazing towards us. As 
the ghostly stranger vanished, a clear purple light, which shone 
like a brilliant star, played, for an instant, on our deck, and 
disappeared as on the former occasion. { That/ said our 
captain, ' is an augury of death to one amongst us ; for the 
Black Trader casts not her lights about without a recompense. 
May Heaven protect us !' ' Amen !' ejaculated the voices 
of all on deck. 

" On the following morning, we took our stations at the 
breakfast-table, and awaited the appearance of the young lady, 
who was, generally, as early a riser as any of us. Still she 
came not, ' My girl has overslept herself/ said her father ; f I 
will awaken her.' He arose from his seat, and tapped gently at 
her door, but received no answer; he knocked louder and louder, 
and called upon her by name, but all was still quiet within. 
' She is not wont to sleep so soundly/ added the father, in an 
agitated tone of voice : ( pray Heaven nothing has happened 
to my poor girl ! ' The passengers looked significantly and 
gloomily towards the captain, and a dead silence ensued. The 
father again called, but with as little effect ; and then, as if the 
suspense were more horrible than the worst of certainties, he 
rushed against the door, burst it almost from its hinges, and 
entered the little cabin. A deep groan testified that the fore- 
bodings of the passengers were but too well founded. The 
innocent girl was dead. She had passed away from life to 
death, apparently in a dream, for there was not the slightest 
trace of pain on her beautiful face, and her arms encircled her 
pillow, even as she had held her father's arm on the preceding 
evening. I will not speak of the old man's grief his tears 
his heart-broken feelings for no words can picture them. 
His daughter was the only relation that he had in the world, 
and he gave himself up to the most unrestrained and violent 
anguish. All on board endeavoured at first to divert him 
from his melancholy ; but finding that their attentions rather 
added to than decreased his affliction, they forbore intruding 
upon him, and left it to the hand of Time to soften down his 
sense of the calamity which had fallen upon him. 

N 3 


" It was on a bright and beautiful night that we were assem- 
bled on deck, to give the remains of the poor girl to the wide 
and placid grave that shone so glitteringly around us. The sea 
was perfectly calm, and as the body was let down the side of 
the vessel, it almost appeared as if a heaven were waiting to 
receive it ; for the waters were as blue as the sky itself, and 
myriads of stars were reflected on its surface. A few minutes 
only had elapsed, when a dark shadow was observed at a dis- 
tance, stealing rapidly along the ocean ; and almost instantly 
the Black Trader lay scarcely a cable's length from our vessel. 
A cold shudder crept through the boldest hearts ; for they 
thought that some new victim was required, and even those 
who cared little for others, began to feel the most lively 
apprehensions for themselves. The seven men were still 
plainly seen ; and the young maiden who had just been com- 
mitted to the deep stood beside them, without motion, but, as 
we thought, gazing intently upon us. At this moment sounds, 
that appeared to rise from the very depths of ocean, were 
heard, and a full chorus echoed the following wild and gloomy 
song : 

" We are the merry mariners, who trade in human souls, 
And we never want a noble freight where'er our vessel rolls : 
We seek it on the eastern wave, we seek it in the west, 
And of all the trades for mariners the human soul is best. 

" Our weapons are the thunder-bolt, and strong arm of the wave, 
That strike the clay from prison'd souls, and hurl it in the grave ; 
We wither up the heart of man with lightning from the cloud, 
And ocean is its sepulchre, and the tempest-sky its shroud. 

" We envy not the ocean depths that hold the lifeless forms, 
We only give to fishes food that else had been for worms : 
Let others look for pearls and gold, for diamonds bright and rare ; 
Oh ! what are diamonds, pearls, and gold, to the noble freight 
we bear ! 

" As the chorus ceased, the Black Trader disappeared, and 
we saw no more of her, but prosecuted our voyage without 


further molestation,, yet deeply impressed with the remem- 
brance of what had passed, and with the fear of what was to 
come. We arrived at Liverpool, where, finding a vessel 
nearly ready to sail for Bermuda, I entered on board of her ; 
and, in all my voyages since that time, never had the ill-luck 
to fall in with the Black Trader." 

When urged to attempt something of a considerable cha- 
racter, something that might establish his claim to poetical 
fame, Mr. Van Dyk's answer was, that his means would not 
admit of his sitting seriously down to such a pursuit : he 
had to look abroad daily to earn his daily bread. He was 
engaged during the two or three last years of his life in writ- 
ing songs for the publishers of music ; but did not find it a 
profitable employment : his songs, however, are written with 
great good taste and delicacy ; certainly very far superior to 
the trash which is too generally dispensed to the public in this 
way. Byron and Moore were his models ; and although 
these great men had never a more sincere worshipper, he kept 
clear of plagiarism : he had a way of thinking and of express- 
ing his thoughts, quite his own. His last thoughts seem to 
have been bestowed on a collection, entitled, " Songs of the 
Minstrels ; " in which Mr. Barnett has arranged several pieces 
of national music, the appropriate English words for which 
were furnished by Mr. Van Dyk. A few months previous to 
his decease, he expressed his intention of arranging his MSS. 
for the publication of another volume of poems; but it would 
have consisted of short pieces only, principally of the legen- 
dary kind. 

Like many other men of talents, Mr. Van Dyk was always 
exceedingly poor. Yet he never had the appearance of being 
unhappy ; but, on the contrary, was cheerful and gay. Like 
many other men of talents, also, his habits of life were irre- 
gular ; and his health suffered materially in consequence. 
The illness which terminated his early career commenced on 

N 4 


the 25th December, 1827. Symptoms of consumption were 
visible in the course of two or three weeks from that day ; and 
there never seemed to be a chance of his recovery. Few per- 
sons ever possessed more disinterested and affectionate friends ; 
but there was a feeling, not of pride, but of delicacy and in- 
dependence about him, which always rendered him reluctant 
to apply for pecuniary aid. At length, a gentleman who had 
long known him, found him at his lodgings in Walworth, in 
a state of debility and destitution which we will not pain our 
readers by describing. From that time he received regular 
assistance, and had the best medical advice. That bene- 
volent and excellent institution, the Literary Fund, also sent 
him 251. All, however, proved unavailing. He remained at 
his residence at Walworth until about the middle of May; 
when, at his own request, his friends removed him to 
Brompton, where he died on the 5th of June, 1828; and on 
the 1 2th was buried in Kensington churchyard. 

It has been justly said of Mr. Van Dyk, in one of the daily 
prints *, " he had more genius than industry, more buoyancy 
than ballast ; yet all his compositions breathe a sense of har- 
mony, a sympathy with beauty, an upward aspiration." He 
wrote with great ease, and so' correctly, that he seldom had 
to make any alterations in what he produced. Of the Latin 
language he was a thorough master ; and he possessed con- 
siderable knowledge of French. He had certainly many rare 
qualifications for an author ; and it is much to be regretted 
that he did not use his pen more industriously. As a com- 
panion, he was, indeed, a choice spirit, " a fellow of infinite 
whim, most excellent fancy." If his spontaneous witticisms 
could be collected, they would make a large show in the 
annals of humour and pleasantry. Alone, the inclination of 
his mind was very romantic, and rather melancholy; the 
reverse of his character and disposition when excited by com- 
pany. Having been introduced to the late Lord Radstock, 
he was treated by that amiable nobleman with much kindness, 

* The Morning Herald. 


and was frequently at his house until his lordship's death ; an 
event which he very deeply lamented. 

This little Memoir is composed chiefly of a biographical 
notice which appeared in the Literary Gazette, and some 
anecdotes communicated by a friend ; who has also favoured 
us with the following hitherto unpublished poem : 


" Young Lamond, the pride of Argyllshire, 

Was hunting the red red deer ; 
And he saw a hart in his own Glenfine, 

And pierced him with his spear. 
The hart flew on with the lightning's speed, 

Though the shaft was in his side, 
Till he came to a river's sloping bank, 

And plunged in the restless tide. 

" The hunter follow'd, with might and main, 

To the midst of the wild Glenstrae, 
Where the young Macgregor had thrown a lance, 

And wounded a hart that day. 
The deer o'er each other's path had cross'd, 

As they kept on their blood-track'd flight, 
Until one sank down on the heather bed, 

And died in the hunter's sight. 

" They met in a proud and angry mood, 

Who had never met before ; 
And a strife arose o'er the fallen prey, 

And each drew his broad claymore. 
In vain, in vain, did the Gregor's son 

On his rival hunter dart, 
For Lamond his shining weapon raised 

And buried it in his heart. 

* The prose version of this tradition may be seen by referring to p. 465. of 
Hone's Table Book." 


" He fled, pursued by his foeman's clan ; 

But he soon outstript them all, 
And when he had wander'd long and far, 

He came to an ancient hall. 
And he look'd on the face of an aged man, 

And he told him of the fray ; 
And the old man shelter'd and fed the youth 

Till the close of that fatal day. 

" But soon he heard, from a hundred lips, 

That his only child was slain, 
That the last last hope of a mighty clan 

Would never breathe again. 
He had foes around him, his strength was gone, 

And his race was nearly run ; 
And he wept with a lone and desolate heart 

O'er the fate of his noble son. 

" But his word was pass'd to the stranger youth, 

And he led him forth at night, 
Whilst the clan of Macgregor dream'd revenge, 

And grasp'd their weapons bright. 
He led him forth to the broad Lochfine, 

Where a barque was seen to ride, 
And he soon was borne o'er the darkling waves, 

Once more to his own burn-side. 

" * Henceforth (at parting, Macgregor said) 

Thou must know me for thy foe : 
Oh ! he well may fear a sire's revenge, 

Who has laid his hopes so low.' 
The barque shot off, and the old man turn'd, 

With a feeble step, to roam 
Through the lovely glens and the misty braes, 

To his sad and childless home. 

" But evil days o'er the old laird came, 

And he lost that home for aye ; 
And he left, and he left with a broken heart, 

The scenes of his loved Glenstrae. 
Young Lamond then sought the wandering man, 

And open'd his hall-door wide, 
And he tended his wants with filial care 

Till the aged chieftain died." 
June 12. 1827. 


No. XIII. 

F. R. S. AND R A. S. 


IVlR. Forster was born at Colchester, in Essex, June llth, 
1769. He was son of the Rev. Dr. Nathaniel Forster, Rector 
of All Saints in Colchester, a man of profound learning and 
distinguished piety, the friend and companion of many of the 
literary characters of his day. The subject of the present 
Memoir was educated chiefly at home, under his father's 
superintendence : but, being intimately acquainted with Dr. 
Parr, Dr. Forster placed his son under his care, during the 
period that he was master of the grammar school at Norwich, 
which was the means of forming and cementing a friendship 
of many years' continuance between Dr. Parr and Mr. Forster. 
In the year 1788, the latter was entered at Baliol College, 
Oxford, but not with any fixed determination as to his future 
pursuits ; the study of medicine having occasionally occupied 
his time, equally with that of the law ; and it was not until 
some years after the death of his father, which happened in 
1 790, that he determined on entering the Church. Towards 
the end of 1 790, he married a very beautiful and accomplished 
lady, the daughter of R. Bedingfield, Esquire, of Ditchingham 
Hall, in Norfolk, when the former intimacy with Dr. Parr 
was renewed, and Mr. and Mrs. Forster took a house at 
Hatton, in Warwickshire, where they resided for some time. 
Frequent and social intercourse was kept up, and the annexed 


letter will prove the intimate friendship that, at one period, 
subsisted between the families. 

" DEAR EDWARD, I assure you, that it gave Mrs. Parr 
and myself great pleasure to see you and Mrs. Forster, and 
that we shall both be truly happy to see you both again. 
You see that I give my friends a welcome, and do not suffer 
my own domestic convenience to be interrupted. Come and 
see us, then, and pray let your mother do the same ; and you 
know I would not say so unless I meant so. 

" My dame likes Mrs. Forster as well as she used to like 
Miss Bedingfield., and I like her better ; first, because she has 
dropped some Norwich singularities, which she was imper- 
ceptibly contracting before I quitted Norfolk ; secondly, be- 
cause she is a well-behaved, good-natured, sensible woman ; 
and, thirdly, because she is the wife of the very worthy son of 
my late most respected friend Dr. Forster. Pray inclose the 
letter to John Barther, Esquire, Alcester, Warwickshire, near 

" I shall be with you on the Monday, and while I write, I 
remember that you forgot to pay me seven shillings, Mr. Ned. 
I hope you found Mrs. Brichdale in good health, and good 
spirits. My wife and Kate desire their best compliments and 
best wishes to you all. Pray give my compliments to your 
uncle. Have you heard of a servant? I hope, Ned, you 
have got a fire to warm me. 

" I am, dear Sir, very truly yours, 

" Monday, January 20^. " S. PARR. 

" Edward Forster, Esquire, 

St. Michael's, Oxford." 

After he left Hatton, Mr. Forster removed to Oxford, 
where he entered at St. Mary Hall, and continued his studies 
at that College until he quitted the university. 

His first wife dying, four years after their union, he again 
entered the matrimonial state in 1799, and married the only 
daughter of Thomas Banks, Esq. R. A., a sculptor of distin- 


guished merit and celebrity. Mr. Forster's early tastes and 
pursuits had prompted him to the cultivation of such depart- 
ments of literature as are connected with the liberal arts ; and 
his marriage into the family of an artist of such refined and 
classic taste, led him to a more intimate attachment to what- 
ever was allied to painting and the sister arts. Of an active 
and enterprising mind, he entered into engagements with a 
bookseller, who was indebted to his liberal undertakings for 
subsequent renown and fortune, to publish an edition of " Jar- 
vis's Don Quixote," embellished with finely-engraved plates. 
Having been successful in this, his first editorship, he was 
induced to proceed, and published some works of lesser 
importance, while he was preparing for the press a new trans- 
lation of the " Arabian Nights," in four volumes, 4-to. embel- 
lished with twenty-four designs, painted by Smirke, and 
engraved by the best artists of the time. Neither pains nor 
expense were spared to render this a work of pre-eminent 
beauty, and it will be a lasting monument of the taste and 
liberality of its author. Various editions of dramatic authors, 
under the titles of " British Drama," " New British Theatre," 
" English Drama," some of them decorated with engravings, 
from designs by the first artists, successively employed his 
time and attention. In 1803, Mr. Forster published a beau- 
tiful edition of " Anacreon," for which Bulmer furnished a 
peculiarly fine Greek type, embellished with vignettes and 
title-plates from the pencil of Mrs. Forster ; and, in 1 805, he 
entered into a correspondence with Sir Walter Scott, for a 
joint publication of the works of Dryden ; but that was subse- 
quently abandoned, in consequence of difficulties started by 
those who were to be the publishers. He had, at a later 
period, intended to publish an " Essay on Punctuation," hav- 
ing made that attribute of graceful eloquence his peculiar 
study ; and it may not be irrelevant to the present subject to 
subjoin some extracts from several letters, which passed 
between Sir Walter Scott and himself, when the publication 
of Dryden was in contemplation, to show how much his opi- 


nion on that point, as well as on others, was estimated, even 
by so accomplished a writer as the highly-gifted Baronet. 

Edinburgh, March 17. 1825. 


" Besides, this is my own period of leisure, so that I could 
dedicate much more time to setting the old bard in motion, 
than when our courts sit down. Upon the whole, I wish very 
much to send three volumes, at least, of the Drama, to press 
instantly ; and I hope the criticisms and notes, though few, 
will do them no discredit. As to the rest of the arrangement, 
I agree with you perfectly ; and I think you will find a pleasing 
employment in making notes on the translations, &c., which, 
I dare say, you will mingle so judiciously, as to interest both 
the learned and English reader." 

" Edinburgh, March 29. 1805. 


" Now for the magnum opus. I would have no objection in 
the world to one half of the work being printed in London, if 
it was not for the stipulation that my name was to be at it ; 
and as you think a good name is better than great riches, I 
must be very chary of mine, even when it stands in such very 
good company. I am aware that you have every right to 
make the same objection to my part of the work being exe- 
cuted without your superintendence ; but an edition of Dryden 
has been a hobby of mine for a long time, and I think I could 
throw some touches even upon those parts which had under- 
gone your inspection : besides, you are aware that this will be 
absolutely necessary, to prevent our repeating explanations 
which may have been already given. I do not mean (I hope 
you will not suppose that I can mean), by this objection, 
either to engross the merit or the profit of that part of the 
work which you may execute. I only wish to have an oppor- 
tunity of securing the accuracy, and, above all, the uniformity 
of the edition, I mean in matter as well as manner ; and, 
unless you could prevail upon yourself to take the whole in 


your own name, it must end in being printed here. 


*' I should be truly grieved, if we were not able to carry on 
this work in conjunction, after we have gone so far ; and wish 
you to consider seriously both points of view in which I have 
placed it : you sole editor, half the edition printed in London, 
and brought out in 1807 ; or, we joint editors, and the edition 
printed here, and brought out, or at least completed, a year 

" A very important part of this matter will devolve almost 
entirely upon you, viz. the collecting materials, both from the 
Museum and private hands. Malone, in his " Life of Dry- 
den," has pointed out some valuable sources, and we must 
move heaven and earth to get at them. You will find this 
trouble at least equal to that of superintending the press here, 
of which, according to my second plan, I propose, in some 
measure, relieving you ; of course, always consulting you 
before making any material alterations in your MS. notes. 
" Believe me yours truly, 


"June 16. 1805. 

" You are on the spot. Well ; consider carefully the bear- 
ings of the land, and, in a month or two, I think the work 
may be announced with confidence, to any of the trade, as a 
creditable and promising concern. 

" I wish I could assist you about your lectures ; but no one 
understands political or commercial cecoriomy less than I do. 
I have only read one or two of the standard authors, and 
these long ago. I pretend to understand history and poetry, 
especially the antiquities of poetry and of history, but that is 
all. I have no doubt you will acquit yourself satisfactorily at 
the Institution ; my friend Sidney Smith got great credit for 
his achievements there." 

" June 20. 1805. 

" DEAR SIR, I have the pleasure to inclose a proof of 
Dryden, from which you will perceive the plan I haye adopted 


with respect to his plays. I suppose it will be quite unneces- 
sary to send you those proofs which contain a mere reprint, 
because doing so will materially delay the work ; accuracy 
being all that is required, for which I will be answerable. I 
beg you will return the enclosed quam primum, that it may be 
thrown off, and the work fairly set a-going. I am anxious to 
save post. 

" Believe me yours truly, 


" July 2. 1 805. 

" DEAR SIR, I have sent your letter to B , directing 

him to adopt your punctuation. I do not pretend to be nice 
about it myself, as I observe almost every writer has a system 
of his own ; provided it is calculated to be intelligible, I gene- 
rally hold myself satisfied. You are quite right as to the other 

July 23. 

* * # * # # # 

" Dryden is advancing au plusvite, for which reason I have 
dispensed with sending you revises ; though I should have 
been glad to have had your ideas, especially about the punc- 
tuation, of which I do not pretend to know any thing." 

An elegant 4to. edition of " Rasselas," with engravings from 
pictures painted by Smirke, was published in 1805 ; but the 
publication which principally occupied Mr. Forster's attention, 
was the splendid work entitled " The British Gallery of En- 
gravings," consisting of highly-finished prints in the line man- 
ner, from paintings by the old masters, in private collections in 
England. No expense or trouble was spared to render this 
undertaking worthy of the patronage of a British public. 
Copies were made from the originals by artists of the first 
abilities and eminence, for the purpose of being engraved ; 
and every advantage was afforded that could, in any way, 
conduce to the perfection of the work. Only the first volume, 


however, was completed, when it appearing that the expenses 
considerably exceeded the profits, it was thought advisable to 
relinquish the undertaking altogether, making the thirteenth 
number the concluding one. As a specimen of the finest 
style of engraving by British artists, this work stands unri- 
valled, and will ever be considered as one of the most interest- 
ing productions in the world of art. 

At the time of the return of the Bourbons to the throne 
of France, Mr. Forster removed with his family to Paris, 
wishing to procure for his children the advantages which a 
residence on the Continent could alone afford, and also to 
recruit in some measure his exhausted finances, which his 
great and liberal speculations had materially injured : he 
was at that time engaged in publishing a Plautus, with notes 
and varia? lectiones, and three volumes were completed ; but 
the sudden death of the printer who had been engaged for it, 
and the dispersion of his effects by bankruptcy, put a stop to 
the work, and thus it remained, lost entirely to the public. 

Although Mr. Forster's pursuits were so intimately con- 
nected with the fine arts, in which his taste and judgment were 
eminently distinguished, he was equally diligent in the duties 
of his profession. In the year 1803 he was presented to the 
living of Somerville Aston, in Gloucestershire, by his early 
and warm friend, the late Lord Somerville ; but there being 
no parsonage-house in the parish, residence was not required ; 
and he settled in London, where he was engaged, and sought 
for, as a preacher of eminence. He was, successively, morn- 
ing preacher at Berkeley and Grosvenor chapels, and at Park 
Street and King Street chapels, in which he divided the duty 
alternately with the Reverend Sydney Smith, Stanier Clarke, 
T. F. Dibdin, and others equally celebrated for their pulpit 
eloquence. He was also a director and an active supporter 
of the Royal Institution, from its commencement, and was 
engaged to deliver lectures there during three following sea- 
sons. The first was a course on the subject of commerce. 
The two last were on oratory, taking that of the ancients as 
the subject of the former course, and that of the moderns for 



the second. About a year after he had settled in Paris, being 
anxious to exercise himself in his profession, and thinking 
that his labours in it might be acceptable to his countrymen, 
he ascended the pulpit in the church of the Oratoire, which is 
one of the two appropriated to the use of the French Pro- 
testants in Paris. There being no regular chaplain at that 
time, the performance of divine service, according to the 
ritual of the Church of England, was an advantage fully 
appreciated by the English who were residents in Paris ; and 
the congregation gradually increasing, Mr. Forster was 
induced to apply to the Consistory for a grant of the use of 
the Church, for English service to be performed there, at such 
hours as should not interfere with that of the French. This 
exclusive privilege he retained, although productive of little 
or no emolument, even after he became chaplain to the 

So early as the year 1816, Mr. Forster had suggested to 
Mr. Canning the expediency of there being a regular chap- 
lain appointed to an embassy of such importance as that from 
the British Court to the Court of France, and, with a view of 
being instrumental to his benefit, Mr. Canning proposed the 
appointment for the consideration of Government. The 
measure was adopted ; but a friend of the Ambassador's 
was selected for the office. 

" London, October 7. 1827. 

" Sir, I learnt, upon enquiry at the Foreign Office, soon 
after the receipt of your last letter, that the chaplaincy to the 
British embassy at Paris was filled up. 

I had no pretension, as I have more than once told you, to 
recommend any one for that situation. In transmitting to Sir 
Charles Stuart, when at Paris, last year, your own letter sug- 
gesting the expediency of such an appointment, I gave you 
the best chance, and the only chance in my power, of being 
nominated to it, on the grounds of your fitness for it. And 
when I afterwards, at Sir C. Stuart's desire, mentioned at 
home his sense of the expediency of the establishment, and 


my own concurrence in that sense, I really did not know that 

I might not be promoting your object. 

=fc * - * * # 

" I am, Sir, 

" Your most obedient humble servant, 
" Rev. Edward Forster. " GEO. CANNING." 

On his resigning it, in 1818, Mr. Forster received the 
reward of his almost gratuitous exertions in the cause of reli- 
gion, by being appointed to the chaplaincy, through the 
interest of Mr. Canning, and he retained the situation until 
his death. 

" London, October 10. 1818. 

" DEAR SIR, I am happy to learn, from Lord Castle- 
reagh, that you are to be appointed to the chaplaincy at Paris* 

" I am, dear sir, 

" Your obedient humble servant, 
" Rev. Edward Forster. " GEO. CANNING." 

His abilities as a preacher, his fine melodious voice, and, 
above all, the impressive manner in which he read the Liturgy 
and delivered his sermons, rendered him justly popular, and 
the chapel of the embassy was ever crowded during the 
period of his ministry. In the very severe winter of 1827 he 
caught a violent cold by attending funerals, and could not 
be persuaded to give himself a little rest from his professional 
avocations, which he was always most indefatigable and 
punctual in the observance of. Inflammation of the lungs 
succeeded, which was checked only by such violent measures 
as sapped his constitution, and laid the foundation of the 
malady which terminated his existence. He rallied for a 
short time during the summer, and was even able to take his 
accustomed annual excursion to Baden, which was his fa-? 
vourite resort ; but on his return, his cough came on again, 
and could not be repressed. It became too soon evident to 
his medical attendants, as well as to his family and friends, 

o 2 


that his complaint was gaining the mastery over him. He 
was doubtless aware of it himself; for in the course of occa- 
sional conversation, he gave various directions and instructions 
respecting the future ; but he was too kind-hearted to cause a 
moment's pain intentionally. He saw how anxiously every 
symptom was watched, and even anticipated ; and he endea- 
voured to cheer and excite hopes in those around him, which 
his own feelings could not have authorized. After some days 
of intense suffering, nature being at last entirely exhausted, 
he expired on the 18th of February, 1828, without a sigh. 

This slight sketch of the principal incidents of his life will 
doubtless be interesting to those who knew him: they will 
bear testimony to the warmth of his friendship, the even 
tenour of his mind, the fortitude with which he bore affliction, 
the tranquil elevation which beamed on his countenance when 
any event of an advantageous nature caused him to impart 
glad tidings to those whcr had been in sorrow. It might 
truly be said of him, that his temper was perfect, and that he 
was in himself the exemplification of a system he always 
recommended in the education of children lenience and in- 
dulgence; having been completely a spoiled child himself. 
But his disposition had remained amiable, whatever other 
faults that treatment might have given rise to. His mind 
was elegant and refined ; his manners and acquirements were 
those of a perfect gentleman ; in the performance of his 
clerical duties he was conscientiously exact, and in the ad- 
ministration of the means submitted to his care, for the 
assistance of his distressed countrymen, he was not only just, 
but liberal, and distributed what it was in his power to give 
with such accompanying kindness, that he might be said to 
be truly charitable in every meaning of the word. In his 
tenets he was strictly orthodox, and was ever earnest in op- 
posing any innovations in the doctrines of the Established 
Church. He was emphatical and impressive in his manner 
of reading the service ; and had made it his peculiar study to 
declaim with graceful simplicity, but with the dignity which 



his subject demanded; and he eminently united the quali- 
fications which are considered requisite in a good preacher. 

As in his public character he was indefatigably active and 
zealous in the performance of the duties of his situation, to 
the fulfilment of which his life was, in fact, sacrificed ; so, in 
private life, was he amiable, kind-hearted, and estimable in 
every relation of society. We cannot, perhaps, more ade- 
quately sum up his good qualities than by quoting a line from 
the short epitaph on his tomb, in the cemetery of Pere la 
Chaise in Paris 

" Those loved him most, who knew him best." 

The foregoing interesting Memoir has been obligingly sent 
to us by a friend of Mr. Forster's. 

o 3 


No. XIV. 


1 HIS distinguished officer, whose success in his profession 
was entirely owing to his own meritorious exertions, com- 
menced his career as a volunteer in the service of the Hon. 
East India Company in 1769, when about sixteen years of 
age. He proceeded to India early in 1770, on board the 
Company's ship Vansittart. He joined the 2d regiment of 
European Infantry in Bengal, and carried arms in Captain 
Rawstorne's company, in the 2d battalion of that regiment. 
In 1771 he was promoted to the rank of Corporal, and in 
1772 to that of Serjeant. 

In 1774- he was removed, on Captain Rawstorne's recom- 
mendation, to the 18th battalion of Sepoys, commanded by 
Captain Edmondson, by whom he was promoted to be Ser- 
jeant-Major of the corps in 1775. He was present with that 
corps at the battle of Cutra (or St. George), fought on the 
plains of Rohilcund, April 23. 1774-, and in all the subsequent 
services on which the corps was employed during the cam- 
paign under Colonel Cha*xipion. He continued with it until 
1779, when, on the recommendation of Captain Edmondson,he 
was appointed, in March, a cadet on the Bengal establish- 
ment, by the illustrious Warren Hastings, then Governor- 
General of India. 

In October of the same year Mr. Burrell obtained a com- 
mission as Ensign, and immediately joined a detachment then 
forming at Caunpoor for field service, under the command of 
Captain William Popham, to assist and co-operate with the 
Rana of Gohud against the Mahratta States, by the troops of 


" which the Rana's dominions were overrun. Ensign Burreli 
was posted to the 1st battalion of Sepoy drafts, commanded 
by Captain Clode, in which he served during the time that 
corps was employed in the districts of Gohud and Gualior, 
under Captain Popham. During that active campaign the 
fort of Lohar was carried by assault, and the important fortress 
of Gualior by escalade. 

In September, 1780, the 1st battalion of drafts became the 
40th battalion of the line, under the command of Captain Clode, 
and on that occasion Ensign Burreli was appointed Adjutant 
to the corps. In October following, the 40th battalion joined 
Colonel Camac's detachment at Salbhy, and thence marched 
into the Mahratta province of Malwa, through the Narwa 
pass, advancing as far as Sipparee without much opposition. 
The Mahratta commander of that place having refused to 
surrender, it was carried by storm, without much loss on 
either side. 

In January, 1781, when the Bengal army was reorganized, 
and the several corps of Native Infantry were embodied into 
regiments of two battalions each, the 40th battalion became 
the 33d regiment, when Major Clode was continued in the 
command, and Ensign Burreli in the situation of Adjutant. 
In May, J781, Ensign Burreli was promoted to the rank of 
Lieutenant. After a series of arduous services under the 
command of Colonels Camac and Muir, in Malwa, which 
included several partial actions, and the capture, after an 
extraordinary forced march, of all Mhadajee Scindia's guns, 
standards, elephants, and baggage (during which operations' 
the troops were greatly straitened for provisions, and ha- 
rassed by the enemy's superior bodies of horse), a separate 
treaty of peace was concluded with that chieftain ; when the 
detachment recrossed the Jumna at the latter end of the year 
1781, and the 33d regiment proceeded to the station of Bur- 
hampoor, where it remained until May, 1 783. In consequence 
of the general peace at the close of that year, it was one of 
the number which fell under the reduction of the army, find 
Lieutenant Burreli was, in March, 1784, appointed Adjutant 

o 4 


to the 2d regiment of Native Infantry, which he joined at the 
field station of Futtehgurh, and thence marched with it to 
Midnapore, in Orissa, at the beginning of 1786. He served 
with that corps until 1797, when he was removed, at his own 
request, to the 2d battalion 3d regiment of Native Infantry 
(then in the field, on the expected invasion of Zemaun Shah, 
King of Cabool), and joined at Mindy Ghaut, in March of 
that year. Lieutenant Burrell was advanced to the rank of 
Captain by brevet, January 8. 1796. In 1797 he became 
Captain-Lieutenant in the 3d regiment; and on the 31st Aug. 
1798, Captain of a company in that corps. 

In November, 1797, the 3d regiment marched to Luck- 
now, on the occasion of the deposition of Vizier Ally, and the 
accession to the Musnud of the Newaub Saadut Ally Khan, 
brother to the former Vizier, Assooful Dowla. On the final 
arrangements for the introduction of regimental rank, by the 
regulations of 1796-7, Captain Burrell was posted to the 5th 
regiment of Native Infantry, and joined its second battalion at 

Towards the close of 1 798, on the expectation of hostilities 
with Tippoo Saib, the government of Bengal called for a body 
of volunteers, amounting to 3000 men, from the Native In- 
fantry of that establishment, to proceed by sea to the coast of 
Coromandel. On that occasion, Captain BurrelPs offer for 
foreign service was accepted, and the volunteers from the 
several corps at the field stations were placed under his com- 
mand, and proceeded down the Ganges to the presidency ; 
where the volunteers from all the corps of the army having 
assembled, they were formed into three battalions, and Cap- 
tain Burrell was appointed to command the third battalion. 
The whole embarked under Major-General W. Popham about 
the 20th December, and landed at Madras the end of that 
month. The Bengal volunteers immediately proceeded to 
join the army assembled under the command of General (the 
present Lord) Harris, when they were brigaded under the 
command of the late Colonel John Gardiner, of the Bengal 
army, and formed the 4th native brigade of the line. They 


participated in the field action of Malavelli and the capture of 
Seringapatam, in May, 1 799 ; for which service Captain Bur- 
rell, in common with his comrades, received an honorary 
medal. After the fall of the capital, the army proceeded, 
under General Harris, towards the northern frontier of My- 
soor ; when the General having returned to Madras, the com- 
mand devolved on Colonel the Hon. Arthur Wellesley, and 
the troops were employed in subjugating refractory chiefs, 
who continued in arms after the fall of the Sultaun and his 

When that service was accomplished, the corps separated 
to different quarters. The 3d Bengal volunteers, under Cap- 
tain Burrell, formed part of the garrison of Chittledroog, and 
had the honour to share, with the other troops and corps 
employed, the high approbation, acknowledgment, and thanks 
of the commander of the forces, for their good conduct through- 
out the arduous service on which they had been engaged. 
After a few months' repose, the three battalions of Bengal 
volunteers were ordered to commence their march for Bengal, 
under Lieut.- Colonel Gardiner. On their route they were 
employed to quell some disturbances which had broken out 
at Palaveram, in the Raja Mundry district ; thence they con- 
tinued their march towards Bengal, where, on their arrival, 
the sense of their services was expressed in general orders by 
the Supreme Government, in terms of cordial approbation, 
for the " distinguished services rendered to the British em- 
pire in India by the European and Native officers and privates 
of those gallant and meritorious corps, during the late arduous 
crisis of public .affairs." Honorary medals were conferred 
by the Supreme Government on all the native officers and 
men of the volunteer battalions; which, in May, 1800, were 
formed into the 18th and 19th regiments on the establishment; 
and the Commander-in-chief was pleased to direct that, in 
order to perpetuate the honour which they had acquired, they 
should bear, in the upper canton of their regimental colours, 
an embroidered radiant star, encircled with the words, " Bengal 


Towards the close of 1798, the 15th regiment was added 
to the establishment of Bengal, and Captain Burrell was one 
of the officers transferred to it. He accordingly joined the 
second battalion in January, 1801, at the post of Dulliei Gunge, 
in Oude; and in March, 1802, he was detached in command 
of half the battalion for the duty of the garrison of Allahabad, 
where he continued six months, and in November rejoined 
the head-quarters at Caunpoor. In January, 1803, his bat- 
talion joined the troops employed in the districts of the 
Dooaub recently ceded by the Newaub Vizier ; was engaged at 
the capture of the forts of Saussnie, Bejigurh, and Cutchoura, 
under the personal command of General Lake, the Com- 
mander-in-chief; and had the proud honour of participating 
in all the arduous services of that brilliant campaign, in pro- 
secution of hostilities against Dowlut Rao Scindia, in Hindos- 
tan. It was prominently engaged in the battle of Delhi, the 
siege of Agra, and the battle of Laswarree ; during all which 
service Captain Burrell was the senior Captain, and second in 
command of the battalion. 

At the battle of Laswarree in particular, Captain Burrell 
was with the advanced picquets, as captain of the day ; which 
picquets, consisting of a detail of a subaltern and fifty men 
from each corps of infantry, under the field-officers of the 
day, headed the column of attack in the hard-fought contest, 
and were, of course, prominently and closely engaged with 
the enemy. In the general orders by the Commander-in- 
chief, expressing his approbation and thanks to the corps 
most particularly engaged, the details composing the advanced 
picquets were overlooked ; but his Excellency shortly after- 
wards adverting to the subject, sent for Captain Burrell, in 
the most handsome manner expressed his hope that Captain 
Burrell did not feel hurt at the omission, and directed him to 
communicate to every officer and man of those details his 
Excellency's most cordial approbation and thanks for their 
gallantry and good conduct, which he had not failed person- 
ally to observe during the action. 


In January, 1804, Captain Burrell was promoted to a 
Majority in the 15th regiment, and continued posted to its 
second battalion. 

At the close of the campaign, on the setting in of the rainy 
season of 1804, the 1 5th regiment was cantoned at Muttra, on 
the banks of the Jumna, and had the honour of participating 
in the still more arduous services of the second campaign, 
which commenced in the autumn of 1804, in consequence of 
the advance of Holkar and his forces into Hindostan. 

Major Burrell was now in the command of the second bat- 
talion of the 15th regiment, which proceeded with the army 
under the Commander-in-chief to the relief of Delhi, then 
besieged by a division of Holkar's forces ; whilst he, with his 
host of horse, attended the march of the British army, harass- 
ing it by every means in his power. 

From Delhi the first and second battalions of the 15th 
formed part of the force which returned down the western 
side of the Jumna, under the command of Major-General 
Fraser, of his Majesty's service, in pursuit of the enemy's 
infantry and guns (which retired from the siege of Delhi on 
the approach of the British troops) ; whilst the Commander- 
in-chief, with the greatest part of the cavalry, the horse- 
artillery, and a reserve of infantry, pushed down the Dooaub, 
in pursuit of Holkar and his cavalry, who were carrying fire 
and sword into the Company's possessions. 

On the 13th of November, 1804, was fought the battle of 
Deeg, between the British force, under Major-General Fraser, 
and the infantry brigades, park, and field-artillery of Jeswunt 
Rao Holkar, under the command of his favourite chieftain, 
Hurnaut Dada. Both battalions of the 15th were conspicu- 
ously engaged in that action. The second battalion, under 
Major Burrell, was exposed for a considerable time to a heavy 
fire from a large portion of the enemy's ordnance, which it 
contributed to keep in check by its firm and steady counten- 
ance. * 

* The honourable mention made in the public despatches of the first battalion 
of the second regiment of native infantry, was more especially due to the second 


Major-General Frazer's division took up a position near the 
fortress of Deeg, until it was joined by the other division of 
the army under the Commander-in-chief. The Bhurtpoor 
chief, having openly espoused the cause of the enemy, the 
fortress of Deeg was attacked and carried by storm in Decem- 
ber ; after which, the whole force, under Lord Lake, pro- 
ceeded to the attack of Bhurtpoor.* Both battalions of the 

battalion of the 15th, as the commanding officer of the former corps himself 
acknowledged at the time ; but, in consequence of the gallant commander, 
Major-General Fraser, being wounded and carried off the field during the action, 
the command devolved on another gallant officer ; and the despatches and orders 
on the occasion having consequently been written under two different authorities, 
will naturally account for any little inaccuracies that may have inadvertently 
arisen in the pfficial details of that severe conflict. We should not here omit to 
observe, that no disparagement can be meant to the first battalion of the second 
regiment, nor to any other corps or individual whatsoever, where it must be 
evident that all most, nobly did their duty; our object being merely to render 
justice to the subject of this memoir and his gallant comrades. On that me- 
morable day, we may confidently affirm, " that there was no mummery, no 
playing at soldiers, no driving thousands of the poor natives of India like a flock 
of sheep.' 5 A well-equipped army, exulting in the tide of victory, which had 
marked its progress from Hindostan into the*t)eccan, was attacked and defeated, 
in a strong position, under the walls of a treacherous fortress, which opened its 
guns on the British troops during the action ; and upwards of eighty pieces of 
ordnance were captured, whilst many of the enemy were bayoneted at their guns, 
and others, shouldering their sponge-staffs, sullenly retired, uttering execrations 
on the protecting genius which hovered over the standards of the victorious army. 
The Commander-in- Chief, in addressing the Governor- General, on the occasion 
of this battle, describes it as " appearing to have been as severe, attended with 
as complete success, and achieved by gallantry and courage as ardent, as had 
marked the conduct of any army, entitling all engaged to the thanks and admir- 
ation of their country." 

* The failure in our endeavours, at that period, to capture Bhurtpoor has been 
generally, but, perhaps, in a great degree, erroneously ascribed to the extraordi- 
nary strength of the place ; it may rather, we believe, be ascribed to the extreme 
deficiency of the means which the besieging army possessed : notwithstanding 
which, the measure of attack was deemed indispensably necessary for bringing 
the war to a conclusion, as, in fact, it eventually did ; for, though the place was 
not actually carried by assault, yet the impression made on the garrison and their 
chief by the reiterated attacks was such, that the latter was very glad to go through 
the ceremony of presenting the keys of the fortress to the Commander-in-chief, 
and to enter into a treaty which was dictated to him, as the condition of our with- 
drawing from the siege ; and, consequent to which, the Mahratta forces withdrew 
into their own territories ; and the general peace soon after followed. Such was 
the paucity of our means and materiel on that occasion, that there were not above 
three or four mortars of any useful caliber ; nor of battering guns above eight or 


15th partook of all the severe and arduous warfare before that 
place ; until at length, worn down to a skeleton by fatigue, 
exposure, and unwholesome diet, Major BurrelFs constitution 
was so impaired, that he was obliged, under medical certifi- 
cate, to seek relief in relaxation and change of air in February, 

Having materially recovered his health, he rejoined his bat- 
talion at Caunpoor, when the regiment was proceeding to the 
station of Benares, where it arrived in March, 1806, to enjoy 
some repose after three years' arduous service in the field, in 
which it had lost a large portion of its officers and men. 

Whilst at Benares, in 1806, Major Burrell was removed 
from the second to the first battalion of the 1 5th ; and, in the 
absence of the Lieutenant- Colonel, became the commanding 
officer of the latter corps. 

In November, 1807, he was promoted to the rank of 
Lieutenant-Colonel, and he continued, during several following 
years, in the command of both the battalions of the 15th regi- 
ment, which, at the general relief of corps in 1807-8, was 
ordered to the presidency station at Barrackpoor. 

Accidental circumstances had hitherto delayed the delivery 
to the battalions of the 15th, of the honorary colours con- 
ferred by the Supreme Government of India on all the corps 
which were engaged in the battle of Delhi. Those colours 
having been forwarded to the head-quarters of the regiment 
in 1808, Lieutenant-Colonel Burrell availed himself of the 

ten at the beginning. Several of these ran at the vent from the effect of inces- 
sant firing ; so as latterly to leave but few of them fit for service; and the dire 
expedient was resorted to of getting some of the battering guns taken from Hol- 
kar, bouched at Muttra, to patch up the miserable means of persevering in the 
siege. Could the same army, or even a moiety of it, which was so judiciously 
brought forward for the attack of Hattrass, during Lord Hastings' government, 
have been furnished against Bhurtpoor, it is hazarding nothing to say it would, 
in all human probability, have fallen as easily as it has since done. This circum- 
stance is modestly stated by the Marquis of Hastings, who justly imputes the 
unfavourable results of former sieges in India to a false economy on the part of 
the Government, affording only miserably crippled and defective means, utterly 
unequal to the undertaking. 


circumstance of being at the seat of government, to submit to 
the Governor- General (the Commander-in-chief being absent 
on a tour) that the gratification and effect of the occasion 
would be greatly enhanced if his Lordship would be pleased 
to present the honorary standards. Lord Minto, with the 
condescension and urbanity which adorned his amiable cha- 
racter, readily and graciously acquiesced in the suggestion. 

Accordingly, on the 1st of November, 1808, the battalions 
of the regiment were paraded at an early hour, at the sepoy 
cantonment at Barrackpoor, for the reception of the Governor- 
general ; who, having taken the colours into his hands, deli- 
vered them to Lieutenant-Colonel Burrell, at the head of the 
grenadier companies, pronouncing at the same time the fol- 
lowing gratifying and impressive address : 

" Colonel Burrell, It is not unusual, on occasions like 
the present, to deliver a few thoughts adapted to the nature 
of the ceremony. In a common case, therefore, I might, per- 
haps, without impropriety, have prefaced this solemnity with 
observing, that the ensigns of a military body are not to be 
regarded as mere decorations to catch the notice of the vulgar ; 
but that they have ever been esteemed, by good soldiers, the 
emblems and the pledges of those virtues and eminent endow- 
ments which form the best, and, indeed, the peculiar orna- 
ments of the military character. I might have said, that 
whoever casts his eyes on his colours, is reminded of loyalty 
to his sovereign and his country; fidelity to the government 
he serves ; obedience to command ; valour in the field ; con- 
stancy under fatigue, privation, and hardship. That he alone 
maintains the honour of his colours, who lives and dies with- 
out reproach ; and that when a soldier has pronounced the 
vow never to abandon them, but to fall in their defence, he 
has promised, in other words, that, under all circumstances, 
and, in every extremity, he will prefer duty to life itself. 

" Such topics, sir, as these, might have suited other cere- 
monies of a similar nature. But I am sensible that I should 
depreciate the true character of the present proceeding, and 
I feel that I should degrade the high honours which I have 


the happiness to present to you in the name of your country, 
if I thought it necessary to expatiate on the duties and virtues 
of military life, addressing myself, as I now am, to men, who 
have afforded to their country and to the world so many clear 
and signal proofs of every quality that can illustrate their 
honourable profession. 

" These colours, therefore, are delivered to your care, not 
as pledges of future desert, they are at once the reward of 
services already performed, and the memorial of glory already 

" They display, indeed, the title and insignia of one great 
and splendid victory, in the celebration of which we find our- 
selves at this very hour commemorating another triumph, in 
which also you were partakers. It might, indeed, have been 
difficult to select a day for this ceremony, which would not 
have recalled some one of the many distinguished actions 
which have entitled you to share the fame of your renowned 
and lamented commander, and which would not have re- 
minded us that his revered name is stamped indelibly on your 
banners ; as you were, indeed, associated with him in all the 
dangers, exertions, and successes of his glorious campaigns.* 

" I beg you, sir, to express to the 1 5th regiment the cor- 
dial satisfaction I experience, in bearing with my own hand 
this public testimony of the high regard and esteem I enter- 
tain for this distinguished body of men ; and I request you to 
convey, above all, the assurances of my firm confidence, that 
colours obtained at Delhi, and presented on the anniversary 
of Laswarree, can only acquire new lustre in their hands." 

Lieutenant- Colonel Burrell's answer was as follows : 

" My Lord, In the name of the 15th regiment of Bengal 
Sepoys, I humbly entreat your Lordship to accept our unfeigned 
and respectful thanks for the high honour your Lordship has 
had the goodness to confer on us, by presenting these honorary 
colours; and for the* favourable terms in which you have 

* The word " Lake " was embroidered in a wreath under the other devices on 
the honorary colours. 


been pleased to mention our endeavours in the service of our 

" These colours, my Lord, we receive with gratitude, and 
will preserve with honour, or fall in their defence." 

The battalions of the 1 5th continued in the lower provinces 
during the years 1809 and 1810. Jn 1811 the first battalion, 
under Lieutenant-Colonel Burrell, proceeded to the post of 
Purtaubgurh, in Oude; and in 1812 it removed to the post 
of Tara-Mirzapoor, whence it formed part of a detachment, 
under Lieutenant-Colonel Burrell's command, for service in 
Reewah, which province it entered by the Hilliah Pass, and 
joined a force assembled under Colonel Martindell, who soon 
after returned to his head-quarters in Bundlecund, when the 
command of the troops in Reewah devolved on Lieutenant- 
Colonel Burrell, which he held until relieved by Lieutenant- 
Colonel Adams, in July, when he returned with his battalion 
to Tara-Mirzapoor. It next proceeded to the post of Leeta- 
poor, in Oude, where it was variously employed in the Kyra- 
bad district until the middle of 1816, when it removed to the 
station of Lucknow. From the command at that place Lieu- 
. tenant- Colon el Burrell was called to join the troops assembled 
under the personal command of the Governor- General and 
Commander-in-chief, Lord Hastings, in 1817, in prosecution 
of the Pindarry war, and was appointed to the command of 
the 3d infantry brigade of the centre division of the grand 
army, with which he served until the corps separated at the 
close of the campaign, and then rejoined his battalion at 

In November, 1818, Government was pleased to nominate 
him a Brigadier, and to the command of all the Honourable 
Company's troops stationed in the dominions of the Newaub 
Vizier of Oude. Although this flattering distinction must, 
no doubt, have been gratifying to the professional spirit of 
Colonel Burrell, it nevertheless was attended with feelings of 
sincere regret, as it had the effect of causing his final sepa- 
ration from the comrades of many of his happiest and proudest 


The gallant subject of this Memoir was promoted to the 
rank of Colonel, by brevet, in June, 1814, succeeded to a 
regiment on the Bengal establishment on the 3d of May, 
1819, and to the rank of Major-General on the 18th of July, 
1821, on the auspicious occasion of the coronation of his Ma- 
jesty. He continued in the Brigadier's command, in Oude, 
until the end of 1820, when severe illness obliged him to 
repair to the presidency for medical advice. Having benefited 
by the change of climate, he was appointed, in the spring of 
1821, to command the troops in the province of Cuttuck, 
which he retained until compelled, by the pressure of disease, 
to embark for Europe, on furlough, at the close of the year 

Blessed, in a remarkable degree, with great placidity of 
mind, and a steady, kind, and equable disposition, General 
Burrell had always the happiness of exciting the regard of all 
classes to whom he was known, with the further good fortune 
of being at the head of corps which were highly distinguished, 
in peace and in war, by their orderly and steady conduct, 
cheerful obedience and fidelity, with a conspicuous spirit of 
zeal and alacrity on every emergency of the public service. 
His liberality of feeling and goodness of heart endeared him to 
all who knew him. 

After his return to this climate he was seized with a severe 
paralytic stroke each successive winter for four years, all of 
which he survived by extraordinary care, recovering the use 
of his faculties. He at length sank under a gradual decay of 
nature, exemplifying an equanimity, fortitude, and patience, 
under protracted suffering, seldom met with. His death took 
place on the 30th of September, 18,27, at his house in Not- 
ting-hill Terrace, and in the seventy-fifth year of his age. 

We are indebted to the East India Military Calendar lor 
the foregoing Memoir. 



No. XV. 


D.D. F.R.S. 


CTEORGE PRETYMAN was born at Bury St. Edmund's, in the 
county of Suffolk, October 9. 1 753, and was the son of a 
tradesman in that. town. He was educated with his brother 
John (whom he afterwards made Archdeacon of Lincoln) in 
Bury grammar school ; and at the age of eighteen removed 
to Pembroke Hall, Cambridge. 

Applying to the great branch of study in that University, 
on taking the degree of B. A. in 1772, he was Senior 
Wrangler, and obtained the first of Dr. Smith's two mathe- 
matical prizes. In 1773 he was elected Fellow, and imme- 
diately appointed Public Tutor of the College. It was in the 
same year that he fortunately became connected with the 
Hon. Wm. Pitt, and was thus furnished with that future 
patron, without whom his merits might not ever, and cer- 
tainly would not so early, have raised him to the distinguished 
rewards which were the consequence of this connection. He 
was not indebted for his introduction to any private inter- 
ference ; but, as he himself states in his Life of Pitt, " Lord 
Chatham wrote a letter to the Master, in which he expressed 


a desire that each of the two public tutors, which were then 
Mr. Turner (now Master of Pembroke Hall and Dean of 
Norwich*) and myself, would devote an hour in every day to 
his son. This plan was accordingly adopted ; but after Mr. 
Pitt's first three visits to Cambridge, he was entirely under 
my care and tuition;" and here Mr. Pitt, who went to the 
University at the singularly early age of fourteen, continued 
for seven years. 

Mr. Pretyman was ordained Deacon by Dr. Yonge, Bishop 
of Norwich, and Priest by Dr. Hinchcliffe, Bishop of Peter- 
borough, his title in both cases being his Fellowship at Pern- 
broke. In 1775 he proceeded M.A. ; and in 1781 he dis- 
charged the important and arduous office of Moderator in the 
University. He continued to reside in college until 1782, 
when Mr. Pitt, on becoming Chancellor of the Exchequer, 
proved himself not unmindful of his former preceptor. Aware 
of his general talents for business, and especially of his great 
skill in calculation, the Chancellor appointed him his private 
secretary; and Mr. Pretyman continued in that situation (his 
patron in the following year attaining the post of First Lord 
of the Treasury) until his elevation to the bishopric of Lin- 
coln in 1787. 

While his Lordship was private secretary to Mr. Pitt, he 
was most severely and unjustly satirised, by the author of the 
work entitled " Probationary Odes for the vacant Laureate- 
ship." In that work, he was designated as a man destitute of 
all regard for truth. The reverse of this was the fact ; for, 
in point of integrity, his character was at all times perfectly 

In 1 782 Mr. Pretyman was collated to the sinecure rectory 
of Corwen in Merionethshire, the patron being Dr. Shipley, 
then Bishop of St. Asaph ; in 1784- he was appointed to a 
Prebend of Westminster, the first preferment of which Mr. 
Pitt had the disposal, and in the same year he proceeded D.D. 
per literas Regias. In 1785 he was elected a Fellow of the 
Royal Society, and was presented by the King to the rectory 

* Lately deceased. 

p 2 


of Sudbourn with Orford, in his native county of Suffolk ; 
and in January, 1787, his grateful pupil took the very first 
opportunity of raising him to the episcopal bench. The 
vacancy occurred by the death of Dr. Egerton, Bishop of 
Durham. Dr. Thurlow was translated to that see, and Dr. 
Pretyman succeeded Dr. Thurlow, both as Bishop of Lin- 
coln and as Dean of St. Paul's. An anecdote is related, that 
when Mr. Pitt applied to the King on this occasion, the reply 
of his Majesty was, " Too young, too young Can't have 
it, can't have it." " Oh, but please your Majesty," ob- 
served Mr. Pitt, " had it not been for Dr. Pretyman, I should 
not have been in the office I now hold." " He shall have it, 
Pitt he shall have it, Pitt," was the King's immediate 

With the exception of Charges, and two Sermons, one 
preached in 1792 before the Society for the Propagation of 
the Gospel in Foreign Parts, and the other on the Thanks- 
giving Day in 1796, before the King and both Houses of 
Parliament, in St. Paul's, Dr. Pretyman's first publication 
was his celebrated " Elements of Christian Theology," 2 vols. 
8vo. 1799. This work, although professedly composed for 
the use of students in divinity, is also admirably adapted for 
general perusal. It is at once orthodox, liberal, and rational. 
An Abridgment for the use of families, by the Rev. Samuel 
Clapham, now Vicar of Christ Church in Hampshire, was 
printed by the University of Cambridge in 1803. In the in- 
troduction to that Abridgment the Elements of Christian 
Theology are thus characterised : 

" The subjects which solicit the attention of the reader are, 
indeed, so important in their nature, and so interesting in 
their consequences, that it must be the wish of every man, 
convinced of their truth, and living under their influence, to 
introduce them to the acquaintance, and familiarise them to 
the minds of all whose expectations in futurity are founded on 
the declarations of the Gospel." 

The Elements of Christian Theology were keenly attacked 
by Mr. William Frend, in a series of letters to the author. 


In his Charge delivered to the clergy of the diocese of Lon- 
don, at the triennial visitation of that diocese in 1803, the 
Bishop proved the non-Calvinism of the Church of England, 
and clearly established the absurdity of the shocking doctrine 
of Calvinism, so contrary to all the attributes of the Deity ; 
and in 1811 appeared his triumphant "Refutation of the 
Charge of Calvinism against the Church of England." If any 
proof were wanting of the seasonableness, the utility, and the 
value of this publication, it would be found in the fact, that 
an impression of 1250 copies was sold in considerably less a 
period than two months ; and that several editions were sub- 
sequently disposed of. 

" It is a proud circumstance to the learned and excellent 
prelate, and one of great consolation to the friends of pure and 
genuine Christianity," observes a reviewer of the Bishop's 
work in the Gentleman's Magazine, " that at a period when 
schism is dropping seeds from its dark and ungenial bosom, 
the fruits of which are deadly poison, an antidote is prepared, 
the efficacy of which is so universally acknowledged. If any 
human means were capable of restoring the Christian Church, 
now distracted by divisions, to that harmonious and beautiful 
spirit of unity which its first founders and professors were so 
careful not to violate, it would be undoubtedly effected by 
such publications as the present, the perspicuity of which 
renders it intelligible to the humblest and the meanest abilities, 
and the arguments of which are, in our judgments, irresistible." 

After an able and copious analysis of its contents, the 
reviewer concludes, by terming the work " perfect in its 
arrangement, convincing in its argument, perspicuous and 
elegant in its style, and universally salutary in its object and 
tendency. It is really a standard book, to be referred to on 
all occasions when the subject it discusses is introduced, as of 
the highest authority ; to be consulted by the experienced in 
theological studies with constant advantage, and to be ex- 
amined, studied, and remembered, with deep and serious 
impression, by every student who wishes to become a pro- 
ficient in the knowledge of the doctrines of that Church which 

p 3 


is not Lutheran, not Calvinistic, not Arminian, but scrip- 
tural; which is built upon the apostles and prophets, Jesus 
Christ himself being the chief corner-stone." 

When the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge 
undertook to publish a family Bible (now known as D'Oyley 
and Mant's), they applied to Dr. Pretyman as a Cambridge 
bishop, and to Bishop Randolph as an Oxford bishop, to 
revise the notes before they were sent to the press. Bishop 
Pretyman suggested a variety of alterations, which were 

It is not a little remarkable that the deceased prelate re- 
commended the first Bishop for the British possessions both 
in the West and in the East; Dr. Mountain, as Bishop of 
Quebec, and Dr. Middleton, as Bishop of Calcutta ; and the 
conduct of those two excellent men speedily attested the wis- 
dom of the choice. 

In 1813, on the death of Dr. Randolph, the bishopric of 
London was offered to Dr. Tomline, and declined ; but, after 
having presided over that of Lincoln for thirty-two years and 
a half, he accepted Winchester, on the death of Bishop North, 
in 1820. By the profits of his lucrative ecclesiastical prefer- 
ments, in addition to some private acquisitions, his property 
vastly accumulated in his latter years. In 1803, Marmaduke 
Tomline, Esq., of Riby Grove, in Lincolnshire, a gentleman 
with whom he had no relationship or connection, had, on 
condition of his taking the name of Tomline, bequeathed to 
him a valuable estate, consisting of the manor, advowson, and 
whole parish of Riby, with a very handsome mansion-house ; 
and in 1821, James Hayes, Esq. left him several farms in 
Suffolk, which had formerly belonged to the family of Prety- 
man, and had been left by the widow of a great-uncle of the 
Bishop to a relation of her own, the mother of Mr. Hayes. 
To these superfluities of wealth was shortly after added, for 
Mrs. Tomline's gratification (the Bishop himself was said to 
be indifferent to it), an accession of honour. On the 22d of 
March, 1823, at Haddington, in the presence of the sheriff 
of the county, Bishop Tomline was, by a distinguished jury? 


of whom Lord Viscount Maitland was Chancellor, served 
heir male in general of Sir Thomas Pretyman, Baronet of 
Nova Scotia, who died about the middle of the last century ; 
and his Lordship also established his right to the ancient 
baronetcy of Nova Scotia, conferred by Charles the First on 
Sir John Pretyman of Loddington, the male ancestor of 
Sir Thomas. The Bishop's eldest son now declines to assume 
this title. 

In 1821 Bishop Tomline published, in two quarto volumes, 
a first portion of " Memoirs of the Life of the Right Hon. 
William Pitt." " Having had," says the Bishop in the 
preface, " the honour and happiness of superintending Mr. 
Pitt's education at the University ; having for some time 
acted as his confidential secretary, and afterwards kept up a 
constant communication with him upon all matters connected 
with his official situation ; having received from him the most 
decisive proofs of kindness and good opinion; having lived 
with him in the most unreserved and uninterrupted intimacy 
from the beginning of our acquaintance to the hour of his 
death ; and having access to all his papers, as one of his 
executors, I was emboldened by the consideration of these 
advantages, and urged by the combined feelings of affection, 
gratitude, and duty, to endeavour to convey some idea of the 
character of one, in whom the talents of a great statesman, 
and the virtues and qualities of an amiable man, were so 
eminently united. The volumes now offered to the public 
reach to the declaration of war by France against Great 
Britain, in 1793; a remarkable epoch both in Mr. Pitt's 
political life and in the history of the country. It is my in- 
tention, if it shall please God to indulge me with a continuance 
of life and health, to proceed in the work with all the expe- 
dition consistent with the discharge of more important duties. 
The remaining portion will, I hope, be comprised in one 
volume, for which I now reserve what relates to Mr. Pitt's 
private life." This announcement is dated April, 1821 ; 
nothing further has yet appeared; but the right reverend 
author is said to have been, for the last two or three years, 

p 4 


closely employed on the conclusion, which there is therefore 
some reason to hope will not be lost to the world. The 
printed portion, of which there have been more than one 
edition in three vols. 4to., received, as far as politics would 
allow, the highest approbation from the public ; and has 
been correctly characterised as " candid, impartial, just; free 
from all acrimony ; an honest, plain narration ; displaying no 
more than a proper love for the object it illustrates ; not 
made unfitly piquant, but grave, sedate, and worthy of the 
momentous events which fill its pages. " 

The Bishop married, in 1784-, Elizabeth, eldest daughter 
and coheiress of Thomas Maltby, of Germans, in the county 
of Buckingham; and by that lady, who died June 8. 1826, 
had three sons : William Edward Tomline, Esq. M.P. for 
Truro ; the Rev. George Thomas Pretyman, Chancellor of the 
Church of Lincoln, Prebendary of Winchester, and Rector of 
Wheathamstead cum Harpenden, Herts ; and the Rev. Richard 
Pretyman, Precentor of Lincoln, Rector of Middleton Stoney 
in Oxfordshire, and Walgrave in Northamptonshire. 

The loss of the companion of a long life had evidently 
preyed upon the Bishop's spirits; but, until recently, his 
appearance was remarkably hale and vigorous for his age. 
While upon a visit to his friend Henry Banks, Esq. M.P. r at 
Kingston Hall, near Wimborne, in Dorsetshire, he was seized 
with a paralytic affection, which, as was at an early period 
anticipated, terminated in his death. He died on the 14-th of 
November, 1827, aged 77. 

His funeral took place at Winchester, on the 20th of Nov. 
The procession to the Cathedral consisted of a hearse and six y 
three mourning coaches and four, the late Prelate's own car- 
riage, and two others. The procession moved up the centre 
aisle in the following order : 

The Singing-men and Choristers, under the direction of Dr. Chard, chanting 

the first sentences of the funeral service. 

The Minor Canons, and Officers of the Cathedral. 

Tivo Prebendaries, the Chancellor of the Diocese, and the Dean. 


The three sons of the deceased, as chief mourners. 
Other mourners and attendants. 


The burial-service was read in the choir, by the Dean, Dr. 
Rennell, and the body was then conveyed, with the same pro- 
cession as before, to its last habitation, a new vault near the 
western end of the south aisle. Here an anthem was per- 
formed over the remains, and the ceremony was concluded. 

The Bishop's will has been proved at Doctors' Commons, 
and his personal effects sworn tinder 200,000/. The will was 
made before Lady Tomline's decease ; and in it he leaves to 
her his interest in the leasehold house in Great-George Street, 
Westminster, together with all the furniture, pictures, &c. ; 
and also to his said wife, all the furniture, plate, pictures, 
carriages, &c. at Farnham ; and 20,000/. sterling to be paid to 
her within seven months ; together with (for her life) all the 
testator's lands, manors, and tithes in the parishes of Lyming- 
ton, Boldre, Pennington, and Milford, in Hampshire ; after 
her decease, the said estates to descend to his eldest son, 
William Edward Tomline, and his heirs and assigns for ever. 
It also gives to Lady Tomline an annuity or rent-charge of 
25001. per annum on the Bishop's other estates. It gives the 
sum of 5000/. to the testator's second son, George Thomas 
Pretyman ; and to his third son, Richard Pretyman, 5000/. 
A further sum of 2000/. is left in trust to George Thomas 
Pretyman, and John Parkinson, Esq., of Lincoln's Inn Fields, 
for the use of the lawfully-begotten children of the said 
Richard Pretyman. There is a gift of 1 001. to the Bishop's 
sister, Mrs. Susan Hubbard, of Bury, and of 1001. to his 
sister-in-law, Mrs. Harriet Maltby; also a gift to the Rev. 
Vincent Bayley, of any set of Latin or Greek books which he 
may choose out of the testator's library. All the rest of his 
real and personal estate and effects, whatsoever and whereso- 
ever, is given to his eldest son, William Edward Tomline ; 
and the said eldest son and the widow are appointed executor 
and executrix. 

In his professional character, the conduct of Dr. Tomline 
was most exemplary, being vigilant, impartial, and compas- 
sionate. In ordinary intercourse, though extremely dignified, 
his Lordship was condescending, encouraging, and kind ; and, 


though to the inferior clergy there was unquestionably some- 
thing overawing in his presence, arising from their conscious- 
ness of his superior attainments, his comprehensive intellect, 
and, above all, his singular intuition and penetrating glance, 
yet it was impossible not to admire the courtliness of his 
manners, and the benevolence of his sentiments. He was 
never in the habit of speaking in the House of Lords; but no 
one can read his Lordship's masterly " Life of Pitt," without 
being convinced that his principles were firm, manly, undevi- 
ating, and constitutional. His vote was always given in defence 
of the Protestant church; and one of his Charges (that of 
1803) is particularly devoted to examining the claims of the 
Roman Catholics, and exposing the dangers to be apprehended 
from them. 

In literary composition, his Lordship's style is plain and 
perspicuous : his writings evince a clear judgment, strong 
sense, and close reasoning, conveyed in the best chosen, and 
most judiciously-arranged expressions. In controversy he is 
never dogmatical : what he asserts he proves ; and he admir- 
ably succeeds in that highly-difficult point, the abstinence 
from all asperity. 

A small portrait of the deceased Prelate was engraved in 
1791, in a publication called the "Senator," from a drawing 
taken from the life, by W. H. Brown, Esq. ; and one of a 
more handsome size was published in " CadelPs British Gal- 
lery of Portraits." A beautiful picture, in the robes of the 
Garter, has more recently been painted by J. Jackson, R.A., 
and an engraving from it, by H. Meyer, forms the frontispiece 
to the " Lives of the Bishops of Winchester," by the Rev. 
Stephen Hyde Cassan. 

The foregoing Memoir has been derived almost entirely 
from " The Gentleman's Magazine." 


No. XVI. 


IT is painful to record the death of a man of genius, even 
when he has filled the full measure of years usually allotted 
to humanity : how much more so when he has only just com- 
menced the career of promise, has only just entered that 
seldom-trodden path which leads to immortal renown ! 
Young, but already eminent, the lamented artist whose brief 
story we are about to relate would no doubt, if he had lived, 
have been one of the most distinguished painters whom this 
country ever produced. He had vanquished all the difficul- 
ties which attend the commencing studies of his profession ; he 
had rendered his hand perfectly obedient to his eye and his 
mind ; and his eye and his mind had become acute and vigor- 
ous by the intense contemplation of nature and art. At that 
moment, as if still farther to illustrate the fallacy of all human 
hopes and expectations, he died a victim to the very sen- 
sibility of character which, but for his premature fate, must 
have insured for him excellence and fame. 

Richard Parkes Bonington was born on the 25th of Octo- 
ber, 1801, at the village of Arnold, near Nottingham. His 
father, who had pursued the arts in early life as an amusement, 
afterwards took to them as a profession, and painted portraits 
and landscapes, and also taught drawing at most of the respect- 
able schools in the neighbourhood of Nottingham. 

At the early age of three years, young Bonington discovered 
a very extraordinary attachment to the fine arts, which was 
principally evinced by his sketching almost every object that 
presented itself to his observation. But he went even farther, 
and not unfrequently ventured upon designs ; some specimens 
of which precocious efforts are still in the possession of his 


parents. They were chiefly drawn in pen-and-ink, with sur- 
prising accuracy, and illustrative of history, which, from the 
moment our infant artist was capable of thought, became his 
favourite study and research. We ought also to notice, that 
his sketches of marine subjects (in which he afterwards shone 
so conspicuously) were, beyond description, wonderful both 
for correctness and neatness. These productions completely 
confirmed his father's desire to take every opportunity of 
leading him to the arts as a profession ; and he accordingly 
continued to direct his attention to the works of the best mas- 
ters, but, above all, to Nature, the mother, nurse, and guide 
of true genius. Thus cherished, when Richard was not more 
than seven or eight years of age, he made some drawings 
from old buildings situated at Nottingham, which surpassed 
every thing he had before done ; and, about the same time, he 
took a more decided turn for marine subjects, which bent of 
mind appears never afterwards to have forsaken him. 

At the age of fifteen his parents journeyed to Paris, feeling 
assured that the facilities for study afforded by that capital 
were much more important than any which could elsewhere 
be attained. Upon his arrival there, application was made 
for permission to draw in the Louvre ; and the gentlemen who 
conducted that department, astonished beyond measure at the 
examples of the young English painter's skill, instantly, and 
in the most flattering manner, granted the boon required. 
Here, again, we cannot render too much praise to his anxious 
father for the assiduity and judgment with which he cultivated 
his son's talents. He took infinite pains to point his attention 
to the best specimens of the Italian and Flemish schools ; and 
it must be added, that his docile and enthusiastic pupil pro- 
fited nobly by his invaluable advice. And, while thus en- 
gaged, he met with many encouraging circumstances to cheer 
him in his labours : strangers, for instance, who, on visiting 
the Louvre, and being struck with his performances, pur- 
chased them at the prices demanded. 

He very soon after became a student of the Institute, and 
also drew at M. Le Baron Gros's atelier. It was about this 


period, when not occupied at the Institute or at the Baron's 
gallery, that he made many extraordinary drawings of coast- 
scenery, particularly some representing fish-markets, with 
groups of figures, and for which he at all times found a ready 
sale. We should not omit to mention, that his study from 
the figure was exceedingly good ; though, were it requisite to 
define his forte, we should certainly say, that, amid all the 
diversity of his unbounded talents, marine pieces were at once 
his favourites and chefs-d'oeuvre. Yet we are almost unwilling 
to adhere to this opinion, when we recollect one picture, of 
quite another class, which he exhibited last year at Somerset 
House ; we allude to his Henry the Third of France *, in 
which he admirably displayed his knowledge of colour and 
composition, and his great attention to costume. This pic- 
ture, whether owing to its being unseen, for it was upon the 
floor, or to want of taste in the patrons and lovers of painting, 
is yet, we learn, in the possession of the artist's parents. We 
trust that his Majesty will be its purchaser : it would be ill 
bestowed in any other hands. As a contrast to the foregoing, 
we may remark, that the first time he exhibited in Paris, his 
drawing was sold the moment the exhibition opened ; and for 
the next (a marine subject) he received the gold medal, at the 
same time that Sir Thomas Lawrence was decorated with the 
order of the Legion of Honour, and Mr. Constable and Mr. 
Fielding were also liberally awarded medals of gold. 

Subsequently to the period alluded to, Mr. Bonington under- 
took a tour to Italy, from which country he brought back 

* With reference to this picture, in the Literary Gazette of the 1 7th of May, 
1828, after a complaint of the scandalously bad light in which it was hung, is the 
following passage : " Why is the pain of stooping till one's back is nearly broken 
to be inflicted as the price of the pleasure of looking at this able performance ? 
a performance which it would have done credit to the judgment of the Academy 
had they placed it in the best situation the rooms afford. [In a note The 
mantel of the great room would have been the proper place for this picture.'] 
Besides possessing a harmony of colouring which would be honourable to any 
school of art, the subject is treated in a most masterly manner. As a graphic 
illustration of the character and habits of the French monarch, it may be ranked 
with some of the well-described scenes by Sir Walter Scott in Quentin Durward, 
or any other of his historical novels." 


some splendid specimens of his abilities; his studies from 
nature literally breathing the atmosphere of the scenes so 
faithfully and beautifully represented. It was his intention, 
had his life been spared, to have painted a series of pictures 
similar to the Ducal Palace exhibited last year at the British 
Gallery, Pail-Mall. 

Mr. Bonington was truly a child of nature ; and his acute 
and sensitive temperament too soon wore out the mortal man- 
sion in which its exhausting operations were performed as 
in the alembic of the chemist, which throws off the inestimable 
produce, but perishes itself in the devouring flame. His mode 
of preparing for a picture was, after making an elaborate 
sketch for the outline and detail, to make most accurate studies 
of the local colour ; and here he never forgot to catch the 
peculiarities of the various groups of figures that frequented 
the spot selected for his pencil. It is unnecessary to particu- 
larise his works, which have been from time to time seen in 
London exhibitions, and which are now in the possession of 
the Duke of Bedford, the Marquess of Lansdowne, Countess 
de Grey, Mr. Vernon, and Mr. Carpenter, the latter of whom 
has two of his greatest works of the Canaletti school. His 
disposition (we are assured by every one who knew him) was 
noble, generous, and benevolent in the extreme ; and his 
filial affection was a remarkable trait in his character. His 
parents have, indeed, lost in him a son of sons i he was their 
only child, their pride in life, and their irreparable bereave- 
ment in death. His friends, too, have to lament one whom 
they warmly loved ; and never were more sincere and heart- 
felt regrets expressed for any individual, than are heard from 
all who claimed his intimacy or regard. The public and the 
lovers of the fine arts concur in this common grief; for ex- 
cept, perhaps, in Harlowe, there has been of late years no 
such ornament of our native school cut off in early prime, and 
in the full effulgence of spreading fame. Overwhelmed with 
the number of commissions which poured in upon him in con- 
sequence of his rising reputation, he seems to have viewed the 
accumulation of employment with dismay : success was the 


proximate cause of his fatal malady. His nerves became 
deeply affected, and a rapid decline ensued, which in four 
months prostrated his strength to the tomb. His latest 
effort was to travel from Paris to London, where he arrived 
about the middle of September ; but all medical aid was in 
vain ; and he died at ten o'clock, on the 23d of September, 
1828. His closing hours were perfectly calm; and he was in 
full possession of his reason almost to the end. 

Mr. Bonington's remains were deposited in the vault at St. 
James's, Pentonville, on the 29th of September. Mr. Ruell 
(the curate to the chapel) performing the service, and the Rev. 
T. J. Judkin attending in his full dress as a friend. Sir Tho- 
mas Lawrence and Mr. Howard appeared as the representa- 
tives of the Royal Academy, and Mr. Robson and Mr. Pugin 
as the representatives of the Society of Painters in Water 
Colours. His other friends, to the number of thirty, paid 
their last tribute of respect to his memory. 

The foregoing short but interesting account of Mr. Boning- 
ton is from the Literary Gazette. In Le Globe, a Parisian 
journal principally devoted to literature and the fine arts, 
there appeared, subsequently to Mr. Bonington's death, a 
biographical notice of him, from which the following liberal 
passages have been extracted : 

" Bonington was very young when he came to Paris. His 
vocation for the arts was decided from his infancy ; but his 
taste for them did not manifest itself in any childish fondness 
for shapeless scrawls. The little scenes which he designed, 
without any principles, indicated great intelligence ; he imi- 
tated with ease and spirit ; and learnt to see without any mas- 
ter's having directed his talent. 

" When, having exercised his hand according to the prin- 
ciples which are first taught, he acquired the power of embo- 
dying his conceptions, it became evident what he would one 
day be. His brilliant and striking compositions were the ad- 


miration of the school. The contemporaries of Bonington 
foresaw that he would not servilely follow, in the train of a 
professor, any system, whatever it might be ; and that he was 
not born to copy any one, but to create, by imitating nature. 
At sixteen years of age, he had already deserved that the chief 
of the school, to whose lessons he did not very attentively 
listen, should reproach him for his want of submission to the 
precepts of picturesque rhetoric. * * * 

" Bonington had quitted the beaten track : he walked, at 
his own risk and peril, in paths which he traced for himself 
in advancing. He could no more feel and express himself 
like Girodet, Guerin, Gerard, or Gros, than Victor Hugo 
could feel and express himself like the Abbe Delille, Fontanes, 
or M. Parseval Grandmaison. His spirit was independent, 
and revolted at routines. He escaped from them by removing 
from the school where genius is taught as the art of putting a 
figure together, and where the rudiments of old compositions 
are sacred. When he had studied the living model at the 
Academy sufficiently to draw the figure correctly, he left 
it. * * * * * 

" It was not to the representation of the great events of 
history that Bonington applied his talents : he confined him- 
self to paint familiar scenes, and to represent the effects of 
light on an extensive country, or on the ocean. Of a pensive 
character, he was affected by the sight of an agitated sea ; and 
whatever there is of poetry in the varied appearances of that 
imposing spectacle, powerfully animated and tinged his works. 
The studies and pictures which he produced at twenty years 
of age, when, liberating himself from the yoke, he went to the 
western coast to give himself up to his own imagination, are 
highly entitled to the esteem of amateurs. The colourist is 
recognised in them, not by the exaggeration of tones, or af- 
fected opposition of light and shade, deemed necessary by 
certain artists who have parodied the English system, but by 
a harmony and a simplicity full of truth and taste. * * * 

" Broad in his handling, he perhaps pushed that quality to 
excess. His figures, so beautiful in their design and action, 


are sometimes too vague in their details. Their colour is 
charming ; but the impasting of the touch does not correspond 
with the proportions of the heads and the members. This 
defect, to which, however, too much importance ought not to be 
attached, is especially apparent in that picture of Bonington's 
which represents a ' View on the Grand Canal at Venice.' * 
This work is in other respects a very fine thing ; I even be- 
lieve that it is the piece the most completely characteristic of 
the talent of the author. It has been said to resemble a Ca- 
naletti. Certain it is that Bonington studied that as well as 
all other masters, much in Italy ; and that most of his pic- 
tures are a little tinctured by his predilection for them ; but 
the resemblance which exists between his { View on the Grand 
Canal at Venice' and Canaletti's pictures, is only in the sub- 
ject. Canaletti has a precision which Bonington did not try 
to attain ; he is a colourist, but not like the young English- 
man, whose tone is not only brilliant but poetical. Thus, 
like almost all the young Anglo- Venetians of our school of 
romantic painting, Bonington imparted to many of his works 
that tint of age which renders the productions of the old mas- 
ters very respectable ; but which, departing from nature, is 
surprising in a painter who has always sought truth. 

" Bonington tried all styles, except that which is called 
historical. What he had intended to do, was to borrow from 
the middle ages subjects for a series of easel pictures, in which 

was desirous of combining and showing the value of the 
finish of the Dutch, the vigour of the Venetians, and the 

* In a note on this passage, the " Literary Gazette " says : " We are diame- 
trically opposed in opinion to the French critic on this point. We well remem- 
ber the picture in question, which was exhibited in the early part of the present year 
(1828) at the British Gallery ; and we also well remember being singularly struck 
by the broad, spirited, and intelligent handling of the figures. They reminded 
us strongly of the exquisite boar-hunting, or baiting, by Velasquez, which hung 
on the same wall, and nearly in the same place, five or six years before. The 
following is a part of the notice of Mr. Bonnington's picture which appeared in 
the ' Literary Gazette * of the 9th of February : ' The execution is masterly ; 
not only in the buildings, water, &c. but also in the figures, which are numerous, 
and' to which, by a few bold and well-placed touches, Mr. Bonington has given a 
character and an expression rarely to be seen in the productions of this branch of 
the arts.' " 



magic of the English. How deeply it is to be regretted that 
death struck him ere he could put such a plan into execution ! 
He succeeded equally in marine subjects, in architecture, in 
landscape, and in interiors. Whether he disported with the 
crayon (so despised since Latour, but the credit of which he 
re-established), painted in oil or water-colours, or handled the 
lithographic chalk or pen, he did remarkable things. Water- 
colours have not been much esteemed in France for twenty 
years ; Bonington revived them, united them to aquarelle, and 
produced that admirable picture, ' The Tomb of Saint Omer,' 
which may, in point of finishing, solidity of tone, and force of 
effect, compete with Granet's firmest works. The beautiful 
' Picturesque Journey,' by Messrs. Taylor, Nodier, and Cail- 
leaux, and a separate collection published by our young artist, 
attest his superiority as the draughtsman of romantic ruins. 
That which ought not to have happened, happened. The 
' Fragments,' into which Bonington had thrown all the origi- 
nality of his genius, met with but moderate success. The 
amateurs did not understand those delightful drawings ; but 
the reception which they experienced from the artists, con- 
soled Bonington for the bad taste of the public, and for the 
pecuniary loss which he sustained in consequence. 

" M. Gross, who, on what was, probably, a very frivolous 
pretext, had shut his attelier against Bonington, eventually 
did him justice. He recalled him ; and, in the presence of all 
his pupils, who were enchanted with the success their comrade 
had achieved, praised his fine talents, which no one had 
directed, and begged that he would have the goodness to 
become one of the ornaments of his school. 

" Bonington was tall, and appeared to be strongly built ; 
and there was nothing in him which could excite suspicions of 
consumption. A brain fever was the prelude of the malady 
of which he died, in the arms of several friends whom he had 
made in London by his kindness and good-will. His coun- 
tenance was truly English ; no other expression than that of 
melancholy gave it character. The new school of painting 
has lost in him one of its most illustrious supporters." 

No. XVII. 


FEW writers of the present age have conferred more im- 
portant and lasting obligations on English literature than the 
venerable person who is the subject of the following Memoir. 
His biographical works, on which his reputation principally 
rests, are, in effect, contributions to the modern history, not 
only of this country, but of Europe, derived from sources 
not accessible to the ordinary historian. The state papers and 
official correspondence intrusted to him by families of high 
rank, enabled him to illustrate many important political trans- 
actions which were either enveloped in mystery, or disfigured 
by misrepresentation ; and the discretion which he exercised, 
in regard to those valuable documents, while it justified the 
confidence reposed in his high integrity, could be equalled 
only by his indefatigable industry in collecting, and his sound 
judgment in appreciating, the historical evidence existing in 
records of a more public nature. These qualities, alike ap- 
parent in the earliest and in the latest of his principal com- 
positions, gained him a distinguished name among his con- 
temporaries, which will descend with increasing lustre to pos- 

Mr. Coxe was the eldest son of Dr. William Coxe, phy- 
sician to the King's household in London. He was born in 
Dover Street Piccadilly, on the 7th of March, 1 747, O. S. ; 
and in his fifth year was placed under the care of the Rev. 
Mr. Fountaine, who kept the grammar-school at Mary-le- 
Bone. In 1753 he was removed to Eton, and continued his 
education there under the Rev. Dr. Bernard till 1765 ; when 
he was elected to King's College, Cambridge. In 1768 he 



was chosen a Fellow of that College, and during his residence 
at the University, he distinguished himself by his classical 
attainments ; and twice gained the Bachelor's prize, for the 
best Latin dissertation. 

Dr. Glynn, whose worth and excellence need no other 
commemoration than his name, was at that time Senior Re- 
sident Fellow at King's College, and was pleased to honour 
Mr. Coxe, as a young man of ability, with his peculiar 
favour. His advice was, that he should immediately enter 
upon some work of useful information, with a view to pub- 
lication. " It may be," he said, " that you will not succeed at 
first ; but you must have a beginning : practice in composition 
is every thing." It was this advice that induced Mr. Coxe to 
direct his attention, at an earlier period than usual, to the 
attainment of literary reputation : and subsequently raised 
him to the high consideration which he enjoyed as an author. 

Having devoted himself to the Church, in 1771 he was ad- 
mitted to Deacon's orders, by Dr. Terrick, Bishop of Lon- 
don. The Thesis, which he wrote on that occasion, was so 
highly approved, that, when he presented himself for Priest's 
orders in the succeeding year, the Bishop declined subjecting 
him to any farther examination 

In March, 1771, Mr. Coxe was appointed to the Curacy 
of Denham, near Uxbridge ; but, in the course of a few 
months, he received an invitation from the late Duke of Marl- 
borough, to whom he had been recommended by the learned 
Jacob Bryant, to become tutor to the Marquis of Blandford, 
the present Duke. In this situation he remained two years, 
but was obliged to relinquish it from indisposition. The same 
cause prevented him from resuming it, though for some time 
it was graciously kept open for him, in the hope of his reco- 

At this early period he had directed his views to literary 
pursuits. He was engaged in composing a Life of Petrarch, 
and in preparing a series of essays, which were intended for a 
periodical publication like the Spectator, in conjunction with 
several of his studious and intelligent fellow-collegians. 


In 1775, Mr. Coxe accompanied the late Earl of Pem- 
broke, then Lord Herbert, in a tour on the Continent. Dur- 
ing that journey, which embraced a considerable portion of 
Europe, Mr. Coxe's attention was particularly struck by a 
country so interesting, and then comparatively so little known, 
as Switzerland. The result of his observations there was his 
first publication, entitled, " Sketches on the Natural, Civil, 
and Political State of Switzerland," in one volume 8vo., and 
which appeared before his return to England. Being enlarged 
and improved, by his farther researches during a second tour 
in the summer of 1 779, it was reprinted under the title of 
" Travels in Switzerland, and the Country of the Grisons," 
in 3 vols. 8vo. To the fourth and latest edition of this work, 
which appeared soon after the subjugation of Switzerland by 
the French Republic, was prefixed a spirited and accurate 
sketch of that memorable revolution. 

In the course of this tour, which extended to Russia, 
Mr. Coxe directed his enquiries to the discoveries which had 
been made by the Russian navigators in the seas between 
Asia and America ; a subject to which the recent voyages of 
Cook had given a great degree of interest. On this point he 
collected much valuable information, particularly from the 
celebrated naturalists Muller and Pallas ; and, accordingly, in 
1 780, he gave to the world his " Russian Discoveries," con- 
taining not only a sketch of the different voyages undertaken 
by the Russian navigators, but also a brief narrative of the 
conquest of Siberia, and an account of the commercial inter- 
course between Russia and China. This work was subse- 
quently much improved and enlarged, with accounts of 
other voyages ; and presented a clear and comparative state- 
ment of the progress of that branch of maritime discovery to 
the time of Vancouver. It introduced him to the acquaintance 
of the late Dr. Douglas, Bishop of Salisburyj who, about the 
time of its first publication, was engaged in editing the last of 
Cook's Voyages, and may be said to have laid the foundation 
of a friendship which ceased only with the life of that learned 
and venerable prelate. 


In 1784? appeared " Travels into Poland, Russia, Sweden, 
and Denmark," the result also of his observations during his 
tour in the northern parts of Europe. 

Soon after the publication of this last work, Mr. Coxe 
made a new tour on the Continent, with the late Samuel Whit- 
bread, Esq.; and travelling through Germany, Switzerland, 
and Italy, the Low Countries, and the northern kingdoms, he 
returned to England in May, 1786. Shortly after he again 
visited the Continent with H. B. Portman, Esq., eldest son of 
W. H. Portman, Esq., of Bryanston, Dorset, and having 
passed through Switzerland and France, spent the winter at 
Paris and the Hague. He concluded his engagement with 
this gentleman by visiting in his company the most interesting 
portions of England, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland. 

In 1786, Mr. Coxe was presented by the Society of King's 
College, Cambridge, to the living of Kingston-on-Thames, 
which he resigned in 1 788, on being presented to the Rectory 
of Bemerton, by the Earl of Pembroke. Here he chiefly 
fixed his subsequent residence ; and to this agreeable retreat 
he was always strongly attached, being used to say, " Deus 
nobis haec otia fecit." 

In 1794?, he again repaired to the Continent, with Lord 
Brome, eldest son of the Marquis Cornwallis ; and spent five 
months in travelling over Holland, Germany, and part of 
Hungary. The Marquis presented him to the Chaplaincy of 
the garrison of Portsmouth; which vas subsequently ex- 
changed for that of the Tower. 

In the course of his different travels, Mr. Coxe had made 
extensive collections for an Historical and Statistical Account 
of Europe ; and the work was even advanced to a considerable 
degree of forwardness ; but the disturbed and uncertain state 
of public affairs induced him to relinquish his design. He 
then commenced the " Memoirs of Sir Robert Walpole, 
Earl of Orford, illustrated with Original Correspondence and 
Authentic Papers," &c.; which was first published, with those 
papers, in 1 798, in three vols. 4to. ; afterwards in three vols. 


8vo. without them; and finally in four vols. 8vo. with a se- 
lection of the most curious documents. 

In the autumn of 1798, he accompanied his friend, Sir 
Richard Colt Hoare, in an excursion into Monmouthshire. 
The natural beauties and historical associations of that small 
but interesting county appeared to him to furnish a fertile 
subject of description ; and having extended and corrected his 
first observations in subsequent journeys, he published the 
" Historical Tour in Monmouthshire," illustrated with plates 
from the drawings of Sir R. C. Hoare, in 2 vols. 4to. 

Soon afterwards he was presented by Sir R. Hoare to the 
Rectory of Stourton, which he held till he was presented to 
the Rectory of Fovant, Wilts, by the late Earl of Pembroke, 
in 1811. 

In 1802 he published, in 1 vol. 4to., the " Memoirs of 
Horatio Lord Walpole," as a continuation to those of his 
brother, Sir Robert Walpole. 

In 1803 he was elected one of the Canons Residentiary of 
the Cathedral of Salisbury ; and in 1 805 appointed Arch- 
deacon of Wilts by the venerable Bishop Douglas. 

In 1803 he espoused Eleanora, daughter of Walter Shairp, 
Esq., Consul General of Russia, and widow of Thomas Yeld- 
ham, Esq. of the British Factory at St. Petersburgh. 

The researches connected with the Historical Tour in 
Monmouthshire, diverted for a time the attention of Mr. Coxe 
to the study of antiquities ; and he purposed to undertake an 
Historical Account of Wiltshire, for which he made some 
collections. But he relinquished that intention, and resumed 
his usual pursuits, by preparing for the press the " History 
of the House of Austria;" of which he had sketched the out- 
line in his intended Historical and Statistical View of Europe. 
This work appeared in 1807, in 3 vols. 4to. It procured him 
considerable credit, and the honour of a visit from the Arch- 
dukes John and Leopold of Austria, who were then on a tour 
through the western counties of England. These Princes, in 
terms highly flattering to the author, not only bore ample 
testimony to the general truth and accuracy of the history, 


and to the impartial delineation of the characters of the re- 
spective Princes of their house ; but expressed great surprise 
that he should have obtained possession of certain facts, given 
in that work to the public, which they conceived were known 
only to their own family. 

The extraordinary events which at this juncture occurred 
in Spain, induced Mr. Coxe to undertake the "Historical 
Memoirs of the Kings of Spain of the House of Bourbon." 
These Memoirs appeared in 1 8 1 3, in 3 vols. 4to., and may be 
considered as the most attractive of Mr. Coxe's literary pro- 
ductions. They were drawn from an extensive collection of 
rare and original documents, and opened a mine of history 
until that time almost unexplored. The work has been re- 
cently translated into French, by Don Andres Muriel, a native 
Spaniard, and enriched with a volume of additional matter 
relating to the reign of Charles the Third. 

Soon after the appearance of this publication, Mr. Coxe 
commenced the " Memoirs of John Duke of Marlborough," 
principally drawn from the rich collection of papers preserved 
at Blenheim. Of this elaborate work the first volume appeared 
in 1817, the second in 1818, and the third in 1819. Before 
it was completed, a second edition in 8vo. was called for. 

While engaged in this arduous undertaking, Mr. Coxe 
experienced symptoms of that decay of sight, which eventually 
terminated in total darkness; as heavy a calamity in the 
catalogue of human infirmities as could befal a man un- 
remittingly devoted to literary pursuits. Considerable, in- 
deed, at first, was the depression of his spirits ; but his con- 
stitutional fortitude, and strong religious feeling, supported 
him under this misfortune. As his sight, however, became 
weak, his intellect in proportion grew strong. His memory, 
at all times good, was then remarkably tenacious ; and so 
powerful was its operation, that he frequently corrected over- 
sights with respect to facts and dates, in those whom he em- 
ployed to assist him in his labours. Hence he prosecuted 
the work in which he was engaged with the same ardour and 
exactness as before his loss of sight, and not only brought it 


to a successful conclusion ; but immediately began to prepare 
for the press, the " Private and Original Correspondence of 
the Duke of Shrewsbury, illustrated with narratives, historical 
and biographical." It was published in 1821, in one volune 

The mind -of Mr. Coxe was still too vigorous and active 
to bring itself to repose. After a short interval he began 
" Memoirs of the Administration of the Right Honourable 
Henry Pelham," drawn from documents communicated by 
his Grace the Duke of Newcastle and the Earl of Chichester; 
and intended as a sequel to the memoirs of Sir Robert and 
Lord Walpole. This work formed his occupation and amuse- 
ment during his latest years, and was left, on his decease, in 
a state nearly fit for the press. 

Of the publications of Mr. Coxe, which, strictly speaking, 
may be considered as of a minor character, the following may 
be noted : " The Literary Life and Select Works of Benja- 
min Stillingfleet, Esq.," in 3 vols. 8vo. ; the Lives of Handel 
and Smith, in 4to. ; two Pamphlets, addressed to J* Benett, 
Esq., M. P. for Wilts, on the Nature and History of Tithes ; 
" A Vindication of the Celts ; " a small edition of the " Fables 
of Gay," with notes ; a volume of " Miscellaneous Tracts, 
comprising an Account of the Prisons and Hospitals in Russia, 
Sweden, and Denmark ; " "A Letter on the Secret Tribunal 
of Westphalia ; " and " Sketches of the Lives of Correggio 
and Parmegiano." These publications are no less marked 
with that intelligent investigation which constitute the merits 
of his more finished works, and are also strikingly indicative 
of that peculiar facility with which he could direct his mind to 
any object of enquiry. The religious compositions of Mr. Coxe 
are these : " An Explanation of the Catechism of the Church 
of England ; " " An Abridgment of Seeker's Tract on Con- 
firmation, for the Use of Young Persons ; " "A Sermon on 
the Excellence of British Jurisprudence, preached before the 
Judges of Assize at Salisbury ; " and " A Sermon delivered 
at St. Paul's, at the Anniversary of the Meeting of the Sons 
of the Clergy." 


In the later period of his life, Mr. Coxe sometimes testified 
his regret that he should have appeared to the public much 
more as an historical writer than as a divine. He was, how- 
ever, far from being inattentive to subjects connected with his 
profession ; for numerous are the theological disquisitions, 
tracts, and sermons which have been found among his manu- 
scripts. These clearly prove that he was as indefatigable in 
his search after religious truth as in any other branch of know- 
ledge; and that if he withheld these compositions from the 
public eye, it arose from diffidence, or rather from the sensi- 
tive apprehension natural to an author, that, by entering on a 
new course, he might hazard a reputation already established. 

Of the merits of Mr. Coxe as a writer, the best proof is the 
continued approbation which marked the progress of his 
labours. He has, in fact, contributed more than any other 
individual to the illustration of the most interesting period of 
our national annals. His services in this respect were justly 
distinguished by the presentation of the gold medal from the 
Royal Society of Literature. 

As an individual no man stood higher ; received while 
living, or carried with him when dead, a more abundant testi- 
mony of respect, veneration, and love. Feelingly alive to 
distress, in whatever form it met his view, his interest, his 
services, his purse, were ever ready to relieve ; and in single- 
ness of heart he was pre-eminent. Truly a Christian, in 
action as in persuasion, all that he thought, said, and did was 
so built and grounded on Christian principle, that it consti- 
tuted, as it were, a part of his nature. 

Mr. Coxe was of middle stature, corpulent, and erect in 
person, and even in his advanced years he seemed to have 
preserved the strength of earlier life, by the firmness of his 
step and the alertness of his motions. His countenance was 
the index of his mind, gentle and benevolent, and when im- 
pressed by any sentiment or feeling more than usual, it beamed 
with benignity. Till nearly the close of his valuable life, 
Mr. Coxe had the happiness to enjoy almost uninterrupted 
health. When, therefore, the disorder which preceded his 


dissolution came, he did not at first consider it as alarming, 
still less as fatal ; nor, when it increased, did it occasion much 
affright. He was long prepared by meditation and prayer for 
death, and when death- arrived he met it without dismay. 
After a week's illness, he expired at his rectory of Bemer- 
ton, at the advanced age of eighty-one. He died as he lived, 
rich in faith and good works ; and thus piously and meekly 
rendered up his soul into the hands of a merciful and indulgent 

The remains of Mr. Coxe were, on Monday, the 16th June, 
deposited in the chancel of his church at Bemerton, in con- 
formity with his own wish, to repose under the same sacred 
roof with his distinguished predecessors, Herbert and Norris. 

The regrets for his loss, which extend far beyond the circle 
of his private friends, are soothed by the reflection, that, as a 
veteran in literature, he had accomplished his warfare. It is 
also gratifying to perceive, in the example of his long and 
active life, the refutation of a fallacy too generally entertained, 
that literary exertion consumes the body and exhausts the 
mind. Even had he allowed himself a larger share of repose, 
it may be questioned whether, with a mind so ardent, he would 
for so long a period have enjoyed and improved the united 
blessings of health, leisure, and independence. 

The principal part of the foregoing narrative has been 
derived from the Memoir published in the " Gentleman's 
Magazine ; " and for the remainder we are chiefly indebted 
to the gentleman by whom that Memoir was composed. 





1 HIS distinguished officer, who, during the active part of his 
services, was known by the name of Carteret, was son of 
Rear- Admiral Philip Carteret, the circumnavigator, by Mary 
Rachel, sister to the late Sir John Silvester, Bart., Recorder 
of the city of London. 

The first ship in which Mr, Carteret went to sea was the 
Lion, 64-, commanded by Sir Erasmus Gower, who had served 
as his father's First Lieutenant in the Swallow sloop during 
the voyage of discovery round the globe, which commenced 
in 1766, and was not concluded till March, 1769. * 

* In the month of August, 1766, the Dolphin, a twenty-gun ship, was fitted 
out to proceed on a voyage of discoveries, under the command of Captain Samuel 
Wallis. The Swallow, 16, was ordered to accompany her until they should have 
cleared the straits of Magellan. On the 12th April, 1767, they entered the 
Pacific Ocean, and separated. The Dolphin steered to the westward, and the 
Swallow to the northward. Captain Wallis returned to England in May, 1768 : 
the sufferings and distresses experienced by Captain Carteret and his crew have 
been related, though but imperfectly and faintly, in the account written by the 
late Dr. Hawkes worth. We have only room in this place to remark, that the 
Swallow had been nearly twenty years out of commission, and some considerable 
time previous to her being fitted for this voyage, she had been slightly sheathed 
with wood to preserve her bottom from the worms ; but being nearly thirty years 
old, she was totally unfit for foreign service. The Dolphin, on the contrary, had 
been sheathed with copper, and had received every necessary repair and alteration 
that her former commander, the Honourable John Byron, had pointed out as 
wanting. Captain Carteret strongly represented the age and defects of his 
vessel ; but the only reply he obtained from the Admiralty, was " that the equip- 
ment of the sloop was fully equal to the service she had to perform." Captain 
Carteret obtained post rank in 1771 , was made a Rear- Admiral in 1794, and died 
at Southampton, July 21. 1796. 


After accompanying Sir Erasmus Gower to and from China, 
Mr. Philip Carteret removed with that officer into the Tri- 
umph, 74; which ship formed part of the squadron under 
Vice- Admiral Cornwallis offBelleisle on the memorable 16th 
of June, 1 795. In the running fight which then took place, 
the subject of this Memoir received a slight wound ; but his 
name did not appear in the list of casualties, as Sir Erasmus 
Gower made no report of the Triumph's loss or damage. 

Shortly after this event, Mr. Carteret was promoted to the 
rank of Lieutenant, in the Imperieuse frigate, commanded by 
Lord Augustus Fitzroy ; and we subsequently find him serving 
as such on board the Greyhound, 32 ; Britannia, a first rate, 
and Cambrian, of 40 guns; under the respective commands 
of Captains James Young, Israel Pellew, Richard Lee, the 
Hon. Arthur K. Legge, and George H. Towry. His com- 
mission as a Commander bears date April 29. 1 802, at which 
period he was appointed to the Bonne Citoyenne sloop of 
war, on the Mediterranean station. 

The Bonne Citoyenne being paid off in 1803, Captain 
Carteret remained on half-pay till the spring of the following 
year, when he received an appointment to the Scorpion brig, 
of 18 guns, employed in the North Sea, where he captured, 
April 11. 1805, L'Honneur, Dutch national schooner, of 12 
guns, having on board 1000 stand of arms, a complete set of 
clothing for that number of men, and a considerable quantity 
of warlike stores, including two 12-pounder field-pieces, two 
mortars, tents for troops, &c. Among the prisoners taken on 
this occasion was M. Jean Saint- Faust, member of the Legion 
of Honour, a person long noted for his successful depredations 
on British commerce, and considered by Napoleon Buonaparte 
as one of the most brave, able, and enterprising officers in the 
French or Batavian services. He was going to Curacoa, 
there to assume the command of a Dutch naval force, and 
from thence to attack, by a coup-de-main 9 some of our West 
India possessions. L'Honneur was also charged with im- 
portant dispatches, which the enemy endeavoured in vain to 


Captain Carteret was advanced to post rank January 22. 
1806 ; but, he being then absent on foreign service, a variety 
of circumstances, of which the following is an outline, pre- 
vented him from leaving the Scorpion until the spring of 

Having received orders, when on the eve of promotion, to 
join Sir Alexander Cochrane at the Leeward Islands, Captain 
Carteret proceeded thither, and was employed by that officer 
on various services ; in the course of which he had the good 
fortune to be mainly instrumental in saving a valuable fleet of 
merchantmen from being captured by a French squadron, 
under the orders of Rear-Admiral Villaumez, who had arrived 
at Martinique on the 20th of June, 1 806 ; and, the better to 
conceal his real intentions, had caused a report to be indus- 
triously spread, by means of neutral traders, that he was 
bound to St. Domingo, for the purpose of taking on board 
the seamen who had escaped on shore after Sir John T. Duck- 
worth's action, in the month of February preceding. 

This report not being credited by Captain Carteret, who 
was carefully watching the enemy, he purchased a small vessel 
at St. Lucia, and sent her with a letter to the President of 
Nevis ; at which island she arrived time enough for sixty-five 
deeply laden West Indiamen to put to sea from St. Kitt's, 
under the protection of Captain Kenneth M'Kenzie of the 
Carysfort frigate, who ran to leeward with his charge, and 
escaped unseen by Rear-Admiral Villaumez, who had sud- 
denly quitted Fort Royal Bay on the 1st of July, probably 
with a view of cutting off Captain Carteret, whose men were 
on the yards, bending a new suit of sails, at the moment when 
the French squadron was observed under weigh. The Scor- 
pion, it should be observed, had hastened back from St. Lucia, 
and was at this time watching the enemy so closely, that one 
of them was enabled to throw a shot over her before the sails 
could be set and trimmed. Captain Carteret's confidence in 
the zeal and activity of those under his command, and his 
dependence on the Scorpion's superior sailing, however, proved 
well founded, for the enemy's second shot fell alongside, and 


the third astern. Having thus escaped out of range, he con- 
tinued to dog the enemy, who proceeded to Montserrat, 
Nevis, and St. Kitt's, but only succeeded in capturing seven 
merchant vessels, which had missed the above-mentioned 
convoy. Nine others were effectually protected by the fort 
on Brimstone Hill, and a battery near the beach of the latter 

Rear- Admiral Villaumez next stood for Tortola, in hopes 
of capturing the greater part, if not the whole, of the fleet 
there assembled, ready to proceed on its homeward-bound 
voyage. Fortunately, however, Captain Carteret had also 
sent a dispatch to Sir Alexander Cochrane, which induced 
that zealous officer to hasten towards the same place, and 
thereby compelled the enemy to abandon his design. By this 
means two hundred and eighty sail of valuable merchantmen 
were rescued from the grasp of Villaumez, who afterwards 
steered to the northward, in the equally vain hope of inter- 
cepting the Jamaica convoy. 

Captain Carteret formed a junction with his own Admiral 
off the island of St. Thomas, July 6 ; and after witnessing the 
flight of M. Villaumez before an inferior British force, was 
sent to Barbadoes. From thence the Scorpion was withdrawn 
by Sir John Borlase Warren to the coast of America, in 
pursuit of the same French squadron. 

It appears to have been Sir J. B. Warren's intention to 
send Captain Carteret back to his proper station as early as 
possible, he having withdrawn him thence without having 
consulted Sir Alexander Cochrane, in consequence of there 
being only one frigate, and not a single sloop or smaller ves- 
sel, attached to his own squadron. Circumstances, however, 
rendered it necessary for him to detain the Scorpion ; and 
Captain Carteret was thus kept in ignorance of his promotion ; 
whilsl, at the same time, his appointed successor having 
arrived in the West Indies, had the mortification to find him- 
self without a command, or the least chance of obtaining one, 
at that period of active warfare. 


After several months had elapsed, the Scorpion was directed 
to escort a French prize brig to England ; and, on her ar- 
rival, Captain Carteret was placed under the orders of Ad- 
miral Young (who then commanded at Plymouth), it being 
determined that he should remain in that sloop until super- 
seded by the officer originally nominated to succeed him. By 
this arrangement he was afforded an opportunity of capturing 
a formidable French privateer, named Le Bougainville, of 1 8 
guns and 93 men, after a long chase, and a running fight of 
45 minutes, off Scilly, February 16. 1807. The enemy on 
this occasion had several men killed ; the Scorpion not a man 
hurt. Captain Carteret had previously assisted at the cap- 
ture of La Favorite, French cutter privateer, of 14 guns and 
70 men. * 

In July, 1809, the subject of this Memoir embarked as a 
volunteer on board the Superb, 74, bearing the flag of Sir R. 
G. Keats, and forming part of the grand armament destined 
to act against the enemy's forces in the Scheldt. During the 
whole of that campaign he commanded a flotilla of gun-boats, 
and his conduct on every occasion was highly spoken of by 
the naval Commander-in-Chief, from whose public dispatches, 
reporting the surrender of Camvere and Flushing, we make 
the following extracts : 

" Aug. 4. 1809. The fire of the gun-boats was exceed- 
ingly well directed, and did much damage to the (former) 
town. The officers and men engaged in that service had a 
great claim to my admiration. Three of our gun-boats were 

" Aug. 17. I cannot conclude this letter without assuring 
their Lordships that every captain, officer, seaman, and marine 
have most zealously done their duty ; nor will it, I hope, be 

* Le Bougainville was named after a French circumnavigator whom Captain 
Carteret's father fell in with on his return from the South Seas, in 1769, and 
whose artful attempt to draw the English commander into a breach of his obliga- 
tion to secrecy, is very properly described by Campbell, " as unworthy of that 
spirit of enterprise which led him to undertake so dangerous a navigation, which 
he has related with so much elegance." See " Lives of the British Admirals," 
edit. 1813, vol. v. p. 251, et seq. 


thought taking away from the merits of others, in drawing 
their Lordships' particular notice to the energetic exertions 
of the captains, officers, and men employed in the gun-boats : 
they have been constantly under fire, and gone through all 
the hardships of their situation with the utmost cheerfulness." 

The hardships alluded to by Sir Richard J. Strachan are 
more fully noticed by a surgeon belonging to one of the bomb- 
vessels, in whose diary we find the following passages : 

" Aug. 2. At half-past 11, in consequence of being sent 
for, I went on board the Harpy brig. A poor man belonging 
to one of the gun-boats had been shot through both arms, 
and was brought for assistance to the Harpy. Before my 
arrival, Mr. Parsons, surgeon of the Harpy, and Mr. Morti- 
mer, assistant-surgeon of the Charger gun-brig, had ampu- 
tated the right arm, and the tourniquet was already fixed on 
the other. Both arms had been shockingly fractured and 
lacerated. The man expired in five or six minutes after my 
arrival. He had been wounded an hour and a half before 
getting on board of the Harpy. His death, as it appeared to 
myself, Mr. Mortimer, Mr. Parsons, and the assistant-surgeon 
of the Safeguard, was imputable to the loss of blood he had 
sustained, and the shock the nervous system had received." 

" Aug. 4-. A gun-boat, No. 47., has been upset by a 
squall just under the fort (Rammekens), and three poor fel- 
lows unfortunately drowned : two of them were below at the 
time, coiling away the cable. The life of the other, who was 
swept away by the current, might easily have been saved had 
they had a row-boat of any description, which, however, none 
of these gun-boats are allowed ; the bad consequence of which 
has already been repeatedly experienced by them ******, 
They appear to be little attended to. The service in them is 
peculiarly severe; officers and men are almost equally desti- 
tute of comfort and accommodation ; their victualling is neg- 
lected, and the risk they run extreme. It was but the other 
night that a sailor was wounded in one of them, and died 
withoutr being seen by a medical man. Another, who was 
suddenly taken ill, probably with a spasm in his stomach, 
VOL. xnr. , n 


occasioned by exposure to all manner of hardships, died before 
there was an opportunity of applying to any ship for assist- 
ance. The immediate employment of one or two doses of a 
powerfully diffusible stimulus in all likelihood would have 
saved the man's life ******. It is an apparent mismanage- 
ment, which, however, I fancy is inseparable from the nature 
of this service/' 

Speaking of the arrangements made for completing the 
evacuation of Walcheren, and covering the retreat of our land 
forces from that pestilential island, Sir Richard J. Strachan, 
in a letter to the Admiralty, dated December 20. 1809, says, 
" Their Lordships have already been apprised of the excel- 
lent arrangements of Commodore Owen for the naval defence 
of the Slough and Terveere; nevertheless, the enemy has 
made several attempts to molest our flotilla in that navigation, 
but in all of which he has been foiled. The gallantry of the 
commanders, officers, and seamen, under Captain Carteret, 
under all the difficulties to which they have been exposed, 
have been conspicuous, and, as I expressed in my memoran- 
dum on that occasion, ( all have supported the character of 
British seamen !'**** I enclose, for their Lordships' in- 
formation, the commanders' communications connected with 
this important service, together with Captain Carteret's re- 
ports, and my memorandum, thanking the officers and men 
for their distinguished behaviour." 

Commodore (afterwards Sir Edward W. C. R.) Owen, in 
a letter to the Commander-in-chief, detailing the operations 
which had taken place under his immediate directions, ex- 
presses himself as follows : " The merits of Captain Car- 
teret in the general command of this part of our force I have, 
in some particular instances, had occasion to report to you. 
In every instance I have known, his conduct has been good 

Captain Carteret was appointed to the Naiad, of 46 guns, 
about July, 1811. On the 20th of September following, while 
lying at anchor off Boulogne, he observed much bustle among 
the enemy's flotilla, then moored along shore tinder the pro- 


tection of their powerful land batteries. At about noon, Na- 
poleon Buonaparte, who had recently left Paris, on a tour of 
inspection, was distinctly seen to proceed along the line to the 
centre praam, which immediately hoisted the imperial standard 
at the main, and lowered it at his departure, substituting for 
it the flag of Rear- Admiral Baste ; he afterwards visited others, 
and then went by sea to inspect the harbours of Vimereux 
and Ambleteuse ; the Prince of Neufchatel, and the minister 
of marine, accompanying him in his barge. 

It being the well-known custom of that personage to adopt 
measures likely to confer eclat on his presence, Captain Car- 
teret concluded that something of the kind was about to take 
place, and at 1 P. M. he saw the centre praam and six others 
weigh and stand towards the Naiad. As, from the wind and 
a very strong flood-tide, it was clear that by weighing, the 
British frigate would only increase her distance from them ; 
and the ,pn]y chance of closing with them was by remaining 
at anchor, the Naiad quietly awaited M. Baste's attack with 
springs on her cable. The leading praam soon arrived within 
gun-shot, " successively discharged her broadsides," and then 
stood away ; her followers did the same ; and in this manner 
they manoeuvred until joined by ten brigs and a sloop (each 
of the former mounting four long 24-pounders) ; from which 
period the Naiad was occasionally cannoiladed by the enemy's 
whole detachment for upwards of two hours. 

At slack water Captain Carteret weighed and stood off, 
partly to repair some trivial damages, but chiefly, by getting 
to windward, to be better able to close with the French Rear- 
Admiral, and get between some of his vessels and the land. 
After standing off a short time, the Naiad tacked, and made 
all sail towards them ; but about sunset it became calm, when 
the enemy anchored under the batteries eastward of Boulogne, 
and Captain Carteret brought up nearly in his former posi- 
tion. In this affair not a British subject was hurt, and the 
damages sustained by the frigate were of little or no conse- 


The result of the next day's proceedings will be seen by 
Captain Carteret's official letter to his commander-in-chief, 
Rear- Admiral (now Sir Thomas) Foley : 

" H.M.S. Naiad, of Boulogne, Sept. 21. 1811. 

" Sin, This morning, at 7 o'clock, that part of the enemy's 
flotilla which was anchored to the eastward of Boulogne, con- 
sisting of seven praams and fifteen smaller vessels *, weighed 
and stood out on the larboard tack, the wind being S.W., ap- 
parently to renew the same kind of distant cannonade which 
took place yesterday. Different, however, from yesterday, 
there was now a weather tide. The Naiad, therefore, weighed, 
and getting well to windward, joined H. M. brigs Rinaldo, 
Redpole, and Castilian (commanded by Captains James An- 
derson, Colin M'Donald, and David Brainier), with the 
Viper cutter (Lieutenant Edward Augustus D'Arcy), who had 
all zealously turned to windward in the course of the night, to 
support the Naiad in the expected conflict. We all lay to on 
the larboard tack, gradually drawing off shore, in the hope of 
imperceptibly inducing the enemy also to withdraw further 
from the protection of his formidable batteries. 

" To make known the senior officer's intentions, no other 
signals were deemed necessary, but ' to prepare to attack the 
enemy's van,' then standing out, led by Rear- Admiral Baste, 
and ' not to fire until quite close to the enemy.' Accordingly, 
the moment the French Admiral tacked in shore, having 
reached his utmost distance, and was giving us his broadsides, 
the King's small squadron bore up together with the utmost 
rapidity, and stood towards the enemy under all the sail each 
could conveniently carry, receiving a shower of shot and shells 
from the flotilla and land batteries, without returning any 
until within pistol-shot, when the firing on both sides of H. M. 
cruisers threw the enemy into inextricable confusion. The 
French Admiral's praam was the principal object of attack by 
this ship ; but, as that officer in leading had of course tacked 
first, and thereby acquired fresh way, and was now under much 

* Ten brigs, one sloop, and four armed luggers. 


sail, pushing with great celerity for the batteries, it became 
impossible to reach him without too greatly hazarding H. M. 
ship. Having, however, succeeded in separating a praam 
from him, which had handsomely attempted to succour her 
chief, and which I had intended to consign to the particular 
care of Captains Anderson and M 'Donald, while the Cas- 
tilian attacked others, it now appeared best to employ this 
ship in effectually securing her. 

" The Naiad accordingly ran her on board ; Mr. Grant, 
the master, lashed her alongside ; the small-arms men soon 
cleared her deck, and the boarders, sword in hand, soon com- 
pleted her subjugation. Nevertheless, in justice to our brave 
enemy, it must be observed, that his resistance was most obsti- 
nate and gallant, nor did it cease until fairly overpowered by 
the overwhelming force we so promptly applied. She is 
named La Ville de Lyons, was commanded by a Mons. Bar- 
baud, who is severely wounded ; and she had on board a Mons. 
la Coupe, who, as commodore of a division, was entitled to a 
broad pendant.* Like the other praams, she has 12 long 
(French) 24-pounders, but she had only 1.12 men, 60 of whom 
were soldiers of the 72d regiment of the line ; between 30 and 
40 have been killed and wounded. 

" Meanwhile, the three brigs completed the defeat of the 
enemy's flotilla ; but 1 lament to say, that the immediate prox- 
imity of the formidable batteries, whereuntowehad now so nearly 
approached, prevented the capture or destruction of more of 
their ships or vessels. But no blame can attach to any one 
on this account ; for all the commanders, officers, and crews, 
did bravely and skilfully perform their duty. If I may be 
permitted to mention those who served more immediately 
under my own eye, I must eagerly and fully testify to the 
merits of, and zealous support I received from Mr. (John Po- 
tenger) Greenlaw, First Lieutenant of this ship, as well as from 

* Mons. la Coupe's broad pendant was displayed both days, but it appears to 
have been hauled down, in order to keep it clear of the mast-head, when La Ville 
de Lyons put her head, for the last time, towards the French shore, and the rapid 
approach of the British squadron caused the enemy to neglect rehoisting it. 

R 3 


all the excellent officers of every description, brave seamen and 
marines, whom I have the pride and pleasure of commanding. 
I have the honour herewith to inclose reports of our loss, 
which I rejoice to find so comparatively trivial, and that Lieu- 
tenant Charles Cobb, of the Castilian, is the only officer who 
has fallen *, &c. (Signed) " R CARTERET." 

Thus terminated the French naval review at Boulogne; 
and on the following day Napoleon Buonaparte proceeded 
along the coast to Os tend, on his way to Cadsand, Flushing, 
and Antwerp. 

On the 6th of the following month, Captain Carteret cap- 
tured Le Milan, French lugger privateer, pierced for 16 guns, 
with a complement of 50 men ; and shortly afterwards Le 
Requin, a vessel of the same description, with 58 men. In 
April, 1812, he had a very narrow escape, his gig having 
upset off Cowes, to which place he was conveyed in an appar- 
ently lifeless state. By this accident three of his boat's crew 
were unfortunately drowned. 

Towards the close of 1 8 1 2, he was appointed to the Pomone, 
of 46 guns, then on the North Sea station, but subsequently 
employed as a cruiser in the Channel. 

The following is a narrative of all the circumstances con- 
nected with a court-martial which sat on board the Salvador 
del Mundo, at Plymouth, December 31. 1813, to investigate 
the conduct of Captain Carteret, for not having brought an 
enemy's frigate to action, on the 21st October preceding; 
and which court-martial was ordered to assemble by the 
Board of Admiralty, at Captain Carteret's own urgent re- 
quest : 

The Pomone had encountered a heavy gale of wind in 
the Bay of Biscay, whereby she lost her fore-yard, and her 
main-yard was badly sprung in two places. While repairing 
these damages, early on the morning of October 21. 1813, 
she fell in with a ship under jury-masts, which soon proved 

* Total, 3 killed, 16 wounded; 2 of the former and 14 of the latter on board 
the Naiad. 


to be a French frigate. Immediate preparations were made 
to attack her ; and Captain Carteret was about to do so, when 
another ship hove in sight (which every body on board con- 
sidered to be a frigate), with a brig under French colours, 
both steering the same way with that first seen. Soon after- 
wards, three other ships were seen astern of these last, and 
nobody now doubted that it was a French squadron. The 
utmost caution, therefore, was necessary, especially in the 
Pomone's nearly disabled state ; but Captain Carteret, think- 
ing that he might still keep company with them until he could 
obtain a reinforcement, resolved to get well to windward of 
them, so as to reconnoitre them accurately, and yet not hazard 
the safety of his ship : the disabled frigate was not quite a 
secondary object. The weather being remarkably hazy and 
deceptive, rendered all objects so very indistinct, that many 
hours were lost in reconnoitring. When the weather cleared 
away in the afternoon, it was discovered that all the ships 
were merchantment, excepting the disabled French frigate, 
and the ship which every body had considered to be a frigate 
also, and which they still deemed to be such. The brig un- 
der French colours, on seeing the Pomone wear the first time 
to stand towards them, ran away down to the disabled frigate, 
as if with some message from one to the other. As the weather 
ultimately became quite clear, and as only the supposed fri- 
gate was to be seen, Captain Carteret, bore up to attack her ; 
but, alas ! she proved, on near approach, to be nothing more 
than a large Portuguese East Indiaman, which had been taken 
by the enemy, and recaptured by some British cruisers. 
Grieved and mortified, at having thus let the disabled French- 
man slip through his fingers, Captain Carteret made all sail 
after her, but in vain ; for on the fourth day of his pursuit or 
search, he fell in with a British man-of-war, and received in- 
formation that the said crippled ship was La Trave of 46 guns, 
and that she had been captured on the 23d, without making 
any resistance, by the Andromache. 

On his arrival at Lisbon, Captain Carteret gave a detailed 
report of all these circumstances to the Admiral commanding 

R 4 


there, who was thoroughly satisfied therewith ; but wishing 
the Board of Admiralty to be so too, Captain Carteret re- 
quested him to transmit it home. Some days afterwards, a 
letter, addressed to the Admiral at Lisbon, was picked up on 
the Pomone's deck, which her commander immediately took 
to him. He read it, and gave it back to the gallant officer. 
Finding it to be an anonymous letter, subscribed " Pomone's 
Ship's Company," asserting that he had " run from a French 
frigate," Captain Carteret at once asked for a court-martial. 
That, however, could not well be granted then, because all 
the captains there were his juniors ; besides which the Pomone 
was under orders to go home, so that much time woidd not 
elapse before the desired investigation could take place. Cap- 
tain Carteret, hereupon, avowed his determination to have 
one, if possible, and implored the Admiral to forward the 
anonymous accusation, and his application for a court-martial, 
by the first packet, in order that not a moment might be lost. 
On arriving at Plymouth, he renewed his application to the 
Admiralty, and soon found that their Lordships had antici- 
pated his anxious wishes. On the 29th of December, Captain 
Carteret addressed his people ; told them of the pending 
trial ; that he demanded it himself in consequence of the ano- 
nymous letter, which none of them would own ; and that he 
required them all to come forward fairly and openly, to say 
the truth before the court. He, at the same time, promised 
to guarantee them from all harm on account of their evidence, 
if true ; and, not to be mistaken by them, he wrote an order 
to the above effect, and stuck it up in a conspicuous place, 
that all or any might come forward and subscribe their names 
as witnesses against him. Finding that not a man would show 
himself ready to become his accuser, Captain Carteret was 
compelled to order all those whom he suspected to be most 
averse to him to be summoned, as well as an entire quarter of 
the ship's company taken by lot. On the 31st, the court- 
martial assembled, and Captain Carteret was arraigned as the 
prisoner before it. Rear- Admiral T. Byam Martin was pre- 


sident; Rear- Admirals Pulteney Malcolm, and Charles V. 
Penrose were also among his judges. The examinations of 
the Pomone's officers and men were as strict as possible ; but 
not one word was said in any the remotest degree affecting 
the conduct of the ship when in presence of the enemy. 
Captain Carteret declined making any defence, and the Court 
" FULLY ACQUITTED HIM OF ALL BLAME," in not bringing the 
enemy's frigate to action. 

We shall only repeat the just observation of the editor of 
the " Naval Chronicle," that " this diabolical attempt to blast 
his reputation, could not have happened to a man whose tried 
and established character was better able to stand it. His ser- 
vices, especially when commanding the gun-boat flotilla in the 
Scheldt, and when defeating Buonaparte's designs at Bou- 
logne, sufficiently prove his merits." 

On the 4th of March, 1814-, Captain Carteret, then in com- 
pany with the Cydnus frigate, captured the Bunker's Hill, 
American privateer (formerly His Majesty's brig Linnet), of 
14 guns and 86 men. He was nominated a Companion of 
the Bath, June 4. 1815; and, about the same period, appointed 
to La Desiree, from which frigate he removed, with his offi- 
cers and crew, into the Active, of 46 guns, on the 26th Oct. 
following. The latter ship was employed for some time on 
the Jamaica station, from whence she returned to England in 
1817; since which period he was not employed. 

Captain Carteret obtained the Royal permission to assume 
the name of Silvester in addition to his own patronymic, 
Jan. 19. 1822; his uncle, the Recorder of London, obtained a 
second patent of Baronetcy, with remainder to him, Feb. 11. 
following; and on the 30th of March, in the same year, left 
him to inherit it. Sir John Silvester's estates were bequeathed 
for the use of his widow during her life, and afterwards to Sir 
Philip : that lady is still living, so that Sir Philip enjoyed 
the Baronetcy but a short time, and the estates not at all. 
The former is, we suppose, extinct^ as we believe Sir Philip 
was never married. 


Sir Philip died on the 24th of August, 1828, at Leaming- 
ton, of apoplexy, after only a few hours' illness, in the fifty- 
second year of his age. 

We have derived the foregoing Memoir from " Marshall's 
Royal Naval Biography.'* 

No. XIX. 



MR. LEGH RICHMOND was born at Liverpool, January 29. 
1772. He was the eldest child of Dr. Henry Richmond, the 
descendant of an ancient and honourable family. A remark- 
able casualty befel him in his childhood, the effects of which 
he never recovered. At a very early age, in leaping from a 
wall, he contracted an injury in his left leg, which eventually 
produced incurable lameness. It is somewhat singular that an 
accident nearly similar occurred to his younger and only 
brother, and also to his second son. Each of them, in infancy, 
fell from an open window. The former was killed, and the 
latter was ever after afflicted, in the same limb, with the same 
kind of lameness as his father. 

After a private preparatory education, Mr. Richmond was 
admitted a member of Trinity College, Cambridge. While an 
under-graduate, he pursued his studies with a talent and a 
zeal which gave fair promise that the highest honours of his 
year were not beyond his reach. These hopes were, however, 
blighted by a severe illness, which was partly owing to his 
anxious and unremitted application. Precluded by this cause 
from engaging in the honourable contention of the senate- 
house, he received what is academically termed an aegrotat 
degree, commencing B.A. in 1794?; and, with some inter- 
missions, he resided in the University three years longer. 

We are now to view Mr. Richmond in a totally different 
character. In the summer of 1797, he became, within the 


space of a very few weeks (to borrow his own words), " aca- 
demically a Master of Arts, domestically a husband, paro- 
chially a deacon." He had been originally destined to the 
law; but having imbibed a distaste for that profession, his 
attention was subsequently directed to the Church, and he 
was now admitted to the sacred office. Brading, a secluded 
village in the Isle of Wight, was the scene of his earliest pas- 
toral labours. He was ordained to the curacy of this place 
and the little adjoining village of Yaverland ; and in Yaver- 
land church he delivered his first sermon. 

It was soon after this period, that the perusal of Mr. Wil- 
berforce's " Practical View of Christianity " effected a great 
revolution in Mr. Richmond's mind, and established those 
peculiar religious principles and feelings which manifested 
themselves so strongly throughout the remainder of his life. 

After a residence of about seven years in the Isle of Wight, 
Mr. Richmond removed to London, where he was to have 
taken a share in the duties of the Lock Chapel. Scarcely, 
however, was he well settled in this new scene, when, in the 
year 1805, he was presented, by Miss Fuller, to the Rectory 
of Turvey, in Bedfordshire. 

It was at Turvey that most of Mr. Richmond's publications 
were undertaken. He had previously printed two or three 
single sermons ; but it was at Turvey that his great work, 
" The Fathers of the English Church," was carried on. For 
the superintendence of this important undertaking, he was 
eminently qualified. While in the Isle of Wight, he had 
commenced an acquaintance with the writings of our earlier 
and greatest theologians ; and the study of them he had ever 
since zealously prosecuted. To a familiar acquaintance with 
the works of those divines, Mr. Richmond united the greatest 
impartiality and judgment in forming his selections from them. 
His work, therefore, presents, in a comparatively small com- 
pass, a large proportion of the most valuable of the remains 
of our martyrs and confessors. It is not, perhaps, too much 
to say, that it has been mainly instrumental in awakening to 


the reformers that attention and interest with which they are 
now increasingly regarded. 

It was during his residence at Turvey, also, that Mr. 
Richmond drew up several little narratives, under the titles of 
" The Dairyman's Daughter," The Negro Servant," " The 
Young Cottager," " The Cottage Conversation," " A Visit 
to the Infirmary," &c., which were originally (in substance) 
inserted in the earlier numbers of the " Christian Guardian," 
and which were afterwards published in a volume entitled 
" Annals of the Poor." These narratives consist of the 
stories of several of Mr. Richmond's parishioners, who had 
either spontaneously imbibed his own pious views, or on 
whom he enforced those views with a zeal and an anxiety 
which could spring only from the purest and most laudable 
motives. Of these productions millions have been circulated, 
and they have been translated into twenty languages. 

During his residence at Turvey, also, Mr. Richmond be- 
came extensively known to the public, as the cordial friend 
and ready advocate of the different religious societies which 
have, within the last thirty years, sprung up in this country. 
His persuasive and pathetic eloquence on these occasions will 
not soon be forgotten. It is believed that his earliest appear- 
ance in this character was on the ninth anniversary of the 
Church Missionary Society, before whom he was appointed, 
in 1809, to preach their annual sermon. 

Mr. Richmond's preaching, for a long series of years, was 
altogether extemporaneous. His ready utterance, his exube- 
rant fancy, his aptness of illustration, his deep knowledge of 
divine subjects, rendered his sermons always interesting and 
useful. Perhaps he did not, upon common occasions, allow 
himself sufficient previous study ; but, if this were his fault, he 
acted upon principle. " Why," he would often say, " why 
need I labour, when our simple villagers are far more usefully 
instructed in my plain, easy, familiar manner ? The only result 
would be, that I should address them in a style beyond their 


His appearance on the platform of a public meeting was 
universally hailed with pleasure. His ready adaptation of 
passing incidents, the suavity of his addresses, sometimes 
solemn, sometimes even jocose, interspersed with interesting 
narratives, which he could so well relate, deservedly placed 
him high in public esteem. 

In 18 14-, Mr. Richmond was appointed Chaplain to the 
late Duke of Kent, by whom he was honoured with a share of 
his Royal Highness's friendship. In 181 7, he was presented, 
by the late Emperor Alexander of Russia, with a splendid 
ring, as a testimony of the approbation with which his Impe- 
rial Majesty viewed the narratives in the " Annals of the 

Many peaceful years were passed by Mr. Richmond at 
Turvey. Happy in the bosom of his family, no man more 
excelled as a pattern of domestic virtues. At length, in 1825, 
his peace sustained a severe blow by the death of his second 
son, a youth in his nineteenth year. For this beloved child he 
had fostered many a fond hope and anxious expectation, and 
beheld, with all a father's joy, " non flosculos sed jam cer- 
tos atque deformatos fructus." This fair flower was withered 
by consumption ; and the bereaved parent, though he sub- 
mitted as a Christian, yet sorrowed as a man. In a few short 
months the stroke was repeated : intelligence arrived that his 
eldest son, who had been absent many years, had died on his 
voyage from India to England. 

These afflicting events had a great effect upon Mr. Rich- 
mond. His bodily health, too, seemed in some measure 
decaying. His multitude of pastoral duties were too heavy 
for his strength. For the last twelve months of his life he was 
troubled with an irritating cough, which seemed to indicate 
an affection of the lungs. He also contracted a violent cold, 
which issued in pleurisy ; from which, however, he shortly 
appeared to be recovering. During all this time, when, cer- 
tainly, no immediate danger was apprehended, he was peace- 
fully and quietly setting his house in order. It soon, however, 


became evident that the flood of life was ebbing, calmly, yet 
fast ; and at length, on the 8th of May, 1827, without pain or 
struggle, Mr. Richmond expired. 

The foregoing Memoir is an abridgment of an Introduction, 
by the Rev. John Ayre (Mr. Richmond's son-in-law), to a new 
edition, recently published, of " Annals of the Poor." 

No. XX. 


IN announcing the death of so illustrious an individual," it 
has been justly observed, " though it may seem to be some 
alleviation that he has filled up the term of human existence, 
yet, when we consider his character, moral as well as intellec- 
tual, his private worth, his amiable qualities, his splendid 
talents, the mind is overborne by the sudden impression of so 
great a calamity, and yields to emotions which could have no 
place under the ordinary dispensations of humanity. For a 
period of more than thirty-nine or forty years, the name of 
Mr. Stewart has adorned the literature of his country ; and it 
is pleasing to remark, as a striking evidence of the influence of 
private worth, to what a high degree of distinction he attained 
in society, though he lived in academical retirement, without 
official influence or dignity of any sort. It is well known that 
he devoted his life to the prosecution of that science of which 
Dr. Reid was the founder, but which was little known or 
attended to, until its great doctrines were expounded by Mr. 
Stewart in that strain of copious and flowing eloquence for 
which he was distinguished, and which, by divesting it of 
every thing abstruse and repulsive, rendered it popular, and 
recommended it to the attention of ordinary readers. But 
greatly as he distinguished himself in his works, he was even 
more eminent as a public teacher. He was fluent, animated, 


and impressive ; in his manner there was both grace and dig- 
nity. In some of his finest passages he kindled into all the 
fervour of extemporaneous eloquence, and we believe, indeed, 
that these were frequently the unpremeditated effusions of his 
mind. His success corresponded to his merits. He com- 
manded, in an uncommon degree, the interest and attention of 
his numerous class ; and no teacher, we believe, ever before 
completely succeeded in awakening in the minds of his ad- 
miring pupils, that deep and ardent love of science, which, in 
many cases, was never afterwards effaced. Mr. Stewart's life 
was devoted to literature and science. He had acquired the 
most extensive information, as profound as it was exact; and 
he was, like many, or, we may rather say, like all, great phi- 
losophers, distinguished by the faculty of memory to a sur- 
prising degree, by which we do not, of course, mean that sort 
of mechanical memory frequently to be seen in weak minds, 
which remembers every thing indiscriminately, what is trifling 
as well as what is important, but that higher faculty, which is 
connected with, and depends on, a strong and comprehensive 
judgment; which, looking abroad from its elevation on the 
various field of knowledge, sees the exact position and rela- 
tion of every fact, to the great whole of which it forms a part ; 
and exactly estimating its importance, retains all that is worth 
retaining, and throws away what is useless. For this great 
quality of a philosophical mind, Mr. Stewart was remarkable ; 
and he dispensed his stores of knowledge either for instruction 
or amusement, as suited the occasion, in the most agreeable 
manner. He was of a most companionable disposition, and 
was endeared to the social circle of his friends, as much by 
his mild and beneficent character, which was entirely free 
from every taint of jealousy or envy, as he was admired for his 
talents." * 

The following interesting Memoir of this eminent and ex- 
cellent person, we have derived from a source which enables 

* Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine. 


us to rely, with perfect confidence, on its correctness and 

Dugald Stewart was the only son who survived the age of 
infancy, of Dr. Matthew Stewart, Professor of Mathematics 
in the University of Edinburgh, and of Marjory Stewart, 
daughter of Archibald Stewart, Esq., one of the Writers to 
the Signet of Scotland. His father, of whom a Biographical 
Memoir has been given to the public by his distinguished 
successor in office, the late Mr. Playfair, is well known to the 
literary world as a geometrician of eminence and originality. 
His mother was a woman remarkable for her good sense, and 
for great sweetness and kindliness of disposition, and was 
always remembered by her son with the warmest sentiments 
of filial affection. 

The object of this brief notice was born in the College of 
Edinburgh, on the 22d of November, 1753, and his health, 
during the first period of his life, was so feeble and precarious, 
that it was with more than the ordinary anxiety and solicitude 
of parents that his infancy was reared. His early years were 
spent partly in the house at that time attached to the Mathe- 
matical Chair of the University, and partly at Catrine, his 
father's property in Ayrshire, to which the family regularly 
removed every summer, when the Academical Session was 
concluded. At the age of seven he was sent to the High 
School, where he distinguished himself by the quickness and 
accuracy of his apprehension, and where the singular felicity 
and spirit with which he caught and transfused into his own 
language the ideas of the classical writers, attracted the parti- 
cular remark of his instructors. 

Having completed the customary course of education at 
this seminary, he was entered as a student at the College of 
Edinburgh. Under the immediate instruction of such a 
mathematician and teacher as his father, it may readily be 
supposed that he made an early proficiency in the exact 


sciences ; but the distinguishing bent of his philosophical 
genius recommended him in a still more particular manner to 
the notice of Dr. Stevenson, then Professor of Logic, and of 
Dr. Adam Ferguson, who filled the Moral Philosophy Chair. 
In October, 1771, he was deprived of his mother, and he, 
almost immediately after her death, removed to Glasgow, 
where Dr. Reid was then teaching those principles of meta- 
physics which it was the great object of his pupil's life to 
inculcate and to expand. 

After attending one course of lectures at this seat of learn- 
ing, the prosecution of his favourite studies was interrupted by 
the declining state of his father's health, which compelled him, 
in the autumn of the following year, before he had reached the 
age of nineteen, to undertake the task of teaching the mathe- 
matical classes. With what success he was able to fulfil this 
duty, was sufficiently evinced by the event ; for, with all Dr. 
Matthew Stewart's well-merited celebrity, the number of 
students considerably increased under his son. As soon as 
he had completed his twenty-first year, he was appointed 
assistant and successor to his father, and in this capacity he 
continued to conduct the mathematical studies in the Univer- 
sity, till his father's death, in the year 1785, when he was 
nominated to the vacant chair. 

Although this continued, however, to be his ostensible 
situation in the University, his avocations were more varied. 
In the year 1778, during which Dr. Adam Ferguson accom- 
panied the Commissioners to America, he undertook to supply 
his place in the Moral Philosophy Class ; a labour that was 
the more overwhelming, as he had for the first time given 
notice, a short time before his assistance was requested, of his 
intention to add a course of lectures on Astronomy to the two 
classes which he taught as Professor of Mathematics. Such 
was the extraordinary fertility of his mind, and the facility 
with which it adapted its powers to such enquiries, that 
although the proposal was made to him and accepted on 
Thursday, he commenced the Course of Metaphysics the fol- 
lowing Monday, and continued, during the whole of the 

s 2 


season, to think out and arrange in his head in the morning 
(while walking backwards and forwards in a small garden 
attached to his father's house in the College), the matter of 
the lecture of the day. The ideas with which he had thus 
stored his mind, he poured forth extempore in the course of 
the forenoon, with an eloquence and a felicity of illustration 
surpassing in energy and vivacity (as those who have heard 
him have remarked) the more logical and better-digested 
expositions of his philosophical views, which he used to deliver 
in his maturer years. The difficulty of speaking for an hour 
extempore, every day on a new subject, for five or six months, 
is not small ; but when superadded to the mental exertion of 
teaching also, daily, two classes of Mathematics, and of deli- 
vering, for the first time, a course of lectures on Astronomy, 
it may justly be considered as a very singular instance of in- 
tellectual vigour. To this season he always referred as the 
most laborious of his life ; and such was the exhaustion of the 
body, from the intense and continued stretch of the mind, 
that, on his departure for London, at the close of the acade- 
mical session, it was necessary to lift him into the carriage. 

In the year 17SO, he began to receive some young noble- 
men and gentlemen into his house as pupils, under his imme- 
diate superintendence, among whom were to be numbered the 
late Lord Belhaven, the late Marquis of Lothian, Basil Lord 
Daer, the late Lord Powerscourt, Mr. Muir Mackenzie of 
Delvin, and the late Mr. Henry Glassford. In the summer 
of 1783, he visited the Continent for the first time, having 
accompanied the late Marquis of Lothian to Paris ; on his 
return from whence, in the autumn of the same year, he mar- 
ried Helen Bannatine, a daughter of Neil Bannatine, Esq., a 
merchant in Glasgow. 

In the year 1785, during which Dr. Matthew Stewart's 
death occurred, the health of Dr. Ferguson rendered it expe- 
dient for him to discontinue his official labours in the Univer- 
sity, and he accordingly effected an exchange of offices with 
Mr. Stewart, who was transferred to the Class of Moral Phi- 
losophy, while Dr. Ferguson retired on the salary of Mathe- 


matical Professor. In the year 1787, Mr. Stewart was 
deprived of his wife by death ; and, the following summer, he 
again visited the Continent, in company with the late Mr. 
Ramsay of Barnton. 

These slight indications of the progress of the ordinary 
occurrences of human life, must suffice to convey to the reader 
an idea of the connection of events, up to the period when Mr. 
Stewart entered on that sphere of action in which he laid the 
foundation of the great reputation which he acquired as a 
moralist and a metaphysician. His writings are before the 
world, and from them posterity may be safely left to form an 
estimate of the excellence of his style of composition of the 
extent and variety of his learning and scientific attainments 
of the singular cultivation and refinement of his mind of the 
purity and elegance of his taste of his warm relish for moral 
and for natural beauty of his enlightened benevolence to all 
mankind, and of the generous ardour with which he devoted 
himself to the improvement of the human species of all of 
which, while the English language endures, his works will 
continue to preserve the indelible evidence. But of one part 
of his fame no memorial will remain but in the recollection 
of those who have witnessed his exertions. As a public 
speaker, he was justly entitled to rank among the very first 
of his day ; and, had an adequate sphere been afforded for the 
display of his oratorical powers, his merit in this line alone 
would have sufficed to secure him an eternal reputation. 
Among those who have attracted the highest admiration in 
the senate and at the bar, there are still many living who will 
bear testimony to his extraordinary eloquence. The ease, the 
grace, and the dignity of his action ; the compass and har- 
mony of his voice, its flexibility and variety of intonation ; the 
truth with which its modulation responded to the impulse of 
his feelings, and the sympathetic emotions of his audience ; the 
clear and perspicuous arrangement of his matter ; the swelling 
and uninterrupted flow of his periods, and the rich stores of 
ornament which he used to borrow from the literature of 
Greece and of Rome, of France and of England, and to inter- 

s 3 


weave with his spoken thoughts with the most apposite appli- 
cation, were perfections not any of them possessed in a 
superior degree by any of the most celebrated orators of the 
age ; nor do I believe that, in any of the great speakers of the 
time (and I have heard them all *), they were to an equal ex- 
tent united. His own opinions were maintained without any 
overweening partiality ; his eloquence came so warm from the 
heart, was rendered so impressive by the evidence which it 
bore of the love of truth, and was so free from all controver- 
sial acrimony, that what has been remarked of the purity of 
purpose which inspired the speeches of Brutus, might justly 
be applied to all that he spoke and wrote ; for he seemed only 
to wish, without further reference to others than a candid dis- 
crimination of their errors rendered necessary, simply and 
ingenuously to disclose to the world the conclusions to which 
his reason had led him: " Non malignitate aut invidia sed 
simpliciter et ingenue judicium animi sui detexisse." 

In 1790, after being three years a widower, he married 
Helen D'Arcy Cranstoun, a daughter of the Honourable Mr. 
George Cranstoun, a union to which he owed much of the 
subsequent happiness of his life. About this time it would 
appear to have been that he first began to arrange some of 
his metaphysical papers with a view to publication. At 
what period he deliberately set himself to think systematically 
on these subjects is uncertain. That his mind had been ha- 
bituated to such reflections from a very early period is suf- 
ficiently known. He frequently alluded to the speculations 
that occupied his boyish, and even his infant thoughts, and 
the success of his logical and metaphysical studies at Edin- 
burgh, and the Essay on Dreaming, which forms the Fifth 
Section of the First Part of the Fifth Chapter of the First 
Volume of the Philosophy of the Human Mind, composed 
while a Student at the College of Glasgow in 1772, at the age 
of eighteen^ are proofs of the strong natural bias which he 
possessed for such pursuits. It is probable, however, that he 

* I speak of Pitt, Fox, Sheridan, agd Windham, and of all those who liave 
been living since their time. 


did not follow out the enquiry as a train of thought, or com- 
mit many of his ideas to writing before his appointment in 
1785 to the Professorship of Moral Philosophy gave a neces- 
sary and steady direction to his investigation of metaphysical 
truth. In the year 1792 he first appeared before the public 
as an author, at which time the First Volume of the Philo- 
sophy of the Human Mind was given to the world. While 
engaged in this work he had contracted the obligation of 
writing the Life of Adam Smith, the Author of the Wealth 
of Nations, and very soon after he had disembarrassed himself 
of his own labours, he fulfilled the task which he had under- 
taken the Biographical Memoir of this eminent man hav- 
ing been read at two several meetings of the Royal Society 
of Edinburgh, in the months of January and March, 1793. 
In the course of this year also, he published the Outlines of 
Moral Philosophy, a work which he used as a text-book, 
and which contained brief notices for the use of his students 
of the subjects which formed the matter of his academical pre- 
lections. In March, 1 796, he read before the Royal Society 
his account of the Life and Writings of Dr. Robertson, and 
in 1802 that of the Life and Writings of Dr. Reid. 

By these publications alone, he continued to be known as 
an author till the appearance of his volume of Philosophical 
Essays in 1810; a work to which a melancholy interest 
attaches, in the estimation of his friends, from the knowledge 
that it was in the devotion of his mind to this occupation that 
he sought a diversion to his thoughts, from the affliction he 
experienced in the death of his second and youngest son. 
Although, however, the fruits of his studies were not given 
to the world, the process of intellectual exertion was unre- 
mitted. The leading branches of metaphysics had become so 
familiar to his mind, that the lectures which he delivered very 
generally extempore, and which varied more or less in the 
language and matter every year, seemed to cost him little 
effort, and he was thus left in a great degree at liberty to apply 
the larger part of his day to the prosecution of his further* 
speculations. Although he had read more than most of those 


who are considered learned, his life, as he has himself some- 
where remarked, was spent much more in reflecting than in 
reading ; and so unceasing was the activity of his mind, and so 
strong his disposition to trace all subjects of speculation that 
were worthy to attract his interest up to their first principles, 
that all important objects and occurrences furnished fresh mat- 
ter to his thoughts. The political events of the time suggested 
many of his enquiries into the principles of political economy ; 
his reflections on his occasional tours through the country, 
many of his speculations on the picturesque, the beautiful, and 
the sublime ; and the study of the characters of his friends 
and acquaintances, and of remarkable individuals with whom 
he happened to be thrown into contact, many of his most pro- 
found observations on the sources of the varieties and anoma- 
lies of human nature. 

In the period which intervened between the publication of 
his first volume of the Philosophy of the Human Mind, and 
the appearance of his Philosophical Essays, he produced and 
prepared the matter of all his other writings, with the excep- 
tion of his Dissertation on the Progress of Metaphysical and 
Ethical Philosophy, prefixed to the Supplement of the Ency- 
clopaedia Britannica. Independent of the prosecution of those 
metaphysical enquiries which constitute the substance of his 
second and third volumes of the Philosophy of the Human 
Mind, to this epoch of his life is to be referred the speculations 
in which he engaged with respect to the science of political 
economy, the principles of which he first embodied in a course 
of lectures, which, in the year ] 800, he added as a second 
course to the lectures which formed the immediate subject of 
the instruction previously delivered in the university from the 
moral philosophy chair. So general and extensive was his 
acquaintance with almost every department of literature, and 
so readily did he arrange his ideas on any subject, with a view 
to their communication to others, that his colleagues frequently, 
in the event of illness or absence, availed themselves of his 
assistance in the instruction of their classes. In addition to 
his own academical duties, he repeatedly supplied the place 


of Dr. John Robison, Professor of Natural Philosophy. He 
taught for several months during one winter the Greek classes 
for the late Mr. Dalzel : he more than one season taught the 
mathematical classes for the late Mr. Playfair : he delivered 
some lectures on Logic during an illness of Dr. Finlayson ; 
and, if I mistake not, he one winter lectured for some time on 
Belles Lettres for the successor of Dr. Blair. 

In 1796, he was induced once more to open his house for 
the reception of pupils, and in this capacity, the late Lord 
Ashburton, the son of the celebrated Mr. Dunning, the pre- 
sent Earl of Warwick, the present Earl of Dudley, Lord 
Palmerston, his brother the Honourable Mr. Temple, and 
Mr. Sullivan, the present Under-Secretary at War, were placed 
.Bunder his care. The Marquis of Lansdowne, though not an 
inmate in his family, was resident at this time in Edinburgh, 
and a frequent guest in his house, and for him he contracted 
the highest esteem ; and he lived to see him, along with two 
of his own pupils, cabinet ministers at the same time. Justly 
conceiving that the formation of manners, and of taste in con- 
versation, constituted a no less important part in the education 
of men destined to mix so largely in the world, than their 
graver pursuits, he rendered his house at this time the resort 
of all who were most distinguished for genius, acquirement, or 
elegance in Edinburgh, and of all the foreigners who were led 
to visit the capital of Scotland. So happily did he succeed in 
assorting his guests, so well did he combine the grave and 
the gay, the cheerfulness of youth with the wisdom of age, and 
amusement with the weightier topics that formed the subject 
of conversation to his more learned visitors, that his evening 
parties possessed a charm which many who frequented them 
have since confessed they have sought in vain in more splendid 
and insipid entertainments. In the year 1806, he accompanied 
his friend the Earl of Lauderdale on his mission to Paris, and 
he had thus an opportunity not only of renewing many of the 
literary intimacies which he had formed in France before the 
commencement of the Revolution, but of extending his ac- 
quaintance with the eminent men of that country, with many 


of whom he continued to maintain a correspondence during 
his life. 

The year after the death of his son, he relinquished his 
chair in the university, and removed to Kinneil House, a seat 
belonging to his Grace the Duke of Hamilton, on the Banks 
of the Firth of Forth, about twenty miles from Edinburgh, 
where he spent the remainder of his days in philosophical 
retirement. From this place were dated, in succession, the 
Philosophical Essays in 1810; the second volume of the 
Philosophy of the Human Mind in 1813; the Preliminary 
Dissertation to the Encyclopaedia ; the continuation of the 
second part of the Philosophy in 1827; and finally, in 1828, 
the third volume, containing the Philosophy of the Active and 
Moral Powers of Man ; a work which he completed only a few 
short weeks before his career was to close for ever. Here he 
continued to be visited by his friends, and by most foreigners 
who could procure an introduction to his acquaintance, till 
the month of January, 1 822, when a stroke of palsy, which 
nearly deprived him of the power of utterance, in a great 
measure incapacitated him for the enjoyment of any other 
society than that of a few intimate friends, in whose company he 
felt no constraint. This great calamity, which bereaved him 
of the faculty of speech, of the power of exercise, of the use 
of his right hand, which reduced him to a state of almost 
infantile dependence on those around him, and subjected him 
ever after to a most abstemious regimen, he bore with the most 
dignified fortitude and tranquillity. The malady which broke 
his health and constitution for the rest of his existence, happily 
impaired neither any of the faculties of his mind, nor the 
characteristic vigour and activity of his understanding, which 
enabled him to rise superior to the misfortune. As soon as 
his strength was sufficiently re-established, he continued to 
pursue his studies with his wonted assiduity, to prepare his 
works for the press with the assistance of his daughter as an 
amanuensis, and to avail himself with cheerful and unabated 
relish of all the sources of gratification which it was still within 
his power to enjoy, exhibiting, among some of the heaviest 


infirmities incident to age, an admirable example of the serene 
sunset of a well-spent life of classical elegance and refinement, 
so beautifully imagined by Cicero : " Quiete, et pure, et ele- 
ganter actae aetatis, placida ac lenis senectus." 

In general company, his manner bordered on reserve ; but 
it was the comitate condita gravitas, and belonged more to 
the general weight and authority of his character, than to any 
reluctance to take his share in the cheerful intercourse of so- 
cial life. He was ever ready to acknowledge with a smile the 
happy sallies of wit, and no man had a keener sense of the 
ludicrous, or laughed more heartily at genuine humour. His 
deportment and expression were easy and unembarrassed, dig- 
nified, elegant, and graceful. His politeness was equally free 
from all affectation, and from all premeditation. It was the 
spontaneous result of the purity of his own taste, and of a heart 
warm with all the benevolent affections, and was characterized 
by a truth and readiness of tact that accommodated his con- 
duct with undeviating propriety to the circumstances of the 
present moment, and to the relative situation of those to whom 
he addressed himself. From an early period of life, he had 
frequented the best society both in France and in this coun- 
try, and he had in a peculiar degree the air of good company. 
In the society of ladies he appeared to great advantage, and 
to women of cultivated understanding, his conversation was 
particularly acceptable and pleasing. The immense range of 
his erudition, the attention he had bestowed to almost every 
branch of philosophy, his extensive acquaintance with every 
department of elegant literature, ancient or modern, and the 
fund of anecdote and information which he had collected in 
the course of his intercourse with the world, with respect to 
almost all the eminent men of the day, either in this country 
or in France, enabled him to find suitable subjects for the 
entertainment of the great variety of visitors of all descriptions, 
who at one period frequented his house. In his domestic 
circle, his character appeared in its most amiable light, and by 
his family he was beloved and venerated almost to adoration. 
So uniform and sustained was the tone of his manners, and 


so completely was it the result of the habitual influence of 
the natural elegance and elevation of his mind on his exter- 
nal demeanour, that when alone with his wife and children, 
it hardly differed by a shade from that which he maintained 
in the company of strangers ; for although his fondness, and 
familiarity, and playfulness were alike engaging and unre- 
strained, he never lost any thing either of his grace or his 
dignity : " Nee vero ille in luce modo, atque in oculis civium 
magnus, sed intus domique prsestantior." As a writer of the 
English language, as a public speaker, as an original, a 
profound, and a cautious thinker, as an expounder of truth, 
as an instructor of youth, as'an elegant scholar, as an 
accomplished gentleman ; in the exemplary discharge of the 
social duties, in uncompromising consistency and rectitude 
of principle, in unbending independence, in the warmth 
and ^tenderness of his domestic affections, in sincere and 
unostentatious piety, in the purity and innocence of his life, 
few have excelled him : and, take him for all in all, it will be 
difficult to find a man, who, to so many of the perfections, has 
added so few of the imperfections of human nature. " Mihi 
quidem quanquam est subito ereptus, vivit tamen semperque 
vivet, virtutem enim amavi illius viri quse extincta non est, nee 
mini soli versatur ante oculos, qui illam semper in manibus 
habui, sed etiam posteris erit clara et insignis." 

Mr. Stewart's death occurred on the llth of June, 1828, at 
No. 5, Ainslie Place, Edinburgh, where he had been for a 
few days on a visit. 

The remains of this distinguished philosopher were interred 
in the Canongate church-yard. The funeral proceeded as a 
private one till it reached the head of the North Bridge, when 
it was joined by the Professors of the University, in their 
gowns, two and two, preceded by the mace-bearer, the junior 
members being in front, and the principal in the rear. After 
them came the Magistrates and Council, preceded by the re- 


galia and officers, the Lord Provost in the rear. Next came 
the hearse, drawn by six horses, with three baton-men on each 
side, and then followed the mourning-coaches and private car- 
riages, with the relations and friends of the deceased. 

A meeting took place in Edinburgh, a few days after, to 
consider of erecting a monument to Mr. Stewart's memory. 
The Lord Chief Commissioner presided, and said, " he felt 
peculiarly gratified with the honour of being placed in the 
chair on the occasion, both on account of the admiration he 
had always entertained for the highly-gifted individual whose 
loss had been the cause of the meeting, and because he be- 
lieved himself to be the only man now alive who had witnessed 
one of the earliest displays of Mr. Stewart's extraordinary 
precocity of talent and of taste. It was an Essay on Dreams, 
delivered in a society of students in Glasgow, when he was 
eighteen years of age. * And such was his Lordship's admir- 
ation of it at the time, and so vivid his recollection even now, 
that he felt himself justified in saying that it evinced those 
powers of profound thinking, ingenious reasoning, beautiful 
illustration, lofty generalization, and almost unequalled felicity 
of expression, which form the charm of his subsequent works. 
Taking this circumstance along with that well known to the 
gentlemen present, that Mr. Stewart had written the prefatory 
notice to his last book a few weeks before his death, at the 
age of seventy-five, he could not help mentioning it as a proud 
example of a human intellect remaining for so long a period 
connected with a mortal body, in a state of pure splendour, 
increasing to the last." 

* See the foregoing Memoir. 


No. XXI. 



1ms officer was appointed a cadet, January 20. 1801, and 
Ensign, September 1 following; and in April, 1802, he joined 
the second battalion of the 18th Native infantry, under Major 
P. Don. In July, 1803, he marched to Allahabad, and joined 
the division of the army destined to penetrate into Bundle- 
cund, at the opening of Lord Lake's campaign against the 
confederated Mahratta chieftains. Having been promoted to 
the rank of Lieutenant, September 30, in October he crossed 
Kane river, under the command of Colonel Powel, and at- 
tacked the confederated Bundela chieftains at Copsah, routed 
them, and captured two guns and some tumbrils. On the 
30th of that month he was present at the capture of forts 
Bursah and Chamonlie ; and, in December, at that of Culpee. 

In February, 1804-, Lieutenant Sackville reinforced Colonel 
(the late Major-General Sir H.) White's division of the army 
before Gualior *, which was reduced after a severe and arduous 
siege of a month's duration. 

In April he rejoined the division of the army in Bundle- 
cund, and was stationed at Kooneh, under the command of 
Colonel Fawcitt. In May he was detached with the first bat- 

* The hill fort of Gualior elands unrivalled in India for extent, importance, 
and natural strength. It is generally termed the Gibraltar of the East, and is 
considered the key of Hindostan by the commanding situation, in central India, 
which it possesses. The active and judicious measures adopted by Sir Henry 
White, in his operations against this place, which, under the most common 
defence, is naturally impregnable, so astonished the garrison, as to lead to its 
surrender after a close siege of little more than a month. 


talion of the 18th regiment, under Captain J. N. Smith, to 
besiege the fort of Belah, belonging to a refractory chief, 
about eight miles from the head- quarters of the division. On 
arriving before the place, orders were given to detach three 
companies, under Captain Watson, to protect the town of 
Kotrah from a body of Pindarries reported to be in the neigh- 
bourhood, leaving for the siege one company of European 
artillery, one troop of cavalry, and seven companies of native 
infantry. Lieutenant Sackville was ordered with two com- 
panies, at 8 P. M., to precede the guns, and seize the village 
of Belah and the outskirts of the fort ; which, under favour 
of a bright full moon, were carried, a lodgment was effected, 
and the guns were advantageously posted for commencing 
operations in the morning, under the command of Captain 
Feade of the artillery. In consequence of the harassing duty 
during the night, Captain Smith deemed it proper to relieve 
the party in the trenches by two companies under Lieutenant 
Gillespie, leaving in camp (which, on account of water, was 
two miles distant from the fort) one troop and five companies 
of Sepoys, amounting altogether to nearly 4-50 men. At sun- 
rise, on an alarm being given by the picquets of a large enemy's 
force in sight, the drum beat to arms, and every preparation 
was made for defence. Shortly after, numerous bodies of horse 
approached the camp, and cut through it in various parties, 
burning the tents, and carrying off cattle. At 8 A. M. this 
small corps found itself hemmed in on all sides, whilst other 
hostile bodies seemed engaged in surrounding the party in the 
trenches; whither, unfortunately, the only six-pounder had 
been sent, to assist in expediting the siege. The enemy's 
force amounted to 22,000 men, under the command of the 
famous Mahratta chieftain, Ameer Khan. At 10 A. M. the 
report was heard of nine guns in the trenches ; and soon after 
the silence which followed, a summons was received to sur- 
render, accompanied by the information of every individual in 
the trenches having been overwhelmed and cut up. The 
corps immediately struck their camp, and formed a square; 
and it was determined by Captain (now Colonel) John Nicho- 


las Smith to fight their way to Kornah, where the head-quar- 
ters of the division lay, and which was about eight miles 
distant. At 1 P. M. they succeeded in rejoining the division, 
which had advanced two miles to meet the enemy and to 
rescue the party, now exhausted with heat and fatigue in re- 
pulsing several attacks, in which they lost some men, and the 
greater part of the baggage. At one time Lieutenant Sack- 
ville had to defend himself against the combined attack of four 
horsemen ; all of whom, however, were shot dead on the spot. 
On this occasion he owed his life to the skill he had acquired 
in the art of fencing at the Naval College at Portsmouth. 

In the following September, Lieutenant Sackville accompanied 
the division, under Colonel (now General Sir G.) Martindell, 
to take possession of the strong holds in Bundlecund, and to 
attack the enemy posted on the hills near Mahobah. On the 
24th September they routed the confederated Bundela chief- 
tains, under Rajah Ram, at the lake and on the heights of 
Mahobah, seized their camp and supplies, and pursued them 
from hill to hill, driving them from a series of strong positions 
until the close of the evening. 

In the same month, Lieutenant Sackville was appointed by 
Colonel Martindell to act as assistant surveyor to the division, 
for the purpose of surveying the route of the troops over the 
unexplored country of Bundlecund. In October he was pre- 
sent at the siege and capture of Jyhtpoor hill-fort, 1 300 yards 
in length, and well (lefended with artillery ; on the east face 
covered by a deep and extensive lake, and on the west well 
supplied with strong flanking towers. The first assault by 
escalade and a coup-de-main, at the gateway, was repulsed 
with a loss of nearly 500 men. The batteries were then 
opened in form, and the garrison reduced to a surrender, after 
a severe siege of one month, at a season the most unfavourable 
for military operations. 

In October, Lieutenant Sackville marched with the division 
to Culpee, on the right banks of the Jumna river, to restore 
the health of the corps, nine-tenths being brought from Jhyt- 
poor in litters. In April, 1805, the division being recruited 


and restored, marched under Colonel Martindell to Hingoona, 
on the banks of the Churnbul, to observe Scindia's operations 
towards the relief of Burtpoor, then besieged by Lord Lake. 
In May, Lieutenant Sackville was appointed by his Lordship 
surveyor to the Bundlecund division of the army, with an 
allowance of 1000/. per annum. In June he marched from 
the Chumbul, and took up a position of surveillance on the 
western frontier, near Ihansi, a rich and flourishing town, 
under an independent Mahratta chieftain, called the Bhow 
Rajah. In November he was detached with a small escort 
to survey some routes through the interior of the Bundela 
states, which he effected in rather more than a month, but 
with great difficulty, from the jealousy of the inhabitants. In 
December he accompanied the division through the Bundela 
states, and took up a position on the Banghem river, ten miles 
north of Fort Callinger. * 

In February, 1806, Lieutenant Sackville was appointed by 
the Governor-General, Lord Wellesley, surveyor of all the 
ceded and conquered countries south of the Jumna river, with 
authority to act and extend his surveys at discretion. In 
March he accompanied Captain Baillie on a tour of settle- 
ment, In April he proceeded with an escort, consisting of a 
complete company, to defend the British and Mahratta fron- 
tier on the right banks of the Jumna, and especially the 
Talooks of Burdike and Joossepara ; also to ascertain and lay 
down the confluence of the Chumbul, Sinde, and Pohoodge 
rivers with the Jumna. Great obstacles were opposed to this 
survey, by the jealousy and barbarism of the feudal tribes in- 
habiting the banks of the Chumbul and Sinde rivers ; and 
the company was ultimately threatened with attacks from par- 
ties of irregular troops, and fired upon by the forts, with which 
the country was covered : but, in the month of June, Lieu- 
tenant. Sackville returned to Bandah, in Bundlecund, for the 
rainy season, having succeeded in every point connected with 

* This hill fortress is of the same description as Gualior, containing in its 
interior a vast surface of .table land, well cultivated, and supplied with springs of 

VOL, Xfll. T 


his expedition. In December he accompanied Mr. John Ri- 
chardson, agent to the Governor-General in Bundlecund, and 
a strong detachment under Colonel Arnold, with a battering 
train, to reduce a variety of hill forts above the second and 
third range of ghauts, subject to Gopal Sing, and situated 
along the southern frontier. 

In January, 1807, the detachment stormed the strong pass 
of Mokundre, numerously defended, leading up the second 
range, by a simultaneous attack of three divisions; two of 
which having, by a difficult and circuitous route, taken the 
enemy in the rear, produced an instantaneous panic, and their 
entire discomfiture. In consequence of this success on the 
main body, in February they captured the fort of Salelchoo, 
seized on two guns which the enemy on withdrawing had taken 
with them, and reduced several forts and strong holds with 
ease and rapidity. 

In March, Lieutenant Sackville proceeded with a small 
detachment of thirty men to penetrate and reconnoitre the 
country on the Boghela frontier, and to bring into his survey 
the Soane river. He found every place in arms at his ap- 
proach, and was pursued by a large collected force for a con- 
siderable distance. In order to save his party, Lieutenant 
Sackville galloped singly into the midst of them, at the moment 
they were aiming their pieces to fire, took them by surprise, 
and succeeded in gaining protection and supplies for the night. 
Similar proceedings occurred on the following day, when he 
received a note from Mr. Richardson, informing him of the 
rebel Gopal Sing having broken his faith, and that he was 
supposed to be in pursuit of this little party. Lieutenant 
Sackville accordingly marched immediately towards the head- 
quarters, sixty miles distant, passed during the night within 
hearing of the enemy, and arrived safely in camp on the 
following day. 

In April he returned with the division towards Bandah, 
after a successful termination of the political intentions of 
government, as connected with the frontier tribes and the wild 
and mountainous Ghoonds. In December, 1807, he accom- 


panied Mr. Richardson, with a strong detachment of artillery 
and troops, to reduce several hill forts and refractory chiefs 
on the southern frontier of the district. This force, under the 
command of Colonel Cuppage, breached and captured Hera- 
pon fort, at the foot of the second range of hills, and com- 
manding the pass ; and in January following it took possession 
of several strong holds and fastnesses in the wild and moun- 
tainous tracts inhabited by the Ghoonds. 

In May, 1808, Lieutenant Sackville was appointed by the 
Commander-in-chief, Lieutenant-General Hewitt, Adjutant to 
the second battalion of the 18th regiment; and in July follow- 
ing he was appointed, by the Governor-General in council, 
surveyor in Bundlecund, with authority to prosecute his sur- 
veys ad libitum, under general instructions from the Surveyor- 
General, Lieutenant-Colonel Colebrooke. In October, 1809, 
the Governor-General, Lord Minto, appointed him Surveyor 
in the ceded and conquered district of Cuttack, and to define 
the British and Mahratta boundaries in Orissa ; and he was 
raised to the rank of Captain, July 11. 1811. In March, 
1813, he was appointed Superintendent of the new Jugger- 
nauth road, extending 300 miles from Juggernauth to Burd- 
wan; and in January, 1817, Lord Hastings nominated him 
first Assistant-Quarter-master-general at the head of the 
Topographical Staff in Bengal. 

In March, 1818, Captain Sackville was relieved by Captain 
E. R. Broughton, at his own express desire, from the duties 
of superintending the construction of the new road. A com- 
mittee of survey was directed to inspect and report on the 
state of the road at the time of transfer, the concluding para- 
graph of whose report was as follows : 

" On consideration of the duty performed by Captain Sack- 
ville, in the superintendence of works on a long-extended line 
of a hundred and eighty miles, both as it regards the labourers 
employed, organizing and controlling their numbers, supplies, 
and exertions ; and with respect to the number and variety of 
bridges, in realising materials, fixing their sites and dimen- 
sions, &c. ; and when the Committee further consider the 

T 2 


nature of the soils, rock, sand, and clay over which the road 
is constructed and carried, the inclined plane over which it 
passes, the deep flats which intersect it, and which must have 
impeded the work considerably ; also the violence of the rainy 
seasons (particularly the last), and the short intervals of dry 
weather and of dry ground for carrying on operations ; they 
(the Committee) have no hesitation in declaring it as their 
opinion, that Captain Sackville merits, and they hope he will 
be honoured with, some very satisfactory mark of the appro- 
bation of government for the zeal, activity, and ability dis- 
played, and which alone could have brought so difficult and 
arduous an undertaking to its present advanced state." 

The previous opinion of the government, in regard to Cap- 
tain Sackville's exertions on the above duty, may be seen 
from the following extracts from Secretary Mackenzie's letter 
of the 23d of August, 1816 : 

" The Governor- General in council has perused with much 
satisfaction the full and comprehensive report which you have 
furnished of your past operations, which has tended to con- 
firm the very favourable opinion already entertained by govern- 
ment of the zealous and well-directed exertions which you 
have manifested in the performance of the important and 
arduous duty intrusted to you. Your suggestions in respect 
to the future execution of the remaining portion of the work 
in question, likewise appear to his Lordship in council calcu- 
lated to be of great utility to the officer on whom that duty 
may devolve. The Governor-General in council received with 
concern the information that the state of your health rendered 
you desirous of being relieved from your present duty. His 
Lordship in council must particularly regret that any thing 
should prevent you from completing the important work which 
you appear so successfully to have brought to its present stage ; 
a service which need not be affected by any alteration likely 
to take place in the nature of your present appointment." 

In May, 1818, Captain Sackville was appointed Assistant- 
.Quarter-master-general, with Major- General Sir G. Martin- 
4ell's force, at Rhorrda, and to survey the country around. 



In February, 1819, he was appointed, by the Marquis of 
Hastings, Deputy Quarter-master-general of the Bengal army, 
with the official rank of Major. In May, 1819, he was 
appointed joint commissioner with Mr. Fleming, court of cir- 
cuit judge, to investigate certain transactions at Malda, of a 
civil and military nature; and in February, 1820, he returned 
to Europe on furlough. 

In the course of his various services, Lieutenant- Colonel 
Sackville prepared for the government in India numerous 
plans and maps of Bundlecund, the district of Cuttack, &c. 

He died at Richmond on the 19th of October, 1827, aged 

The " East India Military Calendar " is our authority for 
the foregoing Memoir. 

T 3 

No. XXII. 



IVlR. KERRICH was descended from a Norfolk family of great 
respectability and no recent establishment, and which has been 
particularly productive of ministers of religion. The Rev. 
John Kerrich, son of John, of Mendham in Norfolk, died 
Rector of Sternfield in Suffolk, in 1691. Another divine, of 
the same name, was instituted Rector of Banham in Norfolk, 
in 1735. His son, the Rev. Thomas Kerrich, was presented 
to the Vicarage of Tibenham, in 1759, and to Banham, in 
1772, and retained both those livings until his death, in 1812. 
The Rev. Charles Kerrich, Curate of Redenhall, became, in 

1749, Vicar of Kenninghall, and Vicar of Wicklewood in 

1750. He published a Fast Sermon, in 1746, on 1 Kings xii. 
10,11., 8vo. There was also a Mr. Kerrich who became 
Rector of Winfarthing, in 1749, and died in 1774; and 
another Rev. Thomas Kerrich died Rector of Great and 
Little Horningsheath, in 1814. More eminent than any of 
those yet named, was the Rev. Walter Kerrich, who much 
distinguished himself at Cambridge, was a Fellow of Catherine 
Hall, and was presented to the London Rectory of St. Cle- 
ment's, Eastcheap, in 1760, and to the Vicarage of Chigwell, 
in 1765, and died in possession of those livings, and of a 
Residentiary Canonry of Salisbury, in 1803. He published 
likewise a Fast Sermon, in 1781, on Joel ii. 12, 13., 4to. His 
son, the Rev. Walter John Kerrich, Prebendary of Salisbury, 


and Rector of Pauler's Pury, in Northamptonshire, is still 

But, besides all the above, there was a Samuel Kerrich, 
Fellow of Bene't College, Cambridge, M.A., 1721, D.D. 1 735, 
who was presented to the Vicarage of Dersingham, in Nor- 
folk, in 1729, to the Rectory of Wolverton in 1731 ; and who 
published " A Sermon preached at the Commencement at 
Cambridge, in 1735," on 1 Pet. iv. 10., 8vo.; and " A Sermon 
preached in the Parish Church of Dersingham and Woolfer- 
ton, in the County of Norfolk, on Thursday, October 9. 1746, 
being the day appointed for a General Thanksgiving to Al- 
mighty God, for the suppression of the late unnatural Rebel- 
lion, &c., Ps. cxxiv. 7., Cambridge, 1746," 8vo. ; and was 
living in 1761. He married a daughter of the Rev. Matthew 
Postlethwayte, Archdeacon of Norwich, by his first wife 
Elizabeth, daughter of the Rev. Robert Rogerson, Rector of 
Denton, Norfolk; which Dr. Postlethwayte, by his second 
marriage, became brother-in-law to Dr. Gooch, Bishop of 
Ely (who was, indeed, his first wife's cousin), and thus was 
introduced to his Archdeaconry. " He had been engaged," 
says Cole, " in the former part of his life, to a young person 
at Cambridge, of the name of Newton, who left him her for- 
tune and estate, and for whom he composed an epitaph in 
Bene't church-yard, Cambridge, which he also did for his 
father-in-law, Archdeacon Postlethwayte, which see in Mr. 
Masters's History of Bene't College, in the Appendix, p. 105 ; 
as also the former, in my sixth volume, where is more relating 
to Dr. Kerrich, who, in 1726, was Rector of St. Benedict's 
Church in Cambridge." * 

The subject of our Memoir was a son of this Dr. Samuel 
Kerrich. He was of Magdalen College, Cambridge ; and, in 
1771, having in that year taken the degree of B. A., with the 
rank of second Senior Optime, was elected one of Wort's 
Travelling Bachelors. He was at the same time tutor to Mr. 
John Pettiward, Fellow-Commoner of Trinity College, the 
eldest son of Dr. Roger Mortlock, alias Pettiward, some time a 

* Restitute, vol. iii. p. 79. 
T 4 


Fellow of that College, and afterwards Chancellor of Chiclies- 
ter, who changed his name from Mortlock to Pettiward, on a 
very large fortune being left him by an uncle. * Mr. Kerrich 
travelled with his pupil through France and the Low Coun- 
tries, settled at Paris for six months, and at Rome for two 
years, f The extent, as well of his travels as of his scientific 
research, will appear by what is hereafter mentioned. In 
1776, we find the Rev. Michael Tyson thus writing to Mr- 
Gough : " Mr. Kerrich and myself are busy every morning, 
making a catalogue of the prints in the public library. Mr. 
Kerrich has the Travelling Fellowship, has been some years 
in Italy, and was rewarded at Antwerp, at the Academy of 
Painting, with a gold medal, for making the best drawing. 
He has a fine collection of drawings from old monuments in 
England, France, and Flanders so good, that I shall be 
ashamed ever to draw another.":}: Mr. Tyson was himself 
eminently skilful in drawing, painting, and etching. There 
are allusions to Mr. Kerrich in others of his letters ; and, in 
1782, Mr. Gough was thus addressed by Mr. Cole : " Be- 
sides these four full sheets of paper, 1 send you Mr. Kerrich's 

draft of Sir de Trumpington, his drawing of Thomas 

Peyton, of Iselham, Esq., temp. Edw. IV., with two others of 
his two wives, most admirably done, and showing the dress of 
the times ; and a fifth, of the tomb, or figure rather, of Sir 
Thomas de Sharnborne, of Sharnborne, in Norfolk, by the 
same excellent hand ; all which I trust to your care, and shall 
be glad to have returned when done with. I could have 
wished he had been more exact in giving draughts of the 
monuments, arms, inscriptions, &c. I am afraid he will dis- 
appoint your expectations of any account of foreign monu- 
ments and habits ; he seemed to me to have only one 
object, that of cross-legged knights, and, perhaps, a few pillars 
in churches." From this it appears that Mr. Kerrich's atten~ 

* Restituta, vol. iv. p. 407. 

f- Ibid. vol. Hi. p. 79. 

| Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, vol. viii. p. 621. 

Ibid, vol.'i. p. 695. 


tion was especially directed to the effigies : but Mr. Cole 
scarcely did him justice. In his preface to the first volume of 
his " Sepulchral Monuments," in 1786, Mr. Gough expressed 
himself " happy in testifying his acknowledgments to Mr. 
Kerrich, for several highly-finished drawings." As engraved 
in the work, may be specified two, of the effigies of Sir Hugh 
Bardolph, at Ban ham, in Norfolk, accompanied by a descrip- 
tion, in Mr. Kerrich's own words, at vol. i. p. 36. ; one of that 
of Sir Robert du Bois, ibid. p. 79.; brasses of Sir John and 
Lady Creke, ibid. 142.; Sir John de Freville, ibid. 170.; 
Thomas Peyton, Esq. and his two wives, vol. ii. p. 286. 

In 1784, Mr. Kerrich was presented to the Vicarage of 
Dersingham, by D. Hoste, Esq. He proceeded M.A. in 
1775, and about the same time was elected Fellow of his 
College. In 1797, he was elected Principal Librarian. In 
1798, he was presented, by Bishop Pretyman, to the Prebend 
of Stow Longa in the Cathedral of Lincoln; and, in 1812,'by 
Bishop Beadon, to. that of Shandford, in the Cathedral of 

Early in the present century, Mr. Kerrick became a Fellow 
of the Society of Antiquaries ; and, during the remainder of 
his life, he furnished several important articles to its Archaeo- 
logia. The first of these was in 1809, " Some Observations 
on the Gothic Buildings abroad, particularly those in Italy ; 
and on Gothic Architecture in general." It was printed in 
the 16th volume of the " Archaeologia ; " and it is so exceed- 
ingly interesting in itself, and shows so distinctly the extent of 
Mr. Kerrich's knowledge of the subject, and the perspicuity 
and elegance with which he was capable of communicating 
that knowledge to others, that we are induced to subjoin it. 

" By the Gothic, I mean the light style of architecture 
which has been long known by that name, and was the mode 
of building most in use, all over Europe, during the thirteenth, 
fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries. 


" When it received this appellation, has been much dis- 
puted : Torre intimates that it was first so called by Cesare 
Cesariani, in his " Commentary on Vitruvius." But it seems 
to have been the custom, upon the revival of antique architec- 
ture, and classical learning, to give the name of Gothic, by 
way of reproach, to every thing in the arts, as well as in lite- 
rature, which differed from, or was not formed upon, ancient 

" They took no notice of the great variety and different 
modes of building that had prevailed in all the ages, from the 
decline of the Greek and Roman architecture, to the end of 
the fifteenth century ; but threw them altogether into one 
great class of things, barbarous and Gothic, from which they 
were to turn their eyes, and which, they thought, were stu- 
diously to be avoided. However, a distinction was at length 
made between the old, heavy, clumsy style of the earlier ages, 
and the light, airy one which succeeded ; and the terms heavy 
and light Gothic were introduced, I believe, before the end of 
the sixteenth century. In the time of Vasari and Lomazzo, 
the light Gothic was called Maniera Tedesca ; and Vasari falls 
upon it with great virulence, and calls it a curse which had 
lighted upon the whole of Italy, from one end of it to the other. 

" In later times, it has been the custom to restrain the term 
Gothic to this light style only, and it has long been so called ; 
and that name was received all over Europe : we find it con- 
tinually used by all the travel writers, and in the guide-books 
of the different cities upon the Continent, as well as by writers 
on the arts themselves, during the whole of the last two cen- 
turies ; and it was so well established, and every body under- 
stood, and knew so exactly, what it meant, that it really does 
appear to be a great pity people would not rest contented with 
it. It answered completely all the purposes of language ; and 
much confusion has been caused, of late, by the introduction 
and unsteady use of new and dubious names ; and a vast deal 
has been written which might have well been spared. 

" The Italians call the old, heavy style of building, Lom- 
bard architecture, because they conceive that it was in fashion 



during the time that the Lombards were powerful in Italy ; 
and we, for a like reason, call it Saxon and Norman : but the 
architecture is the same. And it is a most striking phenome- 
non, and not easily accounted for, that the same style of build- 
ing was so widely diffused over Europe, and that it should 
have prevailed in every country, as it really appears to have 
done, nearly at the same time. 

" The cause of this wonderful consent and similarity of 
style certainly deserves investigation. The fact was not over- 
looked by those who first (I mean in later times) turned their 
attention to the history of architecture ; but instead of examin- 
ing into the matter as they ought, they seem to have solved 
the difficulty hastily, and wrong. They took it for granted 
that it must have been brought to us, from some distant 
country, ripe and adult, and in its full vigour ; and that the 
various people of the western world implicitly received it, and 
made use of it exactly as it was delivered to them, without 
making any alterations, or exercising their own judgment at 
all, concerning it ; and they would, of course, naturally enquire 
from whence it came, and by whom, and at what time it was 
imported. They indulged themselves in various conjectures 
they brought it from the north, from the south, and from 
the east : Goths, Arabs, and Indians have all been honoured 
with the invention ; and it was not till very lately, that men, 
finding all these notions entirely destitute of facts by which 
they could be supported, began to look nearer home ; to 
observe the buildings around them ; to compare them, and 
remark their varieties, connections, and relation to one another : 
and, on considering the nature of the objects themselves, and 
the abilities required for their production, they began to per- 
ceive, that not only creative fancy and talents, but even the 
ignorance and inability of Europeans in the middle ages, and 
the clumsiness of their artificers, might contribute to form this 
new and unheard-of style of building. 

" Mr. Walpole says, and says well, e When men enquire, 
who invented Gothic buildings, they might as well ask, who 
invented bad Latin?' But this can be meant only of the old, 


heavy Gothic. And when he goes on to say, ' Beautiful 
Gothic architecture was engrafted on Saxon deformity, and 
pure Italian succeeded to vitiated Latin,' we must pause a 
little, to consider whether the parallel here holds good. At 
least, we must take the liberty to point out this difference : 
the Italian still retains a great resemblance to its mother lan- 
guage, but scarcely any trace is left of Greek or Roman archi- 
tecture in that which we call Gothic. We deny not that it 
might have the antique architecture for its basis and found- 
ation ; but we may venture to affirm, that even admitting that 
to have been the case, so much of later invention, or derived 
from other sources, has been mingled with it, that it has as- 
sumed a form entirely new, of a character peculiar to itself, 
and perfectly distinct and different from every thing that had 
appeared before. 

" Whence all the various materials were collected, or who 
arranged and disposed them in the beautiful order, and with 
the admirable uniformity in which we now see them, it is 
impossible for us to discover at this distance of time, and 
without any assistance but what the buildings themselves 
afford. Perhaps every country contributed something, which, 
if it was found consonant to, and agreeing with, the reigning 
taste in every age, was immediately adopted and received by 
the rest : so that no one people could claim the invention of 
the architecture which they all used. 

" But the great questions commonly asked are, * What was 
the origin of the pointed arch? and when, where, and by 
whom was it invented ? ' 

" Now, let us consider for a moment the nature of these 
questions ; what, in reality, is their object ; and what answers 
can possibly be expected to them ; or whether they do, indeed, 
admit or are capable of any answers. 

" As to the figure itself, that is very ancient, indeed, and 
must have been as well known to the Romans, Greeks, Egyp- 
tians, and all the different people of antiquity, as it was to the 
Gothic architects themselves who used it. Whoever had de- 


monstrated the very first proposition of Euclid must have 
drawn it. 

" But * who first built an arch of this form and figure, and 
what led him to think of doing such a thing ? What led to 
the invention? ' 

" We cannot surely hope ever to obtain a satisfactory 
answer to the first question. Several theories have been devised 
as to the circumstances which might furnish hints for the dis- 
covery, or invention, as it is called ; or, rather, might put men 
upon erecting such an arch. 

" Mr. Bentham had one, Mr. Essex had another, and Sir 
James Hall a third ; and two or three others might be offered, 
just as plausible as any of theirs. But as most of these theo- 
ries propose rather to show and point out what possibly might 
have induced these architects to build the pointed arch, than 
what did actually make them do it, they are but theories 
they are of little value. 

" We ought carefully to distinguish between invention and 
what might lead to the use of things that were long before in- 
vented, and were generally known. 

" Leaving this, then, as a hopeless, if not a nugatory, en- 
quiry, we will only remark, that such pointed arches as we 
are speaking of, which have long been called Gothic, were 
built in England, and, as far as we know, in the other countries 
of Europe, as early as the beginning of the twelfth century ; 
and, before the end of it, became very common. 

" But the pointed arch alone does not constitute Gothic 
architecture, though it may be peculiar to it, and has produced 
a new and endless variety, of which the other kinds of archi- 
tecture are incapable. Its light pillars, long, thin shafts, 
elegant foliages and vaultings ; its tracery, and numerous other 
graceful and nameless forms of beauty ; are equally essential, 
and full as important to its general character. 

" However, we are not to suppose it was always thus deli- 
cate and finished. It struggled for some time with the remain- 
ing coarseness and rudeness of the more barbarous ages, 
before it shone forth in this new and splendid form ; and, not- 


withstanding all its charms, we may remark, that light, and 
beautiful, and elegant as it was, it did not long continue in the 
world. For little more than three centuries did it exist pure 
and unmixed. In the twelfth century, it was not quite freed 
or disentangled from the old architecture ; and what we had of 
it in the sixteenth, was joined to bad imitations of the antique, 
with arabesques, and small ornaments, such as the Italians had 
borrowed from the ancients, as may be observed in Bishop 
West's Chapel at Ely. The first of these impure and adul- 
terated styles has been called Norman Gothic ; and the three 
ages, when it existed in its purity, have been distinguished also 
by similar names : as Gothic (properly so called), Ornamented 
Gothic, and Florid Gothic. But, perhaps, it would have 
been better to have simply distinguished them, as Vasari has 
the different styles of painting, by the centuries in which they 
flourished ; for people will not be contented with such names 
as these ; they wilt be continually meddling with, and altering 
them, in hopes of making them more expressive ; and there is 
always great danger of their giving rise to wearisome disser- 
tations and frivolous disputes. 

" This could not well be the case, if they were named only 
from the centuries ; there would be no room for alteration. 
Vasari's system still obtains, and we all perfectly understand, 
without any vexatious discussions or ambiguity, what is meant 
by a 2 cento, 3 cento, 4* cento, or 5 cento picture, without any 
circuitous explanation. 

" It is remarkable that, in all the arts, the period of about 
a hundred years has commonly produced a sufficient change to 
mark and constitute a fairly distinct style ; and, as it has been 
admirably well observed *, this style, or peculiar manner of every 
age, is a thing so very delicate, as well as determined, that no 
other age can imitate it exactly. But though this does appear 
to be certainly true, and the decidedly distinct and different 
styles agree, as we have said, with the number of the centu- 
ries, I would by no means be understood to assert, that they 
began and ended abruptly with those centuries, or that any 

* Mr. Wilkins's Essay in the twelfth volume of the Archaeologia. 


one of them was in fashion, or kept its ground, exactly a 
hundred years. Some had a longer and some a shorter 
period of duration ; and all the changes obtained, and were 
brought about by degrees ; and one style began before another 
ended ; yet there is, in each, something so characteristic, that 
we rarely meet with a building, a picture, or a piece of sculp- 
ture, which might not readily be referred to the age in which 
it really was produced, by a man versed in these things, and 
who had been accustomed to consider and study them. Yet, 
though these different styles are thus clearly distinguishable 
from each other, there is still a character so entirely and com- 
pletely its own in Gothic architecture, diffused through all the 
ages of it ; the genius of it is so different from and unlike any 
thing else, that we may fairly assert, no architecture whatever 
had more congruity, or was, throughout, more of a piece with 
itself, than this. The principles of it, upon which, undoubt- 
edly, this congruity and uniformity depend, are unfortunately 
lost : no books are known to exist that give us any information. 
We know not even the names the Gothic architects gave to 
any of their ornaments : those we now use are all of modern 
fabrication. It is possible, some treatises of architecture may 
be found in conventual libraries abroad ; if we had any in 
England, they, probably, perished at the Reformation. 

" But though no books remain, such a prodigious number 
of buildings are left, that it is not unreasonable to presume 
the principles and rules by which they were designed might 
yet be retrieved, if men would fairly set themselves upon the 
investigation. Till these rules are discovered, all our attempts 
to build in the Gothic style must be unsuccessful. Mr. Essex, 
and, I believe, others of the more sensible men that have un- 
dertaken to do it, readily owned that they were doing nothing 
but imitating particular buildings, or parts of buildings ; and 
their works surely correspond with this confession. They are 
commonly made up of incongruous and disagreeing parts, 
collected from buildings of the best ages, coarsely copied, and 
so placed and put together, as no Gothic architect would have 
disposed them. 


" Even the smallest fragment, therefore, of any works of 
the three good ages of this architecture must be valuable ; and 
may possibly be extremely important. It is lamentable to see 
them destroyed ; and perhaps still more provokingly so, to see 
them modernized, or (as they call it) improved. Attempts 
to improve, where men have no knowledge, must be absurd : 
and when we hear of great improvements to be made in this 
or that cathedral, or great church, we have cause to tremble : 
we may be sure some irreparable mischief is at hand. 

" When people destroy these structures, they deprive the 
world of the sources from which, and from which only, 
knowledge and information of this kind can be drawn : 
to preserve them is meritorious ; but let us remember 
it is absolutely impossible to improve them. It would be 
scarcely more absurd to think of altering Virgil's ^Eneid, in 
order to make it better ; or of adding force and beauty to one 
of Cicero's Orations, by cutting out some of the sentences, and 
supplying their place with modern compositions of our own, 
which we might foolishly imagine were more correct and 
vigorous. In this case, indeed, no great harm would be done : 
every body would laugh, and the things would remain as they 
are : neither the poem nor the oration would suffer. But 
these old buildings must be considered as rather resembling 
ancient manuscripts, which may perhaps be unique ; and if 
such be mangled, or interpolated, the evil can never be un- 
done ; the business is at an end ; the thing is lost for ever. 
And if the alteration should be so cleverly made, and the 
additions so dexterously inserted, as to deceive and impose 
upon the world, the matter becomes worse a great deal ; it can 
be considered then but as an ingenious fraud. 

" Our ancestors, in the former part of the last century, and 
in that before it, despising Gothic architecture, and blind to 
all its beauties, neglected, rather than destroyed, the remains 
of it in England. They built up Grecian altars and altar- 
pieces, and galleries, in Gothic churches and chapels ; and 
these strange improper things of their own erecting and in- 
vention seem to have been the only objects of their admiration. 
The very same was done in every country upon the continent : 


and as the genius of the Roman Catholic religion led them to 
more expensive decorations than we Protestants admit, they 
carried this absurdity much farther ; magnificent altars, sta- 
tues, sculptured monuments, and pictures, engrossed all the 
attention, not only of the inhabitants themselves, but of strangers 
and foreigners, who visited their countries. The Gothic 
churches themselves were not noticed ; they were considered 
as mere receptacles for the great works of art, with which they 
were crowded, and were never mentioned by travellers on their 
return home, nor by the writers of travels. 

" And this may have contributed to establish an opinion 
which has been entertained, that there is little or no Gothic 
architecture to be found abroad ; that it was invented here ; 
and what the other countries have of it was derived from us : 
that we have an exclusive right to it, and that it ought to be 
called English architecture. 

" The late Mr. Gilpin, I believe, first broached this notion* : 
at least, he first delivered it to the world in print : he had 
never been out of England ; he was therefore excusable : but 
how people that had travelled, and had visited the other 
countries of Europe, could patronise such a notion, is really 
surprising : they must know, unless they voluntarily shut their 
eyes, that throughout the Low Countries, from St. Omer's to 
Cologne, the old churches are all Gothic, and many of them 
immense structures, and wonderfully beautiful ; such as the 
cathedrals of Antwerp and Mechlin, St. Gudule's at Brus- 
sels, and St. Bavon's at Ghent, and numberless others. The 
whole of France is covered with them, from Calais to Lyons ; 
and quite to the banks of the Rhine, where the cathedral of 
Strasburg is eminently light and beautiful. The cathedral 
and church of St. Nicaise at Rheims, the cathedrals of Amiens, 
Rouen, and Evreux, are also well known as buildings of ex- 
traordinary dimensions and elegance in this style of architec- 

* Gilpiu's Northern Tour, vol. i. 


" According to Ponz's Viage de Espana, and the writings 
of other travellers, the case is the very same in every king- 
dom of Spain. 

<e This style of building is so very general, and is spread so 
widely over the whole of Germany, that many people have 
thought that, in all probability, it really had its origin there. 
The Italians, as I have before observed, call it German archi- 
tecture, and so appear to acknowledge the justice of this opi- 
nion. But no great stress can be laid on their so naming it, 
because, I should think, it would only argue that they received 
it from that country, were there not other reasons that incline 
us to believe that Germany has, upon the whole, rather the 
best claim. 

" That it prevailed in Italy, in all its different styles and 
ages, there can be no doubt : the buildings now existing there 
would be an incontrovertible proof, though Vasari and the 
other writers had spared their bitter execrations. 

" As these buildings have never been described, indeed 
scarcely mentioned, by the numerous writers who have travelled 
into Italy, and undertaken to give an account of it, I beg leave 
to lay before the Society a few sketches and memorandums 
that I made upon the spot, concerning some of them ; which, 
slight and inaccurate as they are, may be sufficient to show 
that their architecture was the same with ours, and, as far as 
we can find, at the same periods of time. 

" The cathedrals of Placentia, Parma, Modena, Cremona, 
and Pavia, are all of what we call Norman architecture ; and 
do not differ more from some of our churches in England, than 
our churches do from one another ; though I do not know 
that we have any where the whole of the original west front 
remaining so perfect as it does in these : ours have in general 
been all gothicised, entirely or in part. That of Castle Rising 
Church, in Norfolk, is the most nearly complete of any I 
recollect to have seen in England. 

" I made sketches of the fronts of the three cathedrals of 
Placentia, Parma, and Modena, which accompany this paper. 


The cathedral of Favia has been modernised ; of that of Cre- 
mona there is a print in Campi. 

" Other churches in the same style in Italy, are, St. John 
Baptist's, St. Ambrose, and St. Giovanni in Conca, at Milan ; 
the cathedrals of Genoa and Spoletto; the great church at 
Civita Castellana, and S. Francesco at Assisi ; and numberless 
others, no doubt, which I have not seen. 

" S. Francesco's, at Placentia, is of what we call Norman 
Gothic : I have made a plan and section of it. 

" Of the light Gothic are the churches of Santa Croce and 
Santa Maria Novella, at Florence, and the cathedral there ; 
though in this there is a considerable mixture of Saracen or- 
naments. The cathedral of Arezzo, the fronts of the cathe- 
drals of Orvieto and Siena ; St. Anthony's church at Pistoia, 
St. Frediano at Lucca, and, above all, the cathedral of Peru- 
gia, and the little church de la Spina, at Pisa, are particularly 
light and elegant. 

" The Campo Santo and Baptistery at Pisa are well known, 
and have already been sufficiently described in the Archseologia. 

" And, last of all, I will offer some remarks upon the Great 
Church at Milan; perhaps the largest and the most magnificent 
Gothic church in the world : it was founded by the first Duke, 
John Galeas Visconti, towards the end of the fourteenth cen- 
tury; and agrees perfectly, as to style in general, with the 
churches built in England, and in the other parts of Europe, 
about the same time : though there are certainly some things 
in it very extraordinary, and such as are hardly to be met 
with in any other building. 

" It is an immense structure, superior in size to every other 
church in Italy, except St. Peter's at Rome. It is built of 
brick, and is cased within and without with marble, except 
the inside of the roof, which has been plastered and painted. 
The west front is unfinished, and has Grecian doors and win- 
dows, with a mixture of some Gothic ornaments, which, of 
course, are extremely awkward, and give it a disagreeable 
appearance. The body of the church consists of a nave and 
four aisles ; or, as they call them, five naves. The transepts 

u 2 


have only two aisles. The pillars, which support the arches, 
are composed each of a large round one, with eight smaller 
ones joined to it. The capitals are rich with fruits and flowers 
and foliage, and, I believe, are all different : above them, in 
each pillar, is a kind of band or fillet of niches or tabernacles, 
in which are statues, eight over each pillar. The canopies 
over these statues, and the pedestals on which they stand, are 
all different ; indeed, in some of the pillars, I believe, there 
are scarcely any niches at all, only plain spaces, against which 
the statues are placed; but whether there be niches, or only 
plain spaces, the statues are always placed directly over the 
intervals, between the small pillars, where the principal round 
pillar appears ; and the little pillars, or finials, between the 
niches, are over the small pillars of the shaft. Above these 
niches are pillars of the same construction with those below 
them (that is, composed of one large round one, and eight 
smaller joined to it), and these immediately support the vault. 
The window at the end of each transept is very remarkable : 
the lower part of it is pushed out like a modern bow-window, 
and the head of it left in the plane of the wall, which makes, 
in the whole, a kind of Gothic window which I never saw any- 
where else. 

" The outside of the building is not nearly finished. Very 
few of the small spires or pinnacles, which make so mag- 
nificent an appearance in the prints and views of this church, 
are not yet built. The dome only, and the principal spire, are 
finished ; and the former, when I was first at Milan, still 
wanted the statue of the virgin to complete it. This was put up 
during my stay in Italy ; a prodigious figure made of copper. 

" Till we went upon the roof of the church, I had no idea 
of the vast profusion of delicate ornaments and Gothic work, 
or of the astonishing number of statues and relievos, that we 
found there : some very small, and many of them good. They 
are of very different degrees of merit, and were made in differ- 
ent ages. I observed one that was antique, and only one; a 
female figure, and that so placed in a corner, that it was not 
easy to see it to advantage. 


" It is extremely singular that there is no covering of tiles, 
or lead, or copper, or any roof of timber, to this church ; 
it is merely vaulted over, and upon the vaulting are laid large 
slabs or planes of marble, to carry off the rain and moisture. 

" We have nothing in England that can bear any com- 
parison with this building, as to the immensity of the work, or 
the astonishing and endless labour that has been expended 
upon it. Some modern critics have called it the very acme 
and ne plus ultra of the absurdity and folly of Gothic archi- 
tecture * ; and however we may differ from them in this violent 
censure, we may observe, that it proves clearly they allow its 
pre-eminence and superiority to every thing else of the same 

" And possibly, if they had taken into consideration the 
aim and intention of the people who executed this great work, 
they might have found it wise to have been less decisive, and 
less severe. 

" It was not the object of the architects or authors of these 
Gothic buildings merely to strike the senses with what is ex- 
ternally grand and beautiful : we must recollect that there are 
two kinds of feelings to be satisfied. What is beautiful or 
charming to the eye may not always be so to the understand- 
ing. Gothic architects did not neglect those beauties which 
strike the spectator with ideas of grandeur, with dignity, and 
with awe : their works possess those qualities in an eminent 
degree: but they did not stop here; they meant to satisfy 
and (if I may so speak) even satiate the beholder's mind with 
the intrinsic merit, the richness, the finished excellence of every 
the smallest, the most minute, and most hidden part of what 
they executed. They appear to have courted scrutiny and 
investigation. They seem to have wished that their works 
should, in some measure, resemble those of nature, which con- 
tinue to unfold new beauties and new miracles the more and 
the more closely they are examined. They abhorred the very 
idea of any thing like deception or imposture in their build _ 
ings, and would have discarded with contempt, and almost 

* Cochin and Richard. 
U 3 


with horror, when they were erecting a temple to the Deity, 
the stucco, the artificial marble, the plaster walls, and all those 
substitutes which we now employ and admire, and which are 
intended to look like something they are not. 

" They would have considered them as only fit for the 
decoration and construction of a theatre, where we expect not 
any thing that is real or substantial. They meant, in a word, 
that their churches should not only be striking and beautiful, 
and grand and solemn, but also rich and expensive, in reality 
as well as appearance ; and intrinsically valuable, and durable, 
and solid. 

" I will only add, that of the great church of Milan there 
are several prints, particularly four by an engraver of the 
name of Poer, which give a fair general idea of it : they con- 
sist of a plan, two sections, and a north-west view. But it 
would require a large volume to display all its numerous 
beauties in detail." 

This admirable paper was accompanied by eighteen draw- 
ings, illustrative of the various cathedrals, &c. to which it 
refers ; and when the Society of Antiquaries had determined 
upon inserting it, as well as the illustrations, in the " Archa2- 
ologia," Mr. Kerrich, in April, 1811, wrote a letter to the 
Secretary of the Society, in which he says, 

" I am much flattered that the Society think my Disser- 
tation upon Gothic Architecture worth publishing, and I here 
transmit to you the notes which I wished to add to it. I could 
further wish it should be understood, I am so little attached 
to what is contained in it, that I shall be ready to give up any 
part, or even the whole, of what I have advanced, should it 
appear to disagree with notions better founded, or be incom- 
patible with facts that are more clearly proved and established. 

" It is by no means. my intention to enter into disputes : I 
have no systems or theories to defend: my only object, in 
what I have written, was to state some things which are not 


generally known, and to propose some hints which I thought 
might lead to further discoveries in a matter with which we 
seem to be at present but little acquainted." 

The notes which accompanied this communication are of 
considerable extent, and manifest extraordinary minuteness 
and accuracy of research. 

In March, 1813, Mr. Kerrick sent to the Society of Anti- 
quaries drawings of some broken lids of stone coffins, which 
were discovered in Cambridge Castle, when great part of it 
was destroyed in the beginning of the year 1810. In the 
letter accompanying these drawings, Mr. Kerrick observes 
that the castle was said to have been built by William the 
Conqueror ; and that as the coffin-lids in question were found 
under part of the original ramparts, it should seem that they 
must be at least as ancient as William's time. The account 
was printed in the seventeenth volume of the Archaeologia, 
and was accompanied by two plates. 

On the 24-th of March, 1814, there were read, at a meet- 
ing of the Antiquarian Society, a number of curious and 
valuable observations, by Mr. Kerrich, upon some sepulchral 
monuments in Italy and France, illustrated by minute and 
accurate drawings. The introduction to these observations 
well deserves to be quoted. 

" Several writers have endeavoured to trace the arts in 
Italy as far back as possible, and they have given us volumin- 
ous histories of their artists ; but travellers in general attended 
little to what was produced there, either in painting or in 
sculpture, till the time of Raphael and Michael Angelo, and 
the succeeding ages, whilst they flourished in their greatest 
vigour. The ancient pictures were considered as barbarous 
rude things, whose only merit was their antiquity, and the 
sculptures were entirely overlooked. 

" The admiration of strangers was universally engrossed 
by the treasures of antique statuary with which Italy abounds, 
and the comparatively feeble exertions of the moderns were 
not noticed. 

u 4 


" Their works, notwithstanding, by no means deserved this 
neglect. Merely as the first dawnings of the arts in Europe, 
after the long darkness which had overspread it, they claimed 
some respect. As specimens of the taste and acquirements of 
the respective ages in which they were executed, they are 
curious. They are the materials from which only a history 
of the arts can be collected ; and if the circumstances of the 
times in which the authors of them lived be taken into the 
account, many of them, unquestionably, must be esteemed 
astonishing efforts of genius, such as would do honour to more 
polished times, and are but rarely found even in the works of 
men who have all the advantages of science and learning. A 
history of the arts themselves, unconnected with that of the 
professors, certainly is much wanted. I do not mean to enter 
upon it, but to point out some early works of sculpture still 
existing in Italy, which struck me as valuable, and which I 
believe have never been sufficiently described." 

One of the monuments principally alluded to by Mr. Ker- 
rich, is that of Bernabo Visconti, at Milan, whose family was 
connected with that of England, by the marriage of his niece, 
Violante, with Lionel, third son of our King Edward the 
Third. At the close of the following general character of the 
monument, there is a sly hit at modern artists, which we wish 
had not so much foundation in truth. 

" As to the statue itself, its intrinsic merit, and the style of 
sculpture^ though we cannot point it out as an object of 
admiration, or pretend that the arts, when it was produced, 
appear to have made many great advances towards perfection, 
we may justly praise the plain unadulterated good sense that 
appears in it. Though it may be deficient, there is nothing 
in it deserving of censure : no bad taste, no affectation to dis- 
gust us. Nothing can be more simple than this statue : the 
attitude is quiet, but it struck me that it is not without great 
dignity. There is no bustle, no agitation, but neither is it 
lifeless. Both the horse and his rider look as if they could 
move, were there any real occasion. Bernabo may be con- 
sidered here as at the head of his army, but not in the heat of 


battle. His right arm is rested on his truncheon, and he is 
evidently attentive to something before him. It must, however, 
be confessed that the statue is stiff; and, possibly, what we 
are inclined to consider as a sort of quiet dignity in the old 
sculptures of these times, may frequently have arisen from 
want of education in the artists. They never had the advan- 
tage of studying in academies, and so, perhaps, had not suffi- 
cient powers to run into the violence and extravagance which 
disgrace the works of some of the more modern admired 

These observations were published in the eighteenth volume 
of the " Archseologia," and were accompanied by eight plates, 
either etched by Mr. Kerrich himself, or copied from his etch- 
ings. It was the sight of these and other specimens of Mr. 
Kerrich's skill in delineating monumental effigies, that induced 
the late excellent artist, Mr. C. A. Stothard, F.S.A., to under- 
take his beautiful work on those very interesting remains of 
ancient art, and undoubted authorities for the features and 
costumes of the mighty in former ages. " There are," says 
Mr. Stothard, in his prospectus, " though not generally 
known, as they have never been published, a few etchings by 
the Rev. T. Kerrich *, of Cambridge, from Monuments in the 
Dominicans' and other Churches in Paris, which claim the 
highest praise that can be bestowed, as well for their accuracy 
as for the style in which they are executed ; these are men- 
tioned as a tribute which they deserve, and as a sight of them 

* Perhaps a list of those subjects etched by Mr. Kerrich, with which we have 
become acquainted, will be interesting : 1. Effigy of Peter Earl of Richmond, 
in the Church of Aquabella in Savoy (two plates) ; 2. Peter de Aquabella, 
Bishop of Hereford, in the same Church ; 3. Equestrian Statue of Bernabo 
Visconti, at Milan (several plates) ; 4. Monument of Matteo Visconti, at the 
same city; 5. Louis Earl d'Evreux, in the Church of the Dominicans at Paris 
(all the preceding are in the Archceologia) ; 6. Charles Earl of Anjou, ] 285 : 
7. Philip d'Artois, 1298 ; 8. Robert Earl of Clermont, 1317 ; 9. Louis Earl of 
Clermont, 1341 ; 10. Peter Duke of Bourbon, slain at Poictiers, 1356; and 11. 
Charles Earl of Valois, all from the Church of the Dominicans at Paris ; 12. A 
Bishop at Pavia; 13. a Harsyck, from South Acre Church, Norfolk; 14, 15. 
two portraits from paintings by B. Gozzoli. 


induced the proprietor of this work to execute the etchings for 
it himself." 

Desirous of obtaining the critical remarks of Mr. Kerrich, 
Mr. Stothard gladly conveyed to him the first number of his 
work. " Of this gentleman, who is still living, delicacy," 
says Mrs. Stothard, in her admirable sketch of the life of her 
lamented husband, " forbids me speaking all I feel ; but grati- 
tude for the friendship and kindness he evinced towards my 
husband during his life, and towards myself since his decease, 
forbids my being silent. Mr. Kerrich was one of the earliest and 
most zealous friends Charles ever found. To great antiquarian 
knowledge he united the most accurate skill as a draughts- 
man. Of his judgment my husband entertained the highest 
opinion, and always declared that, to his just and candid cri- 
ticism during the progress of the work, he felt greatly indebted 
for much of its improvement. Mr. Kerrich, he would say, is 
a severe judge ; but one who never bartered his sincerity for 
compliment, and whose praise was worth receiving, as it was 
the commendation of judgment without flattery." * 

And, again, speaking of this gentleman, Mr. Stothard him- 
self observes, " You, amongst other things, say that you think 
my etchings superior to those of Mr. Kerrich ; but you are not, 
perhaps, aware that, if they really are so, it is in consequence 
of the judicious remarks and criticism I have received from 
that gentleman, from time to time ; and it was the very severe 
opinion that he gave me on my first number, which induced me 
to endeavour at acquiring that sort of excellence he then pointed 
out, and to which I look forward still with anxious hope." f 

On the llth of May, 1815, Mr. Kerrich exhibited, to the 
Society of Antiquaries, an urn, which had been found a few 
days before, by some labourers who were employed to remove 
one of the barrows upon Newmarket Heath, called the Bea- 

* Memoirs of Stothard, p. 37. 

f Ibid. p. 129. In this very interesting biographical notice of Mr. Sto- 
thard, whose premature decease every lover of the arts must sincerely deplore, are 
two letters from Mr. Stothard to Mr. Kerrich on the subject of Monumental 
Effigies, viz, at p. 123. and p. 261. 


con Hills. This urn stood upon what, probably, was the 
surface of the earth before the tumulus was raised. The dia- 
meter of the barrow was near thirty yards, and the perpendi- 
cular height, probably, about eight or nine feet. There are 
more of these tumuli remaining, some of them very near to 
the place on which that out of which the urn came stood. A 
print of the urn, from a drawing by Mr. Kerrich, may be seen 
in the eighteenth volume of the Archseologia. 

In 1820, Mr. Kerrich communicated to the Society of An- 
tiquaries, " Observations on the Use of the Mysterious Figure, 
called Vesica Piscis, in the Architecture of the Middle Ages, 
and in Gothic Architecture." In this paper Mr. Kerrich 
remarks, that, in his observations on Gothic architecture, for- 
merly presented to the Society, he had ventured to express his 
belief, that the rules and principles of it might be recovered 
by a patient examination of the numerous buildings in that 
style still remaining ; and that, in his notes to those observ- 
ations, he had stated that the mysterious figure, which seemed 
to have been called Vesica Piscis, had a great influence upon 
the forms of all sorts of things which were intended for sacred 
uses, after the establishment of Christianity. He then proceeds 
to point out many instances in which that influence seems to 
be apparent, not only in the plans of churches and chapels, 
and of other religious buildings, but in their arches, doors, 
windows, pinnacles, spires, &c. The paper is published in 
the nineteenth volume of the " Archaeologia," and is accom- 
panied by no fewer than sixty-five figures, engraved on four- 
teen plates, in illustration of Mr. Kerrich's opinions. 

To Mr. Kerrich's other attainments in the arts, was added 
that of taking portraits. The heads of Robert Glynn, M.D., 
1783; Rev. James Bentham, F.S.A., the Historian of Ely, 
1792; the Rev. Robert Masters, F.S.A., the Historian of 
Bene't College, 1796; the Rev. William Cole, F.S.A., the 
indefatigable individual whose letter was before quoted, were 
all engraved by Facius, from drawings by Mr. Kerrich. Dr. 
Glynn Cloberry (such was latterly his name), on his death, in 
1 800, left Mr. Kerrich his executor, with a legacy of 5000/. 


Mr. Kerrich married the daughter of Mr. Hale, a surgeon 
at Cambridge. His death took place at Cambridge, on the 
10th of May, 1828, in the eighty-first year of his age. 

The " Gentleman's Magazine," and the " Archseologia," 
have furnished the materials for this Memoir. 





1* OR the following Memoir of this eminent naturalist, and 
most excellent and amiable man, we are principally indebted 
to the " Philosophical Magazine." We have, however, 
availed ourselves of an interesting character of him in the 
" Monthly Repository ; " and several additional circumstances 
have been obligingly communicated to us, from a private and 
authentic source. 

Sir James Edward Smith was born in the city of Norwich, 
December 2. 1759. He was the eldest of seven children, 
whose father, a Protestant Dissenter, and a respectable dealer 
in the woollen trade, was a man of much intelligence and 
vigour of mind. His mother, who was the daughter of a cler- 
gyman, lived in Norwich to the advanced age of 88 ; and will 
long be remembered for the benevolence, cheerfulness, and 
activity of her character. 

It is probably to the locality of his birth that we are to 
attribute the early predilection of the subject of this Memoir 
for natural history ; for at Norwich he fell in with some of the 


earliest and most devoted disciples of the great Linnaeus. This 
city has, for more than two hundred years, been famous for its 
florists and botanists. Here lived and flourished Sir Thomas 
Browne, the author of " Vulgar Errors/' and " The Garden 
of Cyrus, or the quincuncial, lozenge, or network Plantations 
of the Ancients, artificially, naturally, and mystically consi- 
dered." A weaver of this commercial place claims the honour 
of having been the first person who raised, from seed, a Lyco- 
jpodium; as a Manchester weaver was the first to flower one of 
our rarest Jungermannice. During the middle of the last cen- 
tury, Mr. Rose, the author of the " Elements of Botany," Mr. 
Pitchford, and Mr. Crowe, names familiar to every botanist, 
took the lead in botanical science in their native city ; and 
instilled into the youthful mind of the future President an 
ardent attachment to their favourite pursuit, and the skill in dis- 
criminating species for which these gentlemen were so eminent. 
Having remained the usual time at a school in the city, he 
went, in the year 1780, to the University of Edinburgh, where 
he distinguished himself by obtaining the gold medal given to 
the best proficient in botany. 

Upon leaving Edinburgh, he came up to London to finish 
his studies, and soon became acquainted with the late Sir 
Joseph Banks. This acquaintance, and the access it obtained 
for him to men of science, only riveted more firmly his ardent 
attachment to botany ; and, accordingly, we find Sir Joseph 
recommending him, as early as 1783, to become the purchaser 
of the Linnaean collection. As this circumstance laid the 
foundation of the President's future fame, and is one of pecu- 
liar interest at the present moment, we shall detail the history 
of the transaction. 

The younger Linnaeus had died suddenly, Nov. 1. 1783; 
and his mother and sisters, desirous of making as large a profit 
as they could by his museum, within a few weeks after his 
death, offered, through a mutual friend, the whole collection 
of books, manuscripts, and natural history, including what 
belonged to the father as well as the son, to Sir Joseph Banks, 
for the sum of one thousand guineas. Sir Joseph declined 


the purchase, but strongly advised Sir James Smith to make 
it, as a thing suitable to his taste, and which would do him 

Sir James, in consequence, communicated his desire to be- 
come the purchaser, to Professor Acrel, the friend of the 
family of Linnaeus, and who seems to have conducted the 
negotiation with scrupulous honour. The owners now began 
to suspect they had been too precipitate ; having received an un- 
limited offer from Russia, while also Dr. Sibthorpe was prepared 
to purchase it, to add to the treasures, already famous, of 
Oxford. They wished to break off their treaty with Sir James 
Smith ; but the worthy Swedish Professor would not consent 
to it, and insisted on their waiting for his refusal. 

In consequence of the subtraction of a small herbarium 
made by the younger Linnaeus, and given to a Swedish baron 
to satisfy a debt he claimed, a deduction of one hundred gui- 
neas was made in the purchase-money ; and in October, 1784-, 
the collection was received, in twenty-six great boxes, per- 
fectly safe. The whole cost, including the freight, was 1029/. 
The duty was remitted, on application to the Treasury. The 
ship which was conveying this precious treasure had just 
sailed, when the King of Sweden (Gustavus III.), who had 
been absent in France, returned, and hearing the story, sent a 
vessel in pursuit, but happily it was too late. 

The collection consists of every thing possessed by the 
great Linnaeus and his son, relating to natural history and 
medicine. The library contains about 2500 volumes. The 
old herbarium of the father comprehends all the plants de- 
scribed in the Species Plantarum, except, perhaps, about 500 
species (Fungi and Palmes excepted), and it had then, perhaps, 
more than 500 undescribed. 

The herbarium of young Linnaeus appears to have had 
more attention bestowed upon it, and is on better paper. It 
consists of most of the plants of his Supplementum, except 
what are in his father's herbarium, and has, besides, about 
1500 very fine specimens from Commerson's collection, from 
Dombey, La Marc, Pourrett, Gouan, Smeathman, Masson, 


&c., and a prodigious quantity from Sir Joseph Banks, who 
gave him duplicates of almost every one of Aublett's speci- 
mens, as well as of his own West India plants, with a few of 
those collected in his own voyages round the world. 

The insects are not so numerous ; but they consist of most 
of those that are described by Linnaeus, and many new ones. 
The shells are about thrice as many as are mentioned in the 
Systema Naturte, and many of them very valuable. The fossils 
are also numerous, but mostly bad specimens, and in bad con- 

The number of the MSS. is very great. All his own works 
are interleaved with abundance of notes, especially the Systema 
Nature, Species Plantarum, Materia Medica, Philosophia Bo- 
tanica, Clavis Medicince, &c. There are also the Iter Lappo- 
nicum (which was afterwards published), Iter Dalecarlicum, 
and a Diary of the Life of Linnaeus, for about thirty years of 
his life. The letters to Linnaeus (from which a selection was 
also published by the President) are about three thousand. 

This splendid acquisition at once determined the bent of 
the proprietor's studies. He considered himself, as he has 
declared, a trustee only for the public, and for the purpose of 
making the collection useful to the world and to natural his- 
tory in general. How well he has fulfilled this trust, will 
appear from the sequel. He had no sooner obtained quiet 
possession, than he began to fulfil his engagement ; for we 
find him, in the year 1785, making his first appearance as an 
author, by translating the Preface to the Museum Regis Adol- 
phi Friderici of Linnaeus, being succinct and admirable reflec- 
tions on the study of nature. 

In the year 1786, he prepared himself for an extensive tour 
on the Continent, in which his chief object was to examine 
into the state of natural history in the different cities and towns 
he might pass through, not neglecting the incidents, especially 
the fine arts, which usually engage the attention of travellers. 
At Leyden he graduated in medicine; but it does not appear 
that he tarried there a longer time than was necessary for this 
purpose. On this occasion he published his Thesis DC Gene- 


ratione. The " Sketch of a Tour on the Continent," though 
long superseded as a companion to the tourist, is still curious 
to the naturalist, as showing the state of science at that time. 
It contains, too, a fund of good sense expressed with facility ; 
and, to those who enjoyed the acquaintance and friendship of 
the author, will always remain valuable, as furnishing the 
truest image of his mind, reviving his liberal opinions in their 
recollection, and his easy and elegant manner of communicat- 
ing them. 

In the year 1788, when he had returned and was settled in 
London, he, with some other naturalists, projected the esta- 
blishment of the Linnaean Society, which had for its object the 
cultivation of natural history in all its branches, and especially 
that of Great Britain. This Society, which has grown now 
into considerable importance, was a scion of the Royal So- 
ciety, and had its origin in the jealousy which some of the 
members of the parent Society entertained of the preference 
which, they alleged, was given to natural history in their 
"Transactions;" while its then President was thought to 
favour the subject, to the exclusion of others of equal, if not 
of greater, importance. There are still some who recollect 
the argumentative and vehement eloquence by which this side 
of the question was supported by a reverend Prelate. 

It was during this stormy period that Sir James Smith, in 
conjunction with the late Bishop of Carlisle, Sir Joseph Banks, 
and others, laid the foundation-stone of the Linnaean Society. 
Its first meeting was held, April 8. 1788. The Society then 
consisted of fifty Fellows, and about twice as many more 
foreign members, Dr. Smith being the first President, Dr. 
Goodenough the first Treasurer, and Mr. Marsham the first 
Secretary. Of these original Fellows, how few are left ! and 
of those who are, their hoary locks, still seen occasionally at 
the meetings of the Society, remind us of the respect and 
gratitude we owe to them as fathers. May their declining 
years derive consolation from the success of this their early 
project ! 



At the first Meeting, the President delivered a Discourse, 
judicious and appropriate, " On the Rise and Progress of Na- 
tural History." We find him also, about this time, producing 
a paper which was read before the Royal Society, entitled 
" Observations on the Irritability of Vegetables." It chiefly 
regards the mode of impregnation in the barberry ; and at- 
tracted considerable attention at the time, being translated 
into other languages, and appearing in different publications. 

The next considerable work which we find him undertaking 
is, the re-publication of the wooden blocks of Rudbeck, which 
had fallen into his hands with the Linna3an collections. Lin- 
naeus was possessed of about 120 of these blocks, which had 
escaped the fire at Upsal, where almost the whole impression 
of the second volume, and all but three copies of the first, were 
burnt. As Rudbeck was the founder of a school at Upsal, 
destined afterwards to give laws to the rest of the world, the 
re-publication of this fragment of his great work was a tribute 
of gratitude to his profound and varied learning. 

From 1789 to 1793, our author was engaged in various 
publications relating to his favourite science. Most of them 
terminated in being only fragments, for want of patronage by 
the public. Such were his Plantarum Icones hactenm ineditce; 
Icones pictce Plant arum rariorwn; Specilegium Botanicum ; and 
* { Specimens of the Botany of New Holland." One of these 
literary projects, " English Botany," however, did not suffer 
the shipwreck experienced by the others, but has received the 
encouragement it deserved. This is not attributable to its 
execution being superior to the other works which have failed, 
-but because it treats of the plants of our own country, in which 
all are interested. It has the singular merit of being the only 
national Flora which has given a figure and description of 
every species native to the country whose productions it pro- 
fesses to investigate ; and while other works of a similar kind 
have enjoyed the patronage of foreign Crowns, and have even 
been supplied with funds to carry them forward in their tardy 
progress, this work has been rendered complete by the patron- 
age of the public alone ; and, having been commenced in 1790, 


was brought to a successful termination in 1814, by the united 
efforts of the President of the Society, and of Mr. Sowerby, 
the draughtsman and engraver. This work extends to thirty- 
six volumes, and contains 2592 figures of British plants. 

In 1792, Dr. Smith had the honour of giving some instruc- 
tion in botany to the Queen and Princesses at Frogmore. 
As a lecturer, he was particularly admired for his ease and 
fluency, and for the happiness of his illustrations, as well as 
for the extent and variety of his knowledge. This will be 
testified by all who heard him at the Royal Institution in 
London, at Norwich, Liverpool, Bristol, &c. 

In the year 1793 appeared in the Memoirs of the Academy 
of Turin, of which he was a member, his essay De Filicum 
Generibus dorsiferaruw, and which was republished in English 
in his " Tracts on Natural History." 

In the year 1796 Dr. Smith married the only daughter of 
Robert Reeve, Esq., of Lowestoft, in Sussex ; and in the fol- 
lowing year he removed to Norwich, his native place, where 
he continued to reside, paying occasional visits to London, 
for the remainder of his life. 

The next considerable work upon which the reputation of 
our author is built is the Flora Britannica, which appeared in 
the years 1800 1804. It is remarkable, like all his other 
labours, for accuracy in observing, accuracy in recording, and 
unusual accuracy in printing. It comprises descriptions of all 
the phaenogamous plants, of the Filicis and the Musci; and 
every species has been carefully collated with those which Lin- 
naeus described. Being written in the Latin language, the 
information is condensed into a small compass ; while it has 
the rare advantage of having had every synonym compared 
with the original author. 

The Compendium Florae Britannica has gone through four 
editions, and is become the general text-book of English 
botanists. It is perhaps the most complete example of a 
manual furnished on any subject. 

While he was engaged in the Flora Britannica, the exe- 
cutors of the late Professor Sibthorpe selected him as the 

x 2 


fittest person to engage in editing the splendid posthumous 
work of that liberal patron of science ; a task for which the 
unrivalled attainments of the President, and his personal friend- 
ship with the Professor, peculiarly qualified him. The draw" 
ings, which were made by Ferdinand Bauer, and the letter- 
press, which was written by Sir James Smith from scanty 
materials furnished by Dr. Sibthorpe, are both worthy of so 
munificent an undertaking. 

In 1806 the first part of the Flora Graca appeared. Its 
publication was continued in parts, until it reached six folio 
volumes, with one hundred coloured plates in each. To com- 
plete the work, which is to consist of ten folio volumes, Dr. 
Sibthorpe bequeathed a freehold estate at South Leigh, in 
Oxfordshire; which, after the completion, is to be charged 
with the support of a Professor of Rural Economy in the 
University of Oxford. 

There was also a Prodromus of the same work, in two 
volumes 8vo., without plates. 

The " Introduction to Physiological and Systematic Bo- 
tany," which appeared in 1807, has been a most successful 
publication, having passed through five editions. It is in- 
debted for its popularity to a happy method which the author 
has of communicating knowledge, to the good taste he every 
where displays, and to that just mixture of the utile with the 
dulce, which he knew so well how to apportion. 

In 1810 appeared his " Tour to Hafod," the seat of his old 
and accomplished friend, Thomas Johnes, Esq., the translator 
of Froissart; and, in 1811, his " Translation of Linnseus's 
Tour in Lapland." 

In 1814 he received the honour of knighthood from the 
hands of his present Majesty, on the occasion of his Majesty 
consenting to become the patron of the Linnaean Society, and 
granting them a charter. 

About 1818 the Professor of Botany at Cambridge en- 
couraged the President to offer himself for the Professorship 
of that University. He obtained the countenance of many 
of the heads of houses, and of several of the first dignitaries 


of the church ; but, unfortunately, a controversy was raised 
by interested persons respecting his religious opinions, which 
(like his illustrious predecessor, Ray, who was deprived of his 
fellowship for a similar cause) he could not, and never would, 
compromise. It produced two small tracts * from his pen, 
which at least show that he was not disqualified by the absence 
of the most charitable spirit, and admirably expose the ab- 
surdity of making the religious creed of a man of science the 
test of his fitness for a professor's chair. 

In 1821 his " Grammar of Botany" appeared; and in the 
same year, a " Selection of the Correspondence of Linnaeus 
and other Naturalists." 

During a large portion of his literary life, he was in the 
habit of writing articles for Dr. Rees's Cyclopaedia on different 
subjects in botany and biography connected with it. Many 
of these biographical memoirs are choice morsels of original 
information ; and we need only refer to the words Collinson, 
Curtis, Dombey, Hudson, Linnaeus, Ray, Sibthorpe, Tourne- 
fort, &c. in justification of our assertion. Most of his articles 
will be found marked with the letter S, it being his undeviating 
rule never to publish any thing on anonymous authority in 
science. Even some reviews which he had written early in 
life, he afterwards avowed, by republishing them in his 

The second volume of the Supplement to the Encyclopaedia 
Britannica is indebted to our author's pen for a Review of the 
Modern State of Botany, an article which supplies some de- 
ficiencies in his Introduction, though chiefly an abridgment 
of the Prcdectiones of Linnaeus, as published by Giseke. 

During the whole of his literary career, he occasionally 
contributed papers to the Linnaean Transactions. But the 
last and best work of the distinguished President is the 
" English Flora," consisting of four volumes octavo, and de- 
scribing the phsenogamous plants and ferns of Great Britain, 

* "Considerations respecting Cambridge," &c. 1818; and " A Defence of 
the Church and Universities of England against a Writer in th Quarterly Re- 
view," 1819. 

x 3 


though its title may imply a more limited range. Finis coronat 
opus. There is no Flora of any nation so complete in flower- 
ing species, and none of any country in which more accuracy 
and judgment are displayed. If any person should in future 
contemplate a work of this kind, whatever the originality of 
his information, whatever the novelty of his subject, let him 
imitate this illustrious author in careful remark, in taking 
nothing upon trust, in tracing every synonym to its source ; 
and, lastly, in arranging his matter in such a manner, by the 
aid of different types, as shall render it easy of reference, and 
point out at a glance the nature of it. However mechanical 
some of this may appear, it is absolutely essential to be at- 
tended to in natural history, where the subjects are infinite in 
number, and where aid must be derived from every mode of 
generalizing particulars. 

To this work Sir James Smith had devoted much of his 
time during many years. It was pursued with ardour, in spite 
of the interruptions of declining health, with the anxious de- 
sire, often expressed, that he " might live to finish it." On 
the very day when he entered his library for the last time, the 
packet, containing the fourth volume of the " English Flora," 
reached him. The following remarks, at the close of that 
volume, will be read with melancholy interest : 

" Several circumstances have caused a long delay in the 
publication of the present volume, which, if their recurrence 
should not be prevented, may render the completion of the 
work, according to its original plan, very precarious. In the 
meanwhile, the number of volumes originally proposed is now 
finished, and the first twenty-three Classes are completed, as 
well as the first Order of the twenty-fourth, Cryptogamia 
Filices, the only one that required more study and emendation 
than it has hitherto received. 

" Of the remaining Orders, the Musci have been detailed 
in the Latin Flora Britannica and Compendium of the author, 
as well as in his English Botany ; and by other well-known 
writers, in two editions of the Muscologia Britannica, and the 
Muscologi< Hibcrnicce Spicilegium. The monograph of Dr. 


Hooker on British Jungermanni^ which, with their allies, 
constitute the next Order to the Musci, diffuses a new light 
over the whole of that Order. The works of Mr. Dawson 
Turner on Fttci, and of Mr. Dillwyn on Corifervte, have gone 
far to exhaust the species of those tribes ; an application of 
scientific principles to the settlement of their genera being all 
that is wanting. The Lichen family, under the control of 
the great Acharius, assumes the dignity of an entire and well- 
arranged Order. The Fungi, better discriminated by Wither- 
ing than by most popular writers, and well explained by the 
figures of the excellent and lamented Sowerby, are, in their 
minutest details, exquisitely illustrated by the Cryptogamic 
Flora of the ingenious 'Dr. Greville, and the accurate pub- 
lications of Mr. Purton. These, marshalled by the aid of the 
learned Persoon and others, might possibly have proved less 
obscure than heretofore. This tribe, indeed, leads the bota- 
nist to the end of his clue, and leaves him in palpable darkness, 
where even Dillenius was bewildered. 

" All these subjects, if not yet brought into perfect day- 
light, might well, by the help of those brilliant northern lights, 
Acharius, Fries, and Agardh, have been made more accessible 
to the student, and more instructive to systematic botanists, 
by one long accustomed to their contemplation in the wild 
scenes of Nature, and not unfurnished with remarks of his 
own. If our bodily powers could keep pace with our mental 
acquirements, the student of half a century would not shrink 
from the delightful task of being still a teacher ; nor does he 
resign the hope of affording some future assistance to his 
fellow-labourers ; though, for the present, ' a change of study,' 
to use the expression of a great French writer, may be requi- 
site, ' by way of relaxation and repose/ " 

A new edition of the " English Flora " has already been 
called for since the decease of the author. 

Sir James Smith had, by nature, a delicate constitution, and 
struggled, in the course of his life, with many attacks of an 
inflammatory kind. To her whose tender affection, aided by 
her vigilance, good sense, and gentleness of manner, had so 

x 4- 


large a share in the preservation of this valuable man through 
many years of feeble health, no consolation is wanting which 
memory can bestow. For some years past he had been losing 
strength, and suffering from the increase of painful and dis- 
tressing symptoms. He had generally, however, kept his 
annual engagement with the Society, at the anniversary and 
other meetings, at which he felt proud and happy to preside. 
But in the year 1827, his hopes of reaching London were 
frustrated by the state of his health. Some amendment after- 
wards took place ; the return of spring renewed his earnest 
wishes to meet his old friends again, and he had actually laid 
his plans for once more visiting the metropolis. 

On Saturday, March 15th, 1828, he walked out as usual, 
and apparently without much fatigue ; but in the evening he 
was attacked by such an alarming fit of illness, as almost 
immediately forbade the hope of his recovery. He continued 
sinking until six o'clock on the Monday morning following, 
when he quietly resigned his breath, and his spirit returned to 
Him who gave it. 

His remains were deposited in the vault belonging to Lady 
Smith's family, at Lowestoft, in Suffolk. 

The scientific character of Sir James Smith may be com- 
prised in a few words. As a naturalist, he contributed greatly 
to the advancement of science; and stood pre-eminent for 
judgment, accuracy, candour, and industry. He was disposed 
to pay due respect to the great authorities that had preceded 
him, but without suffering his deference for them to impede 
the exercise of his own judgment. He was equally open to 
real improvement, and opposed to the affectation of needless 
innovation. He found the science of botany, when he ap- 
proached it, locked up in a dead language ; he set it free, by 
transfusing into it his own. He found it a severe study, fitted 
only for the recluse; he left it of easy acquisition to all. In 
the hands of his predecessors, with the exception of his im- 


mortal master, it was dry, technical, and scholastic ; in his, it 
was adorned with grace and elegance, and might attract the 
poet as well as the philosopher. 

His moral and religious qualities are likewise deserving of 
the highest praise. The uprightness and liberality of his mind 
appeared in the uniformly candid expression of his sentiments. 
It was his constant, earnest desire, to banish jealousy and 
rivalship from the pursuits of science, and to cultivate a union 
and good understanding between the botanists of all nations ; 
exhorting them to adopt, with a readiness and ungrudging 
alacrity, of which he set the example, the suggestions of foreign- 
ers, whenever the interests of science were concerned. The 
same steadiness and constancy with which, from a conviction 
of its excellence, Dr. Smith devoted his life to the illustration 
of the scientific system of Linnaeus, he equally evinced in the 
support of those principles, both religious arid political, in 
which he had been brought up. His liberal education, and his 
intercourse with men of all countries, holding various opinions, 
served but to settle his own ; and they were established on the 
only firm basis, that of investigation and reflection. 

When he took up his final abode in his native city, in 1797, 
it was after an absence of seventeen years. In the course of 
those years he had formed many friendships ; he was known, 
honoured, and courted by celebrated men of all countries, and 
of all parties in his own ; and he returned to Norwich full of 
information, rich in fame, and loaded with honorary titles; 
besides the substantial possession of his great prize, the Lin- 
naean collection. Yet he came, unspoiled by honours, and 
uncorrupted by travel, to sit down among the friends of his 
youth ; willing to give and to receive pleasure from the most 
attainable and simple objects. It is obvious to remark, that, if 
a residence in London presents more attractions to a man of 
science than a residence in a provincial metropolis, he is often 
abundantly rewarded, for resisting them, by the closer friend- 
ships which local circumstances permit him to form, and by 
the delightful consciousness of being the means of improving 
the tone of society around him. An individual* eminent for 


knowledge, and conciliating in manners, is, in such a situation? 
a treasure of inestimable value ; he is the stay and support of 
his contemporaries ; and, to the young, his industry and attain- 
ments, his elegant tastes and pure morals, are held up as 
examples of the manner in which nature rewards those who 
have not wasted their hours in sloth, nor frittered away their 
best powers in dissipation. Such a support and such an im- 
pulse the late President of the Linnaean Society assuredly gave 
by his connection with Norwich ; and, had his health permit- 
ted, they would have been given in a yet greater degree. He 
never appeared to be happier than when surrounded by young 
people, for whom he readily unlocked his cabinet and dis- 
played his mental stores, imparting knowledge in the most 
familiar and captivating manner. Even in the sports and pas- 
times of his young guests, he took so lively an interest, that 
they could scarcely believe he was less fond of play than them- 
selves. In all his deeds of kindness he was fully seconded by 
one who may with truth be said to have made his chosen 
friends her own, and to have strengthened the bonds of amity 
in which she found him held. 

The pursuits which occupied the attention of this estimable 
man do not invariably (however it might be expected) heighten 
the tone of religious feeling, or even lead to an enlarged and 
poetic love of nature. A taste for mere arrangement and 
classification may render botany a pleasing and philosophic 
study; but Sir James Smith's mind was imbued with a real 
love for 

" those delightful handyworks of Him 

Who arch'd the heavens and spann'd this solid earth/' 

" Is it not," asks he (in the beautiful Preface to his Intro- 
duction to Botany), " is it not a privilege to walk with God 
in the garden of creation, and hold converse with his provi- 
dence ?" His soul brightened at the contemplation, and the 
same spirit of pious adoration accompanied his researches 
into the book of revelation. From that source (whence many 
with equal skicerity derive very opposite ones) he drew his 


religious conclusions. His creed was the New Testament ; 
and he read it, as a celebrated divine recommends, " as a man 
would read a letter from his friend, in the which he doth only 
seek after what was his friend's mind and meaning, not wHat 
he can put upon the words." He delighted in dwelling upon 
the character of Jesus Christ : he felt the wisdom, the gran- 
deur, the cloudless benignity of his spirit. Deeply impressed 
with the truth and importance of the Christian faith, he did 
much to recommend and enforce it. He regularly attended 
public worship at the Octagon Chapel, in Norwich ; and he 
attended it, not with the air of a man who was setting an ex- 
ample to others, but in the character of an humble follower of 
Jesus, and he " took the bread and wine in remembrance of 
Him." The mind of Sir James Smith was formed for devo- 
tion, not controversy. Yet, to the last, he took the greatest 
interest in the prosperity of the congregation of Unitarian 
Dissenters, to which he belonged, and of which, at the time 
of his decease, he was one of the Deacons. 

With regard to politics, he was to the last an ardent lover 
of liberty; and, though of the gentlest and most retiring dis- 
position, he always gave his public countenance and support 
to Whig principles in his native city and county. Placed in 
a scientific station of eminence, he did not obtrude his own 
religious and political sentiments where they would have been 
out of place ; but through life, no honours or distinctions, or 
fear of unpopularity, or devotion to scientific pursuits, could 
deter him from the most unreserved and steady avowal and 
support of his principles, both religious and political.* 

His poetical compositions are distinguished by elegance, 
and by frequent allusions to that world of nature towards 
which his thoughts perpetually turned, when in search of ob- 
jects for love and grateful praise. At the same time, let it not 

* It is the more important to remark this fact, as, immediately upon the death 
of Sir James Smith, there appeared in a provincial newspaper a pretended memoir 
of him (which afterwards found its way into a highly respectable periodical publi- 
cation), containing statements of changes in his religious and political senti- 
ments, in which statements there is not a word of truth. 


be thought that Christian topics were forgotten. Upon these 
his compositions were less numerous, but upon none, perhaps, 
were they so beautiful. Many elegant specimens of his poeti- 
cal powers are in the hands of his surviving friends ; and they 
are treasured as proofs of the good taste, purity, and delight- 
ful habits of thought, which rendered communion with the 
author eminently gratifying and improving. 

Several of these are to be found in a volume of " Hymns 
for Public Worship, selected for the Use of the Congregation 
assembling at the Octagon Chapel, Norwich " (1826) ; an ex- 
cellent manual of devotional poetry, in the compilation of 
which he took an active part. The following may serve as a 
specimen, and will be read with interest by his surviving 
friends : 

" Thou shalt sleep with thy fathers." 2 Samuel, vii. 12. 

" As o'er the closing urn we bend, 
Of each belov'd and honour'd friend, 

What tears of anguish roll ! 
In vain in death's unconscious face 
The living smile we seek to trace, 

That spoke from soul to soul. 

'* But shall not memory still supply 
The kindly glance, the beaming eye, 

That oft our converse blest ; 
That brighten'd many a prospect drear , 
Reviv'd our virtue, sooth'd our care, 
And lull'd each pain to rest ? 

" And when these frail remains are gone, 
Our hearts th' impression still sha 11 own, 

Our mortal path to cheer. 
O God ! to point the way to heav'n, 
These angel-guides by thee were giv'n : 

How blest to meet them there " 

On Wednesday, the 19th of March, 1828, at the meeting 
of the Linnaean Society, the intelligence of Sir James Smith's 


decease was communicated ; when the members, as a tribute 
of respect to their friend and President, immediately retired. 
At the next meeting of the Society, which took place on the 
1st of April, 1828, Lord Stanley in the chair, his Lordship 
opened the proceedings by adverting, with much feeling, to 
the great loss which had been sustained by the country and 
by the world, and more especially by the Society, in the death 
of its illustrious and beloved President, Sir James Edward 
Smith, who from its first establishment, in which he had taken 
an active part, had been called upon to preside over it by the 
annual and unanimous votes of its members, and had greatly 
contributed to place the Society in the distinguished rank 
which it had attained, by his great talents, indefatigable indus- 
try, sound judgment, and enlarged views as a naturalist ; by 
the high estimation in which he had long been held by men 
of science all over the world ; by the excellence of those valu- 
able and accurate works in which he had done so much to 
promote and improve the study of natural history ; and espe- 
cially by the qualities of his heart, mind, and temper, for which 
his memory would long be revered by those who had enjoyed 
the happiness of his friendship. He could not forbear ex- 
pressing what he felt on the present occasion, especially with 
reference to the particular moment of his loss, at a time 
when those considerations of religious distinction were about to 
be removed, which had seemed to have a tendency to deprive 
those who, like this excellent and distinguished man, differed 
from the established religion, of the rank in society due to their 
talents or their worth.* 

His Lordship expressed his anxiety that whatever choice 
might be made by the Society to fill the vacancy in its Chair, 
should be such as would contribute to its prosperity, however 
impossible it might be adequately to supply the loss which it 
had now so much to regret. 

Lord Stanley then adverting to the last volume of the En- 
glish Flora, which had been received from Sir James Smith 

* Alluding to the proceedings in Parliament for the abolition of the sacra- 
mental test. 


but a few days before his death, and was among the presents 
on the table, related that, showing it to a friend, Sir James 
had exclaimed, " This is the close of my labours." As its 
distinguished author was now removed from the possibility of 
receiving the customary vote of thanks, His Lordship con- 
cluded, by proposing that the grateful feelings of the Society 
might be'expressed to Lady Smith for this last gift of their re- 
vered President. 


No. XXIV. 



1 HIS gallant officer was born at Barham, in the county of 
Kent, on the 28th of February, 1766. His father, Mr. Boul- 
den, married the sister of the late Commodore Edward Thomp- 
son, an officer of very distinguished eminence, and a gentleman 
extensively known both in the polite and in the literary world. 

In the month of June, 1778, Mr. Thomas Boulden's uncle, 
by whom he had been tutored from his infancy, was appointed 
to the command of the Hyaena frigate ; and at the same time 
his nephew, assuming the name of Thompson, and having 
previously been borne on the books of a King's ship, entered 
into active service on board of the same vessel, which was 
mostly employed on the home station until January, 1780, 
when she accompanied the fleet under Sir George B. Rodney 
to the relief of Gibraltar, from whence she returned to Eng- 
land with the duplicates of that officer's despatches relative to 
the capture of a Spanish convoy, and the subsequent defeat of 
Don Juan de Langara. 

In the following year we find Mr. Thompson serving in the 
West Indies, on which station he, on the 14th of January, 
1782, obtained a Lieutenancy; and being intrusted with the 
command of a small schooner, distinguished himself by cap- 
turing a French privateer of very superior force. 


Some time after the termination of the colonial war, he 
joined the Grampus, of 50 guns, bearing the broad pendant 
of his uncle, who had been nominated to the chief command 
on the coast of Africa; and on the death of Commodore 
Thompson in 1786, he was promoted by his successor to the 
command of the Nautilus sloop, in which he continued about 
twelve months, when he returned to England, and was paid 
off. His post commission bears date Nov. 22. 1790. 

From this period we find no mention of the subject of our 
memoir, until his appointment to the Leander, rated at 50, but 
mounting 60 guns, at the latter end of 1796. In that vessel 
he joined the Mediterranean fleet, then under the orders of 
Earl St. Vincent; and shortly after his arrival at Gibraltar 
was selected to accompany Sir Horatio Nelson on an expedi- 
tion against Santa Cruz, in the attempt upon which place he 
was among the wounded. 

The rumoured arrival at Santa Cruz, in the island of Tene- 
riffe, of the Viceroy of Mexico, with some treasure ships from 
South America, bound to Cadiz, and the represented vulner- 
ability of that town to a well-conducted attack by sea, induced 
Earl St. Vincent to attempt the enterprise ; and he accordingly 
detached upon that service a squadron under the command of 
Rear- Admiral Nelson, consisting of the Theseus, Culloden, 
and Zealous, 74s ; Seahorse, Emerald, and Terpsichore, fri- 
gates ; Fox, cutter ; and one mortar-boat ; to which was after- 
wards added the Leander, the local knowledge of whose 
Captain was chiefly relied upon by the Com mander-in- Chief, 
as appears from the following extract of a letter written by the 
noble Earl to Sir Horatio Nelson : 

" My dear Admiral, If I obtain a reinforcement of four 
ships of the line, as I have reason to believe I shall, from the 
strong manner I put the necessity of the measure in my public 
letter to Nepean, and private correspondence with Lord Spen- 
cer, I will detach you with the Theseus, Culloden, Zealous, 
Leander, Emerald, and Andromache, with orders to attempt 
the surprise of Santa Cruz, in the Grand Canary. Terpsi- 
chore Bowen shall also be of the party ; but I rely chiefly on 


the local knowledge of Captain Thompson of the Leander. 
Turn this in your mind ; for the moment the expected ships 
arrive, I will dash you off." 

The plan of attack was, that the boats should land in the 
night, between the fort on the N. E. side of Santa Cruz bay 
and the town, make themselves masters of that fort, and then 
send a summons to the Governor. By midnight, on the 20th of 
July, 1797, the three frigates, cutter, and mortar-boat, having 
the party of seamen and marines on board which was intended 
for this debarkation, approached within three miles of the 
place; but owing to a gale of wind in the offing, and a strong 
current against them in-shore, they were not able to approach 
within a mile of the landing-place before daybreak ; and then 
being seen, their intention was discovered. It was now re- 
solved, that an attempt should be made to get possession of 
the heights above the fort. The men were accordingly landed 
under the orders of Captain Troubridge ; each Captain, under 
his direction, commanding the detachment of seamen from his 
own ship, and Captain Oldfield of the marines the entire de- 
tachment from that corps, he being the senior marine officer 
present; the line-of-battle ships stood in at the same time to 
batter the fort, for the purpose of distracting the attention of 
the garrison : circumstances, however, prevented' them from 
getting within a league of the shore ; and the heights were by 
this time so secured, and manned with such a force, as to be 
judged impracticable. Thus foiled in his plans by wind and 
tide, Sir Horatio Nelson still considered it a point of honour 
that some attempt should be made. This was on the 22d of 
July ; he re-embarked his men that night, got the ships, on 
the 24-th, the day on which he was joined by the Leander, to 
anchor about two miles N.E. of the town, and made show as if 
he intended to attack the heights. At eleven P. M. the boats 
of the squadron, containing about 700 seamen and marines, 
with i80 on board the Fox cutter, and from 70 to 80 in a 
boat which had been taken the day before, numbering, with 
a small detachment of royal artillery, under Lieutenant Baynes 
of that corps, about 1100 men, commanded by the Rear- Ad. 



miral in person, proceeded in six divisions towards the town. 
They were to land on the mole, and thence hasten as fast as 
possible into the Great Square ; then form, and proceed as 
should be found expedient. They were not discovered till 
about l h 30' A.M., when, being within half gun-shot of the 
landing-place, Sir Horatio directed the boats to cast off from 
each other, give a huzza, and push for the shore. But the 
Spaniards were excellently well prepared ; the alarm-bells an- 
swered the huzza, and a tremendous fire from 30 or 40 pieces of 
cannon, with musketry from one end of the town to the other, 
opened upon the invaders. The Fox received a shot under 
water, and instantly sunk, by which unfortunate circumstance 
Lieutenant Gibson, her commander, and 96 of the brave fel- 
lows that were on board, met a watery grave. Another shot 
struck the Rear- Admiral on the right elbow, just as he was 
drawing his sword, and in the act of stepping out of his barge. 
Nothing, however, could check the intrepidity with which the 
assailants advanced. 

The night was exceedingly dark ; most of the boats missed 
the mole, and went on shore through a raging surf, which 
stpve all to the left of it. The Captains Thompson, Free- 
mantle, and Bower, and four or five other boats, found 
the mole, and instantly stormed and carried it, defended, as it 
was by about 400 men, and six 24-pounders. Having spiked 
these, they were about to advance, when a heavy fire of mus- 
ketry and grape-shot from the citadel and the houses at the 
mole-head mowed them by scores. Here the gallant Captain 
Richard Bowen, of the Terpsichore met a glorious death ; 
and here, indeed, fell nearly the whole of the party, by death 
or wounds. 

Meanwhile, Captain Troubridge, of the Culloden, having 
missed the mole in the darkness, pushed on shore under a bat- 
tery close to the south end of the citadel. Captain Waller, 
of the Emerald, and two or three other boats, landed at the 
same time. The surf was so high, that many others put 
back ; and all that did not were instantly swamped, and most 
of the ammunition in the men's pouches was wetted. Having 


collected a few men, they pushed on to the Great Square, 
hoping there to find the Rear- Admiral, and the rest of their 
party. The ladders were all lost, so that they could make no 
immediate attempt on the citadel ; but they sent a Serjeant, 
with two of the townspeople, to summon it : this messenger 
never returned ; and Captain Troubridge having waited about 
an hour in painful expectation of his friends, marched to join 
Captains Hood and Miller, of the Zealous and Theseus, who 
had effected their landing to the S. W. They then endeavoured 
to procure some intelligence of Sir Horatio Nelson and the 
rest of the officers, but without success. By daybreak they 
had gathered together about 80 marines, 80 seamen, armed 
with pikesj and 180 with small-arms ; all that survived of those 
who had made good their landing. They obtained some am- 
munition from the prisoners whom they had taken, and 
marched on, to try what could be done at the citadel without 
ladders. They found all the streets commanded by field- 
pieces, and several thousand Spaniards, with about 100 French, 
under arms, approaching by every avenue. Finding himself 
without provisions, the powder wet, and no possibility of ob- 
taining assistance from the ships, the boats being lost, Captain 
Troubridge, with great presence of mind, sent Captain Hood 
with a flag of truce to the Governor, Don Juan Antonio Gu- 
tierrez, to say he was prepared to burn the town, and would 
instantly set fire to it if the Spaniards approached one inch 
nearer : this, however, if he were compelled, he should do with 
regret, for he had no wish to injure the inhabitants: and he 
was ready to treat upon these terms that the British should 
re-embark, with all their arms of every kind, and take their 
own boats, if they were saved, or be provided with such others 
as might be wanting : they, on their part, engaging that the 
squadron should not molest the town, nor any of the Canary 
Islands : all prisoners on both sides to be given up. When 
this proposition was made, the Governor said, that the En- 
glish, situated as they were, ought to surrender as prisoners of 
war : but Captain Hood replied, he was instructed to declare, 
that if the terms were not accepted in five minutes, Captain 

y 2 


Troubridge would set the town on fire, and attack the Span- 
iards at the point of the bayonet. Satisfied with his success, 
which was indeed sufficiently complete, and respecting, like a 
brave and honourable man, the gallantry of his enemy, the 
Spaniard not only acceded to the proposal, but gave directions 
for the wounded British to be received into the hospitals, and 
the whole party to be supplied with the best provisions that 
could be procured ; at the same time granting permission for 
the ships to send on shore, and purchase whatever refresh- 
ments they were in want of during the time they might be off 
the island. 

Sir Horatio Nelson, who had by this time undergone the 
amputation of his arm, on hearing the noble and generous 
conduct of Don Juan A. Gutierrez, wrote to thank him for 
the humanity which he had displayed. Presents were inter- 
changed between them. The Rear- Admiral offered to take 
charge of the Spaniard's despatches ; and thus actually became 
the first messenger to Spain of his own defeat. 

The loss sustained by the British on this unfortunate expe- 
dition was rather considerable: besides Captain Bowen, by 
whose death the service lost a commander of infinite merit, 
many other excellent and valuable officers were to be regret- 
ted. The whole amounted to 44 killed, 97 drowned, 105 
wounded, and 5 missing. 

Some months after this, we find Captain Thompson com- 
manding a squadron sent to take possession of some French 
vessels lying at Tunis ; a measure adopted in consequence of 
a previous breach of neutrality committed there by the enemy, 
and connived at by the Bey, who, with the duplicity so cha- 
racteristic of his countrymen, appears also to have sanctioned, 
if not invited, this retributive procedure on the part of the 
British. After executing this service, the squadron cruized 
about the Balearic islands, and on the south coast of Spain, 
where it made several captures. 

Captain Thompson then returned to Gibraltar, on which 
station he remained till June, 1 798, when he was ordered to 
the Mediterranean, to reinforce Rear- Admiral Nelson, who 


was at that time watching the port of Toulon, and whom he 
accompanied in pursuit of the armament that had been equip- 
ped there, destined to the coast of Egypt. 

At the glorious action of the Nile, on the 1st of August, 
1798, the Leander, though but a 50-gun ship, was stationed 
in the line of battle. Her commander bore up to the Cullo- 
den on seeing her take the ground, that he might afford any 
assistance in his power to get that vessel off from her unfortu- 
nate situation ; but finding tbat nothing could be done, and 
unwilling that his services should be lost where they could be 
more effective, he made sail for the scene of action, and took 
his station, with great judgment, athwart hawse of Le Frank- 
lin, of 80 guns, raking her with great success, the shot from 
the Leander's broadside, which passed that ship, all striking 
L'Orient, bearing the flag of the French Commander-in- 
Chief. This station Captain Thompson preserved, until Le 
Franklin struck her colours to the Defence, Swiftsure, and 
Leander ; he then went to the assistance of the British ships 
still engaged with the rear of the enemy. 

On the 5th of August, Captain Thompson sailed with Captain 
(now Sir Edward) Berry, of the Vanguard, as the bearer of 
Rear- Admiral Nelson's despatches to the Commander-in- 
Chief. On the 18th, being off the west end of Goza, near the 
island of Candia, at daybreak in the morning, he discovered 
a ship of the line in the S. E., standing towards him with a 
fine breeze. The Leander being above eighty men short of her 
complement, and having had fourteen wounded in the late 
battle, Captain Thompson did not consider himself justified 
in seeking an action with a ship so much his superior ; he 
therefore took every means in his power to avoid it, but soon 
found that the Leander's inferiority in sailing made it inevi- 
table ; he therefore, with all sail set, steered a course which he 
judged would enable him to receive his adversary to the best 
advantage. At eight o'clock, the stranger, being to windward, 
had approached within random shot of the Leander, with Nea- 
politan colours hoisted, which he then changed to Turkish ; but 
this deception was of no avail, as Captain Thompson plainly 

Y 3 


made him out to be French. At nine, being within half gun- 
shot of the Leander's weather quarter, Captain Thompson 
hauled up sufficiently to bring the broadside to bear, and 
immediately commenced a vigorous cannonade on him, which 
he instantly returned. The ships continued nearing each 
other until half-past ten, keeping up a constant and heavy 
fire. At this time the enemy availed himself of the disabled 
condition of the Leander, to lay her on board on the larboard 
bow ; but a most spirited and well-directed fire from the small 
party of marines on the poop, and from the quarter-deck., 
supported by a furious cannonade, prevented the enemy from 
taking advantage of his situation, and he was repulsed with 
much slaughter. A light breeze giving the ships way, enabled 
Captain Thompson to steer clear of the enemy; and soon 
afterwards he had the satisfaction to luff under his stern, and 
passing him within ten yards, distinctly discharged every gun 
from the Leander into him. 

The action was now continued without intermission, within 
pistol-shot, until half after three in the afternoon, when the 
enemy, with a light breeze, for it had hitherto been almost 
calm, and the sea as smooth as glass, passed the Leander's 
bows, and brought himself on her starboard side, where the 
guns had been nearly all disabled from the wreck of the spars 
which had fallen on that side. This producing a cessation of 
fire on her part, the enemy hailed to know if she had surren- 
dered. The Leander was now totally ungovernable, being a 
complete wreck, not having a stick standing, but the shattered 
remains of the fore and main masts, and the bowsprit, her hull 
cut to pieces, the decks full of killed and wounded ; and per- 
ceiving the enemy, who had only lost his mizen-top-mast, 
approaching to place himself athwart her stern, Captain 
Thompson, in this defenceless situation, without the most 
distant hope of success, and himself badly wounded, asked 
Captain Berry if he thought he could do more, who, coincid- 
ing with him that further resistance was vain and impracti- 
cable, an answer was given in the affirmative, and the Leander 
was soon after taken possession of by le Genereux, of 78 


guns, commanded by M. Lejoille, chef de division, who had 
escaped from the action of the 1st of August, having on board 
900 men, 100 of whom were killed, and 188 wounded, in the 
contest with the Leander, whose loss was also considerable, 
she having 35 killed and 57 wounded ; a full third of her 
gallant crew. 

No sooner did Captain Thompson and his officers arrive on 
board le Genereux, than they were plundered of every article 
belonging to them, save the clothes on their backs. They 
expostulated, in vain, with the French Captain on this harsh 
treatment ; and when they reminded him of the situation of 
the French officers made prisoners by Sir Horatio Nelson, 
in comparison with those now taken in the Leander, he coolly 
replied, " I am sorry for it ; but the fact is, that the French 
are expert at plunder." These friends to liberty and equality 
even carried their inhumanity to such an extreme, that at the 
very moment the surgeon of the Leander was performing the 
chirurgical operations, they robbed him of his instruments, 
and the wounds which Captain Thompson had received were 
near proving fatal, by their forcibly withholding the attend- 
ance of that gentleman. 

The court-martial which afterwards was assembled to ex- 
amine the conduct of Captain Thompson, his officers and 
crew, declared, " that his gallant and almost unprecedented 
defence of the Leander, against so superior a force as that of 
le Genereux, was deserving of every praise his country and 
the assembled court could give ; and that his conduct, with 
that of the officers and men under his command, reflected not 
only the highest honour on himself and them, but on their 
country at large." The thanks of the court were also given 
to Captain Berry, who was present on the occasion, for the 
gallant and active zeal he had manifested. Upon the return 
of Captain Thompson to the shore from the Alexander, in 
which the court-martial had been held, he was saluted with 
three cheers by all the ships in harbour at Sheerness. 

Soon after this period, Captain Thompson received the 
honour of knighthood, and a pension of 200/. per annum. In 

Y 4? 


the following spring, 1799, he was appointed to the Bellona, 
of 74? guns, and joined the fleet under the command of Lord 
Bridport, off Brest. From this station he was sent to the 
Mediterranean, where the Bellona was attached to a flying 
squadron, under the command of Captain Markham, of the 
Centaur, and assisted in the capture of three frigates and two 
brigs from Jaffa, bound to Toulon. She returned to England 
in the autumn. In the course of the same year, Corfu was 
taken by the Russians and Turks ; and the Leander being 
found there, the Emperor Paul ordered her to be restored to 
the British navy. 

The Bellona continued on the home station until the period 
of the memorable Baltic expedition, which sailed from Yar- 
mouth Roads, under the command of Sir Hyde Parker, 
March 12. 1801. The glorious victory off Copenhagen 
ensued on the 2d of April ; but from the intricacy of the navi- 
gation, the Bellona grounded before she could enter into 
action ; and by this unfortunate circumstance, Sir Thomas B. 
Thompson was prevented from taking so distinguished a part 
in the engagement as, no doubt, he would otherwise have 
done. But, though not on the spot which had been assigned 
her, she was highly serviceable ; and being stationary, within 
reach of the enemy's batteries, the loss she sustained was con- 
siderable, amounting to 11 killed and 63 wounded. Among 
the latter number was her commander, who had the misfor- 
tune to lose one of his legs. 

For his services on this occasion, Sir Thomas, in common 
with the other officers of the fleet, received the thanks of both 
Houses of Parliament ; his pension was increased to 500/. per 
annum * ; and he was shortly after appointed to the Mary 
yacht, the command of which he retained for several years. 

In November, 1806, Sir Thomas B. Thompson was nomin- 
ated Comptroller of the Navy, which office he held till Fe- 
bruary, 1816, when he succeeded the late Sir John Colpoys, as 
Treasurer of the Royal Hospital at Greenwich; and, about the 

* According to the regulation of November 27. 1815, Sir Thomas's pension 
was augmented to^OOZ. per annum. 



same time, was chosen a Director of the Chest, in the place of 
Lord Hood, deceased. He had, at the general election in 
1807, been returned to Parliament as Representative for the 
city of Rochester, his seat for which he vacated on receiving 
his last appointment. He was created K. C. B. January 2. 
1815, and G. C. B. September 14. 1822. 

Sir Thomas married, February 25. 1799, Anne, eldest 
daughter of Robert Raikes, of the city of Gloucester, Esq., 
and by that lady had issue three sons and two daughters : 
1. Anne; 2. Thomas Boulden, who died young; 3. Thomas 
Raikes Trigge, born in 1804, who has succeeded to the Ba- 
ronetcy, and is a Lieutenant R. N. ; 4-. Thomas John, who 
died in 1807 ; and 5. Mary. 

The death of Sir Thomas Boulden Thompson took place 
on the 3d of March, 1828, at Hartsbourne, Manor- Place, 
Herts, at the age of 62. 

We are indebted to " Marshall's Royal Naval Biography " 
for the foregoing Memoir. 


No. XXV. 


1 HE following Memoir has been extracted from a highly 
interesting Introduction to a work recently published, under 
the title of " The Literary Remains of the late Henry Neele, 
Author of the ' Romance of History,' &c. &c. ; consisting of 
Lectures on English Poetry, Tales, and other Miscellaneous 
Pieces, in Prose and Verse." 

Though, like the custom of placing flowers in the cold 
hands of the dead, praise but wastes its sweetness upon ears 
which can no longer listen to its melody, still, to give per- 
petuity to the memory of genius is one of the most grateful 
offices of humanity ; nor does man ever seem more deserving 
of immortality himself, than when he is thus endeavouring to 
confer it worthily upon others. 

The late Henry Neele was the second son of a highly 
respectable map and heraldic engraver in the Strand, where 
he was born January 29th, 1 798 ; and upon his father removing 
to Kentish Town, was there sent to school, as a daily boarder, 
and continued at the same seminary until his education was 
completed. At this academy, though he became an excellent 
French scholar, yet he acquired " little Latin, and less Greek ;" 
and, in fact, displayed no very devoted application to, or even 
talent for, study of any sort, with the exception of poetry, for 
which he thus early evinced his decided inclination, and pro- 
duced several specimens of extraordinary beauty for so juvenile 
a writer. Henry Neele's inattention at school was, however, 
amply redeemed by his unassisted exertions when he better 


knew the value of those attainments which he had neglected ; 
and he subsequently added a general knowledge of German 
and Italian to the other languages in which he became a pro- 
ficient. Having made choice of the profession of the law, he 
was, upon leaving school, articled to a respectable attorney ; 
and, after the usual period of probationary experience, was 
admitted to practice, and commenced business as a solicitor. 

It was during the progress of his clerkship, in January, 
1817, that Henry Neele made his first appearance as an author, 
by publishing a volume of poems, the expenses of which were 
kindly defrayed by his father, who had the judgment to per- 
ceive, and the good taste to appreciate and encourage, the 
dawning genius of his son. Though this work displayed evi- 
dent marks of youth and inexperience, yet it was still more 
decidedly characterised by a depth of thought and feeling, and 
an elegance and fluency of versification, which gave the surest 
promises of future excellence. Its contents were principally 
lyrical, and the ill-fated Collins was, avowedly, his chief model. 
The publication of this volume introduced the young poet to 
Dr. Nathan Drake, author of " Literary Hours," &c., who, 
though acquainted with him " only through the medium of 
his writings," devoted a chapter of his " Winter Nights " to a 
critical examination and eulogy of these poems ; " of which," 
says the Doctor, " the merit strikes me as being so consider- 
able, as to justify the notice and the praise which I feel grati- 
fied in having an opportunity of bestowing upon them." And 
in a subsequent paragraph, he observes, that, " when beheld 
as the very firstlings of his earliest years, they cannot but be 
deemed very extraordinary efforts indeed both of taste and 
genius ; and as conferring no slight celebrity oij the author, as 
the name next to be pronounced, perhaps, after those of 
Chatterton and Kirke White." 

The duties and responsibility of active life, however, neces- 
sarily withdrew much of his attention from writing; yet, 
though his professional avocations were ever the objects of his 
first regard, he still found frequent leisure to devote to com- 
position. In July, 1820, Mr. Neele printed a new edition of 


his Odes, &c., with considerable additions; and in March, 
1823, published a second volume of Dramatic and Miscel- 
laneous Poetry, which was, by permission, dedicated to Miss 
Joanna Baillie, and at once established its author's claims to 
no mean rank amongst the most popular writers of the day. 
The minor poems, more especially the songs and fragments, 
were truly beautiful specimens of the grace and sweetness of 
his genius ; and amply merited the very general approval with 
which they were received. 

Ardent and enthusiastic in all his undertakings, Mr. Neele's 
literary industry was now amply evidenced by his frequent 
contributions to the " Monthly Magazine " and other periodi- 
cals, as well as to the " Forget Me Not," and several of its 
contemporary Annuals. Having been long engaged in study- 
ing the poets of the olden time, particularly the great masters 
of the drama of the age of Queen Elizabeth, for all of whom, 
but more especially for Shakspeare, he felt the most enthu- 
siastic veneration, he was well qualified for the composition of 
a series of " Lectures on English Poetry," from the days of 
Chaucer down to those of Cowper, which he completed in 
the winter of 1826; and delivered, first at the Russell, and 
subsequently at the Western Literary Institution, in the spring 
of 1827. These lectures were most decidedly successful, and 
public and private opinion coincided in describing them as 
" displaying a high tone of poetical feeling in the lecturer, 
and an intimate acquaintance with the beauties and blemishes 
of the great subjects of his criticism." Although written with 
rapidity and apparent carelessness, they were yet copious, 
discriminative, and eloquent, abounding in well-selected illus- 
tration, and inculcating the purest taste. 

In the early part of 1827, Mr. Neele published a new 
edition of all his poems, collected into two volumes ; and, in 
the course of the same year, produced his last and greatest 
work, the " Romance of English History," which was dedi- 
cated, by permission, to his Majesty ; and though extending 
to three volumes, and, from its very nature, requiring much 
antiquarian research, was completed in little more than six 


months. Flattering as was the very general eulogium which 
attended this publication, yet the voice of praise was mingled 
with the warnings of approaching evil ; and, like the lightning 
which melts the sword within its scabbard, it is but too cer- 
tain that the incessant labour and anxiety of mind attending 
its completion, were the chief sources of that fearful malady 
which so speedily destroyed him. 

" 'Twas his own genius gave the final blow, 

And help'd to plant the wound that laid him low; 
So the struck eagle stretch'd upon the plain, 
No more through rolling clouds to soar again, 
View'd his own feather on the fatal dart, 
Which wing'd the shaft that quiver'd in his heart ! 
Keen were his pangs, but keener far to feel 
He nurs'd the pinion which impell'd the steel; 
While the same plumage that had warm'd his nest, 
Drank the last life-drop of his bleeding breast ! " 

Of the work itself, which comprises a series of Tales, 
founded on some romantic occurrences in every reign, from 
the Conquest to the Reformation, it is difficult to speak accu- 
rately. The subject, excepting in its general outlines, was one 
to which Mr. Neele was confessedly a stranger ; and as he 
had to search for his materials through the obscure chronicles 
of dry antiquity, and actually to " read up " for the illustration 
of each succeeding narrative, his exertions must have been 
equally toilsome and oppressive ; and the instances of haste 
and inaccuracy, which, it is to be regretted, are of such fre- 
quent occurrence, are thus but too readily accounted for. On 
the other hand, the Tales are, in general, deeply interesting 
and effective; the leading historical personages all character- 
istically distinguished ; and the dialogue, though seldom suf- 
ficiently antique for the perfect vraisemblance of history, is 
lively and animated. The illustrations of each reign are pre- 
ceded by a brief chronological summary of its principal events; 
and amusement and information are thus most happily and 
inseparably united. 


The " Romance of History " was very speedily reprinted in 
a second edition, and one Tale, " Blanche of Bourbon," was 
written for its continuation ; as Mr. Neele would most proba- 
bly have prepared another series ; though it was the publisher's 
original intention that each country should be illustrated by a 
different author. 

With the mention of a new edition of Shakspeare's Plays, 
under the superintendence of Mr. Neele as editor, for which 
his enthusiastic reverence for the poet of " all time " peculiarly 
fitted him, but which, from the want of patronage, terminated 
after the publication of a very few numbers, closes the record 
of his literary labours, and hastens the narration of that " last 
scene of all " which laid him in an untimely grave. All the 
fearful details of that sad event it were too painful to dwell 
upon ; and if the curtain of oblivion even for a moment be re- 
moved, it is to weep over them in silence, and close it again 
for ever. Henry Neele fell by his own hand ; the victim of 
an overwrought imagination : 

" Like a tree, 

That, with the weight of its own golden fruitage, 
Is bent down to the dust." 

On the morning of Thursday, February 7th, 1828, when 
he had scarcely passed his thirtieth birth-day, he was found 
dead in his bed, with but too positive evidences of self-destruc- 
tion. The unhesitating verdict of the Coroner's Inquest was 
Insanity, as he had exhibited unquestionable symptoms of 
derangement on the day preceding. And thus, in the very 
spring of life, with fame and fortune opening their brightest 
views before him, he perished under the attacks of a disease, 
from which no genius is a defence, and no talent a protection ; 
which has numbered amongst its victims some of the loftiest 
spirits of humanity, and blighted the proudest hopes that ever 
waked the aspirings of ambition. - 

4< Breasts, to whom all the strength of feeling given, 
Bear hearts electric, charged with fire from Heaven, 


Black with the rude collision, inly torn, 

By clouds surrounded, and on whirlwinds borne, 

Driven o'er the lowering atmosphere that nurst 

Thoughts which have turn'd to thunder, scorch and burst ! " 

In person, Mr. Neele was considerably below the middle 
stature ; but his features were singularly expressive, and his 
brilliant eyes betokened ardent feeling and vivid imagination. 
Happily, as it has now proved, though his disposition was in 
the highest degree kind, sociable, and affectionate, he was not 
married. His short life passed, indeed, almost without events ; 
it was one of those obscure and humble streams which have 
scarcely a name in the map of existence, and which the tra- 
veller passes by without enquiring either its source or its 
direction. His retiring manners kept him comparatively un- 
noticed and unknown, excepting by those with whom he was 
most intimate ; and from their grateful recollection his memory 
will never be effaced. He was an excellent son, a tender 
brother, and a sincere friend: he was beloved most by those 
who knew him best ; and at his death left not one enemy in 
the world. 

Of his varied talents, the posthumous volume which has 
been published of his works will afford the best possible esti- 
mate ; since it includes specimens of nearly every kind of com- 
position which Mr. Neele ever attempted. The Lectures will 
amply evidence the nervous eloquence^ of his prose ; and the 
grace and tenderness of his poetry are instanced in almost 
every stanza of his verse. Still, with a mind and manners so 
peculiarly amiable, and with a gaiety of heart, and playfulness 
of wit, which never failed to rouse the spirit of mirth in what- 
ever society he found himself, it is, indeed, difficult to account 
for the morbid sensibility and bitter discontent which charac- 
terise so many of his Poems ; and which were so strongly ex- 
pressed in a contribution to the " Forget Me Not" for 1826, 
that the able Editor, his friend, Mr. Shoberl, considered it his 
duty to counteract its influence by a " Remonstrance," which 
was inserted immediately after it. 


The posthumous work to which we have alluded contains 
all the unpublished manuscripts left with Mr. Neele's family, 
as well as most of those Miscellaneous Pieces which were 
scattered, very many of them anonymously, through various 
periodicals, several of which are now discontinued ; though 
the tales and poems adverted to were never printed in any 
former collection of his writings. From the facility with which 
Mr. Neele wrote, the ready kindness with which he complied 
with almost every entreaty, and his carelessness in keeping 
copies, it is, however, highly probable, that numerous minor 
poems may yet remain in obscurity. It would have been easy 
to have extended the volume, even very far beyond its de- 
signed limits ; but the failure of more than one similar attempt 
was a caution to warn from the quicksand on which they were 
wrecked ; and to contract, rather than to extend, the bound- 
aries previously prescribed. The satire of the reverend author 
of " Walks in a Forest " has, unluckily for its objects, been 
but too frequently deserved : 

" When genius dies, 

I speak what Albion knows, surviving friends, 
Eager his bright perfections to display 
To the last atom, echo through the land 
All that he ever did, or ever said, 
Or ever thought : 

Then for his writings, search each desk and drawer, 
Sweep his portfolio, publish every scrap 
And demi-scrap he penn'd ; beg, borrow, steal, 
Each line he scribbled, letter, note, or card, 
To order shoes, to countermand a hat, 
To make enquiries of a neighbour's cold, 
Or ask his company to supper. Thus, 
Fools ! with such vile and crumbling trash they build 
The pedestal, on which at length they rear 
Their huge Colossus, that, beneath his weight, 
'Tis crush'd and ground ; and leaves him dropt aslant, 
Scarce raised above the height of common men ! " 


As specimens of Mr. Neele's talents, we subjoin two pieces, 
the one in prose, the other poetical, from his " Literary Re- 
mains : " 


' He was the soul of genius, 
And all our praises of him are like waters 
Drawn from a spring, that still rise full, and leave 
The part remaining greatest.' JONSON. 

" It is one of the most striking peculiarities in the genius 
of Shakspeare, that, although he is eminently the Poet of Na- 
ture, and exhibits her with singular felicity in her ordinary 
and every-day attire, yet that, when he gets ' beyond this 
visible diurnal sphere,' he surpasses all other writers, in the 
extraordinary power and invention which he displays in the 
delineation of supernatural beings. It has been justly re- 
marked, that, in his most imaginary characters, he cannot be 
so properly said to go beyond nature, as to carry nature along 
with him, into regions which were before unknown to her. 
There is such an extraordinary propriety and consistency in 
his supernatural beings, and every thing which they say or do 
is in such strict accordance with the character with which he has 
invested them, that we at once become, as it were, denizens of 
the imaginary world which the potent art of the poet has con- 
jured around us ; the marvellous merges into the probable ; 
and astonishment and surprise are changed into intense inte- 
rest and powerful sympathy. Shakspeare is the only poet 
who effects this ; at least, to the same extent : the magic of 
other writers pleases and surprises us ; but in that of Shak- 
speare we are thoroughly wrapt up. We are as much under 
the influence of the wand of Prospero as are Ariel and Cali- 
ban : the presence of the Weird Sisters on the blasted heath 
arrests our attention as strongly as it did that of Macbeth and 
Banquo ; and the predictions of the prophetic spirits on the 
eve of the battle of Bosworth ring as fearfully and as solemnly 
in our ears, as they did in those of the conscious usurper. 



The great secret of all this is, the wonderful art with which 
the character of these visitants from another world is sus- 
t ained ; and in which they are not surpassed by any of our 
author's representations of mere humanity. Ariel is as perfect 
and harmonious a picture as Miranda or Ferdinand ; and, 
above all, the Witches in e Macbeth ' are creations on which 
the poet has lavished all his skill, and exhausted all his in- 

" The supernatural machinery of which he makes the most 
frequent use is founded upon the popular belief in ghosts. This 
is a superstition which has existed in all ages and countries, and 
amongst all classes and conditions of men. There are many 
who affect to despise it ; but it is scarcely too much to say that 
there never existed an individual who was not, at some period 
or other, under the influence of the feelings which such a be- 
lief excites. 

" The saint, the savage, and the sage ; ' the man of letters, 
and the uninformed peasant ; the child of science, who can 
explain the structure of the universe ; and even the sceptic 
Hobbes, for instance, among many others who refuses to 
give credence to any written revelation of the will of the 
Creator, have all confessed that 

' There are more things in heaven and earth 
Than are dream'd of in our philosophy.' 

Hence this belief has become an engine of most potent influ- 
ence in the hands of the poet ; since by it he could work upon 
the feelings of all mankind. The great authors of antiquity, 
and those of Spain and Italy, and, above all, those of the 
north of Europe, the countries of cloud and mist, the 

* Lands of brown heath and shaggy wood, 
Lands of the mountain and the flood,' 

where the phenomena of nature are such powerful auxiliaries 
to a lively imagination and a credulous understanding, all 
these have delighted in breaking down the barrier between the 


corporeal and the spiritual world, and in shaking our dis- 

With thoughts beyond the reaches of our souls.' 

" The most distinguished writers of our own age have not 
neglected to avail themselves of this popular superstition, if 
such it must be called. Coleridge's ' Ancient Mariner/ 
Lord Byron's ' Manfred,' and ' Siege of Corinth,' and that 
masterpiece of the mighty wizard of the north, the ' Bride of 
Lammermoor,' are proofs, amongst innumerable others, of the 
ability which our contemporaries have evinced, when they 
have ventured to lift up the veil which shrouds the secrets of 
the spiritual world. 

" It is, therefore, not surprising that Shakspeare should have 
enrolled these shadowy beings among his dramatis persona ; 
or that, in his management of them, he should have displayed 
consummate genius. The introduction to the entrance of the 
Ghost in ' Hamlet' shows infinite taste and judgment. Just 
as our feelings are powerfully excited by the narration of its 
appearance on the foregoing evening, the speaker is inter- 
rupted by the * majesty of buried Denmark ' once more 
standing before him : 

' The bell then beating one, 
But soft, break off! Look where it comes again ! ' 

then the solemn adjurations to it to speak ; the awful silence 
which it maintains ; the impotent attempts to strike it ; and the 
exclamation of Horatio, when it glides away, 

* We do it wrong, being so majestical, 
To offer it the show of violence,' 

present to us that shadowy and indistinct, but at the same 
time, appalling and fearfully interesting, picture, which consti- 
tutes one of the highest efforts of the sublime. The interview 
with Hamlet is a masterpiece. The language of this awful 
visitant is admirably characteristic. It is not of this world : it 

z 2 


savours of the last long resting-place of mortality ; f of worms, 
and graves, and epitaphs/ It evinces little of human feeling 
and frailty. Vengeance is the only passion which has survived 
the wreck of the body ; and it is this passion which has burst 
the cerements of the grave, and sent its occupant to revisit the 
' glimpses of the moon/ Its discourse is of murder, incest, 
suffering, and revenge, and gives us awful glimpses of that 
prison-house, the details of which are not permitted to 6 ears 
of flesh and blood/ Whether present or absent, we are con- 
tinually reminded of this perturbed Spirit. When on the 
stage, ' it harrows us with fear and wonder ; ' and, when 
absent, we see it in its influence on the persons of the drama, 
especially Hamlet. The sensations of horror and revenge 
which at first possess the mind of this prince ; then his tardi- 
ness and irresolution, which are chided by the reappearance 
of the spectre ; and his fears, notwithstanding all the evidence 
to the contrary, that it may be an evil spirit, which, 

' Out of his weakness and his melancholy, 
Abuses him to damn him,' 

form one of the most affecting and interesting pictures in the 
whole range of Shaksp care's dramas. 

" The spirits of the murdered victims of the usurper Richard 
are also admirably introduced ; but they do not occupy so 
prominent a station in the drama as the Ghost in ' Hamlet/ 
The apparition of Julius Caesar in the tent of Brutus is a brief 
but awful visitation ; and the mind of the spectator is finely 
prepared for it by the unnatural drowsiness which possesses 
all the attendants. 

" The Ghost of Banquo exists only in the disordered mind 
of Macbeth ; and we think that the effect would be prodi- 
giously increased, if the managers would listen to the opinions 
of the best critics, and forbear to present it before our visual 
organs. But what shall we say of the Weird Sisters, and of 
their unutterable occupation ? 


* How now, ye secret, black, and midnight hags, 
What is 't ye do ? ' 

* A deed without a name ! ' 

" This is the true sublime : it is composed of the essential 
elements of sublimity ; and the most highly-wrought descrip- 
tion of their employment would produce an effect infinitely 
inferior to the simple brevity of this reply. The mind wan- 
ders into the pathless field of horrible imaginings. From the 
moment that Macbeth encounters them on the blasted heath, 
he is impelled along his inevitable path by their spells. His 
mind is troubled with ' thick-coming fancies ; ' his ' face is a. 
book where men may read strange matters ; ' ' Things bad 
begun, make strong themselves by ill : ' until, at length, he is 

' in blood 

Stept in so far, that, should he wade no more, 
Returning were as tedious as go o'er ! 

and his unearthly tempters complete their horrid task, and 
gain their prey. 

" The Fairies in ' A Midsummer Night's Dream ' are of a 
nature as essentially and distinctly different as celestial from 
infernal ; or light from darkness. Even 6 that shrewd and 
knavish sprite ' Puck, is but mischievous only, not wicked ; 
and Oberon, and Titania, and all their elfish troop, are un- 
tainted with any fiendish attributes, and almost without any 
touches of mortality. The ' delicate Ariel ' is another still- 
varying creation of the same gifted pencil ; made still more 
effective by its contrast with the monster Caliban, * that 
thing of darkness ' 'as disproportioned in his manners as 
in his shape : ' 

* Whose mother was a witch : and one so strong, 
That could control the moon, make ebbs and flows, 
And deal in her command without her power.' 

" But to do ample justice to all the supernatural characters of 
Shakspeare would demand a volume, not an essay ; and, how- 

z 3 


ever frequently we may have perused the magic page which 
' gives these airy nothings a local habitation and a name,' it 
is still untiring, and still new ; and, though the all-potent art 
which gave it life, and breath, and being, is extinct ; though 
the charm be broken, and the power lost, yet still, 

* Our mighty bard's victorious lays 
Fill the loud voice of universal praise ; 
And baffled Spite, with hopeless anguish dumb , 
Yields to Renown the centuries to come ! ' " 


" A Fragment. 

" Oh Love ! triumphant Love ! thy throne is built 
Where tempests cannot shake it, or rude force 
Tear up its strong foundations. In the heart 
Thy dwelling is, and there thy potent spell 
Turns its dark chambers into palaces. 
Thy power is boundless ; and o'er all creation 
Works its miracles. So Pygmalion once 
Woke the cold statue on its pedestal 
To life and rapture. So the rugged soul, 
Hard as the rifted rock, became the slave, 
The feeblest slave of love ; and, like the pearl 
In Cleopatra's goblet, seems to melt 
On beauty's lips. So, when Apelles gazed 
Upon Campaspe's eyes, her peerless image, 
Instead of glowing on his canvass, bright 
In all its beauty, stole into his hear't, 
And mock'd his feeble pencil. 


Love in the soul, not bold and confident, 
But, like Aurora, trembles into being ; 
And with faint flickering, and uncertain beams, 
Gives notice to th' awakening world within us, 
Of the full blazing orb that soon shall rise, 
And kindle all its passions. Then begin 
Sorrow and joy : unutterable joy, 


And rapturous sorrow. Then the world is nothing ; 
Pleasure is nothing ; suffering is nothing ; 
Ambition, riches, praise, power, all are nothing ; 
Love rules and reigns despotic and alone. 
Then, oh ! the shape of magic loveliness 
He conjures up before us. In her form 
Is perfect symmetry. Her swan-like gait 
As she glides by us, like a lovely dream, 
Seems not of earth. From her bright eye the soul 
Looks out ; and, like the topmost gem o' the heap, 
Shows the mine's wealth within. Upon her face, 
As on a lovely landscape, shade and sunlight 
Play as strong feeling sways : now her eye flashes 
A beam of rapture ; now, lets drop a tear ; 
And now, upon her brow as when the rainbow 
Rears its fair arch in heaven Peace sits, and gilds 
The sweet drops as they fall. The soul of mind 
Dwells in her voice, and her soft, spiritual tones 
Sink in the heart, soothing its cares away ; 
As halcyons brood upon the troubled wave, 
And charm it into calmness. When she weeps, 
Her tears are like the waters, upon which 
Love's mother rose to heaven. E'en her sighs, 
Although they speak the troubles of her soul, 
Breathe of its sweetness ; as the wind that shakes 
The cedar's boughs, becomes impregnated 
With its celestial odours." 

* * t *.-*' 


No. XXVI. 



HER MAJESTY was the eldest daughter of the late King- 
George the Third and Queen Charlotte, and was born at 
Buckingham House, on the 29th of September, 1766. She 
was christened on the 27th of the following month, by Arch- 
bishop Seeker ; her godmothers being her aunts the Queen of 
Denmark, who was represented by the Countess of Effing- 
ham, and the Princess Louisa, who attended in person ; and 
her godfather the King of Denmark (then just married to the 
Princess Caroline), who was represented by the Duke of 
Portland, Lord Chamberlain. 

In her early years, the foundation was laid in her mind of 
the knowledge of modern languages, and of history, by which 
she was afterwards distinguished ; in the acquisition of which 
she was greatly assisted by an extraordinary memory ; and 
which, in maturer years, excited the admiration of all who had 
the honour of conversing with her. This love of study was 
chiefly encouraged by her father, whose inseparable compa- 
nion the young Princess was, and whom she amused in his 
leisure hours, by reading to him. To her literary occupations 
was added a remarkable talent for the arts of design, which 
was cultivated under the superintendence of the celebrated 
Benjamin West, and which she subsequently applied, with 
great taste, in embroidery and other female works, as agree- 
able presents to her friends, on various occasions, and as 
ornaments for the apartments of the royal palace at Stuttgart!. 


On the 18th of May, 1797, she was married, at the Chapel 
Royal, St. James's, to Frederick Charles William, Hereditary 
Prince, and afterwards King, of Wurtemberg, to whom she 
was second wife, but by whom she never had any children. 
When the alliance was announced to the House of Commons, 
it was triumphantly stated to be with " a Protestant Prince, 
and a descendant of the Princess Sophia." That the King of 
Wurtemberg was doubly descended from the mother of George 
the First, his pedigree sufficiently testified. 

It is said, that when the proposals were first. made for this 
marriage, the King felt anxious to be satisfied respecting cer- 
tain suspicions attached to the Prince's character, in regard to 
his participation in, or criminal knowledge of, the death of his 
first wife in a Russian prison ; where it had been asserted to 
be probable that she was confined by his express desire, for 
real or supposed indiscretions; but his Highness removed 
every suspicion in the clearest manner, by authentic docu- 
ments, proving his entire innocence of any improper proceed- 
ings, if such were resorted to, which, however, is by no means 
probable. His Majesty inspected the papers in question, and 
declared his perfect satisfaction with them. It is certain, 
nevertheless, that he manifested considerable reluctance to .the 
match; which, however, may be easily accounted for by his 
parental attachment, and by his unwillingness to have his eldest 
daughter separated from the family. 

Notwithstanding the political agitation of the time, great 
public interest was excited by the departure of the royal pair 
for Germany, which took place on the 2d of June. 

By this marriage, Wurtemberg, of course, became the 
second home of the royal subject of this Memoir. Her life was 
divided between that and lier native country ; thirty-one years 
she had passed in England, and thirty-one more she passed in 
Wurtemberg. From her first arrival at Stuttgard, she ac- 
quired the love of all persons by her affability and her exten- 
sive charity. She knew no greater pleasure than that of 
alleviating the distress of others, and in sending no one away 
without giving consolation and assistance. 


In her private life, the greatest activity prevailed : she was 
dressed early in the morning, and ready for various occupa- 
tions. Her time was wisely appropriated, and employed partly 
in reading, especially religious and historical books ; partly in 
writing letters, particularly to her family, to which she was 
tenderly attached ; partly in drawing; and partly in various 
female pursuits. 

On the 30th of October, 1816, her royal husband, who had 
been long afflicted with a liver complaint, expired, at Stutt- 
gard. A brief sketch of the history of this Prince may not be 
inapposite : 

He was born on the 6th of November, 1754-. His first 
wife was a Princess of Wolfenbuttle, by whom he had the 
Prince Royal, who succeeded him on the throne. He himself 
succeeded his brother as Duke of Wurtemberg, on the 23d of 
December, 1797; and, soon after, made his peace with the 
French Republic. It is remarkable, that both the commence- 
ment and the close of his reign were distinguished by differ- 
ences between him and his States, who complained of the 
infringement of their privileges. In consequence of the peace 
of Luneville, he was, in 1803, raised to the dignity of Elector ; 
and, on the peace of Presburg, his States, which were then 
aggrandised, were converted into a Monarchy. He was pro- 
claimed King, January 1. 1806 ; and a colossal crown was 
subsequently placed on the top of his palace at Stuttgard, 
This new dignity was, however, dearly purchased, by the 
enormous contingents of men he was compelled to furnish for 
the ruinous expeditions of Buonaparte. He was also obliged 
to give his daughter Catherine in marriage to Jerome Buona- 
parte, and to marry his eldest son to the Princess Charlotte of 
Bavaria ; but they never cohabited, and the marriage was dis- 
solved as soon as the author of that forced union was precipi- 
tated from his throne. The sister of the King of Wurtemberg 
was married to Paul the First, and has only recently died. 
On the 26th of October, 1816, only three days before his 
death, her brother celebrated the birth-day of this Princess, at 
Stuttgard. Frederick William experienced many reverses of 


fortune. During the French Revolution, when the Republican 
army advanced on the Danube, he was obliged to fly, and aban- 
don his capital to foreign troops. It was, perhaps, from a wish to 
avoid the repetition of such an occurrence, that he afterwards 
showed himself one of the most zealous of the Sovereigns of 
the Rhenish Confederacy ; and that he rigorously executed 
Buonaparte's conscription-laws in his States. This was one 
of the principal grievances of which the country had to com- 
plain. It must be added, however, that he did not appear 
insensible to the loss of so many subjects, immolated to gratify 
the ambition of a foreign despot. After the retreat from 
Moscow, while Buonaparte was passing the winter gaily at the 
Tuilleries, the King of Wurtemberg prohibited all public 
amusements. Frederick William was of an impetuous and 
violent character. He loved justice, and maintained it rigor- 
ously in his States ; only in some particular cases, IKS own will 
was substituted for the law. He was well informed in geo- 
graphy and natural history, and conversed well on the sciences. 
His palace was decorated with indigenous productions. He 
was pleased to see foreigners visit the royal edifices ; and the 
servants were particularly instructed to show them all the 
works of art which had been executed in Wurtemberg. 
There is one monument which will perpetuate the memory of 
this Sovereign, namely, Frederick's Haven, a little port which 
he constructed on the Lake of Constance, and which greatly 
facilitates the commerce of the Wurtembergers with the 
other countries situated on the Lake. His son, who succeeded 
him, in addition to the reputation of a gallant soldier, has 
enjoyed that of a liberal statesman. He married the Duchess 
of Oldenburgh, whose enlightened curiosity excited so much 
respect for her when she visited England. 

To the King her husband, her Majesty was affectionately 
devoted ; and she most painfully felt his loss. Every year, she 
celebrated his birth-day by divine service ; on which occasion 
a sermon on his memory was preached ; and afterwards visited 
the vault (which she often did at other times), to pray by the 
coffin of the deceased. Her health, which was visibly impaired 


after his death, never kept her from this ceremony ; and often 
she went down to this solemn duty ill, and appeared to be 
strengthened when she came out. In general, sincere piety 
was a distinguished trait in the character of this Princess, 
and became a source of the noblest and most unwearied 

From the period of the death of the King, she resided in 
the Palace of Ludwigsburg. This town and its environs, and 
next to that, Teinach, in the Black Forest, celebrated for its 
mineral waters (of which residence she was very fond, and 
where she went every year for her health), were, in an especial 
degree, the scenes of her beneficence ; and she considered 
these two places, though without excluding others, as the 
sphere peculiarly assigned to her by Providence. Here she 
practised the great art of dispensing wisely. God had placed 
in her hands the means, and in her heart the love, of doing 
good; so that she not only bestowed largely, but judiciously, 
and almost always contrived to multiply her benefits by the 
manner in which they were conferred. She did not give to 
poor people barren and often injurious alms, but made herself 
acquainted with their wants ; and, in general, preferred paying 
their rent, in order, as she said, to help at the same time both 
the poor tenant and the landlord, and to preserve or restore 
harmony between them. Workmen who had fallen into decay, 
she relieved by finding them employment, for which she paid 
liberally ; and their work was again used by her for new bene- 
fits. Above all, she extended her generosity to the private 
support of respectable persons who had fallen into distress, 
and in the education of children, either orphans, or those 
whose parents had not the means ; apprenticed the sons of 
indigent parents, and gave money to those who had behaved 
well in their apprenticeships, to enable them to travel and 
improve themselves in foreign countries. She was also very 
liberal to public charities : and all this was done in the quietest 
manner, through the medium of various persons, and often 
through entirely secret channels. She expressly forbade any one 
publicly to praise, or even to speak of, her benevolent actions. 


The judgment with which she practised the art of relieving 
the distressed, was equalled by the ingenuity with which she 
made presents to persons to whom she was attached, of to 
faithful servants. In these cases, also, she preferred bestow- 
ing what was useful, never repeating the same gift, so that the 
new present was something which seemed wanting to complete 
a former one ; and what would have been superfluous of itself, 
was only a link in the chain of her gratifying remembrances. 
Christmas was, in particular, a festival for her ; she wished 
that every body about her, and especially children, should 
rejoice on that festal occasion. With the industrious kindness 
of a good mother, she remained at her work for days together, 
and spared no pains to complete every thing ; and when the 
happy eve was come, she sat in the circle which she had col- 
lected around her, and looked with silent delight at the joy of 
which she was herself the author. 

With this liberality to others, the Queen was extremely 
simple and unostentatious, and in this might be a model for 
her sex. When those about her tempted her to incur any 
extraordinary expense, she would answer, " If I did not limit 
my own expenses, how should I have enough for others?'* 
Her goodness of heart and condescension rendered all those 
who had the happiness to be near her so attached to her, that 
all did their utmost to anticipate her wishes. She was most 
affectionately attached to all the royal family of Wurtemberg, 
especially to the King and Queen ; by whom she was beloved 
as if she had been their own mother. 

Meantime she preserved the warmest attachment to her 
native country, for whose manners, constitution, and welfare, 
she always retained a genuine British feeling; and she was 
induced, in the spring of 1827, by the desire of once more 
seeing her beloved family, and by the hope that she might 
obtain relief from a complaint dropsy which had afflicted 
her for many years, and had increased her size to an extraor- 
dinary degree, to undertake a journey to England. She ar- 
rived without any accident. The persons who accompanied 
her Majesty on that occasion could not find terms to describe 


the landing in England : the affectionate reception given her 
by her royal brother and all her august relations ; the delight- 
ful-domestic circle into which she returned, after an absence 
of thirty years ; and the acclamations of the people, whenever 
they saw, even at a distance, the favourite daughter of George 
the Third. One of her own most ardent desires was fulfilled. 
Her bodily sufferings appeared to be for a time alleviated by 
the joy which she felt. She seemed to live again in the re- 
membrances of her youth ; no friend, no old servant, had 
been forgotten. Where any persons with whom she used to 
deal were still in business, she sent for them and made some 

Sir Astley Cooper, and other eminent surgeons, were called 
in to attend the Queen, and, by Sir Astley Cooper's advice, 
her Majesty underwent the operation of tapping, while resid- 
ing in St. James's Palace, which was performed by Sir Astley 
with great privacy. There were at one time flattering hopes 
that the operation would lead ultimately to a perfect cure ; but 
the event proved the fallacy of any such expectation. 

The circumstances which attended her Majesty's return 
home exhibited her strength of mind and her trust in God in 
the brightest light. On the second day after she had em- 
barked, when she was very ill, and much agitated by the part- 
ing with her family, a violent storm at the mouth of the Thames 
threatened her and all on board with the most imminent dan- 
ger. In this trying moment her attendants could not suffi- 
ciently admire the unshaken courage of the Queen. When 
any of them went to her cabin to console her, they found her 
in no want of consolation : composedly lying on a sofa, she 
said to them, " I am here in the hand of God, as much as at 
home in my bed." The peril, however, passed away, and the 
august traveller returned to Wurtemberg in safety. 

Unhappily, her bodily sufferings increased after that period, 
and dropsy in the chest gradually manifested itself. At the 
same time, pains in the head, to which she had been subject 
for many years, and other symptoms, gave reason to appre- 
hend that part of the brain was affected, which, on dissection, 


lias been since found to be the case. Her Majesty frequently 
experienced great difficulty in breathing, was obliged to be 
carried up stairs in a chair, and when she entered a carriage, 
to^be assisted by two domestics. So far, however, was she 
from exhibiting any serious idea of her approaching dissolu- 
tion, that she entertained at dinner the Earl and Countess of 
Shrewsbury at her palace of Ludwigsburg only three days 
previously to her death ; and having withdrawn with them, in 
the course of the evening, to her private apartments, kept up 
for nearly two hours a most interesting and affable convers- 
ation, on a variety of topics. 

On the 6th of October, 18^, having just entered the sixty- 
third year of her age, her Majesty expired without a struggle, 
gently and imperceptibly, in the arms of the King, her son-in- 
law, and surrounded by affectionate friends, and faithful serv- 
ants. Her mortal remains were deposited, on the 1 2th of 
October, with due solemnity, by the side of her husband, in 
the vault of Ludwigsburg. 

On the 4th of November, her Majesty's obsequies were 
celebrated in the cathedral at Stuttgard, which was suitably 
fitted up for the occasion, in the presence of the royal family, 
the court, the civil and military authorities, and a great num- 
ber of persons of all ranks. After a dirge by Zumsteeg, the 
court chaplain delivered an impressive discourse, on the text, 
" The memory of the just is blessed." A sketch of her Ma- 
jesty's life, composed by the King's command, which was read 
at the conclusion of the sermon, furnished the biographical 
data for the eulogium bestowed by the preacher on the de- 
ceased Queen ; an eulogium which deserves to be, and which 
probably will be, made more extensively public. A similar 
religious ceremony took place on the same day at Ludwigs- 
burg ; and on the following Sunday it was repeated in all the 
parishes of the kingdom. 

Her Majesty had no annuity from this country. Her por- 
tion on marriage was 100,000/. Of that sum, one half being 
settled on herself, it was placed in the consols, and the interest 
was regularly remitted to her by a London banking-house. 


Much the greater portion of the foregoing Memoir we have 
derived from the Literary Gazette. A few days after the 
arrival in this country of the intelligence of her Majesty's de- 
cease, the following interesting statement appeared in one of 
the daily papers : 


" The sudden demise of the above Royal Personage has 
opened a melancholy breach in the hearts of her illustrious re- 
latives ; and in that country whose sceptre she had shared, and 
with whose prosperity she had identified herself for a period of 
more than thirty years, it has excited the most lively sentiments 
of grief. 

" Although her Majesty had enjoyed but indifferent health 
for a series of years, and was subject to certain spasmodic 
attacks which often brought her valuable life into apparent 
jeopardy, yet neither the public mind, nor even that of her 
immediate attendants, was prepared for the lamentable result 
which has just transpired. On Saturday, the 3d instant, her 
Majesty appeared, and passed the evening, nearly as usual ; 
on Sunday she became indisposed ; the symptoms gradually 
increased on Monday they became alarming, and in the 
course of the day she had a tranquil passage from time to 

" Her Majesty's visit last year to her native country is fresh 
in the recollection of every one ; and it was hoped that her 
health had derived essential benefit from the change of air, 
and the revival of all those sympathies and associations, and 
more particularly of that personal and family intercourse, from 
which she had been so long debarred by continental warfare. 
This was the impression left upon our minds as she parted 
from our shores last autumn, to return to Germany ; and the 
present event is another and painful instance of the futility of 


human hopes and the imperfection of human foresight. Her 
Majesty, it is well known, retired to her magnifient chateau of 
Louisburg upon the death of her Royal Consort in 1816, 
where, surrounded by select members from her court and 
council, and at the head of which was the venerable Count de 
Goerlitz, whose attachment had stood the test of many years 
and eventful changes, she passed her days in the uninterrupted 
discharge of those duties which add fresh lustre to her exalted 
station, and in the strict observance of those admirable princi- 
ples, by which she had so often swayed the powerful minds of 
others, and by which she regulated every impulse of her own. 
It was here, in particular, that every surrounding object ac- 
knowledged the influence of her presence, and where the 
beneficent acts of the ( Good Queen ' were felt and admired, 
and though done in secret, the gratitude of those her bounty 
had succoured in distress, or raised above it, was reflected in 
silent offerings, from the peasant's hearth to the presence- 
chamber in her palace.* 

" It had been, for many years, her Majesty's custom to pass 
some portion of every summer at the Baths of Deinach, a 
short distance from the capital, as well for the benefit of the 
waters, as to vary the monotony of her retired court, to give a 
fresh impulse to the health and minds of those by whom it was 
composed, and over whose happiness she watched with parental 
solicitude. Her Majesty's annual visit to this romantic and se- 
cluded spot was anticipated by all ranks with impatience, and 
hailed with loyalty and delight, as the signal for resuming those 
innocent festivities, in which the entire populace took an eager 
part, and, in the presence of their august Patroness, revived 
the ancient games of the country, while the victors in these 
were rewarded by suitable prizes, instituted and distributed by 
her Majesty in person. 

" Having repeatedly felt the salutary effects of a summer 
residence here, her Majesty had thereby acquired a strong 
local attachment for the spot. It is a singularly romantic 

* The writer of this brief sketch has been informed, on the spot, that not less 
than seventy families in the neighbourhood shared in her Majesty's daily bounty. 


hamlet, situated on the border of the Black Forest, skirted by 
feudal and monastic ruins, and presenting an endless succes- 
sion of all those picturesque beauties which arrest and fix the 
attention of the naturalist or the painter, and, to a refined and 
contemplative mind, give free scope for the indulgence of the 
best feelings of which the human heart is susceptible. It was 
here too, in an antique and extensive palace, overhung by hills 
of pine, traversed by a mountain stream, ancj commanding 
objects of unceasing interest, that her Majesty was in the habit 
of receiving annual visits from some member of her august 

" On the day of her Majesty's leaving this place on her re- 
turn to Louisburg, in the month of August, it was the uniform 
and affecting custom of the peasantry and others to assemble 
on the morning of her departure, to testify their strong attach- 
ment to their royal and beloved mistress, by twining the pa- 
nels of her carriage and all its appendages with wreaths of 
evergreen, and the choicest flowers of the place and season, as 
the silent but expressive votive offering for her return. 

" The same ceremony was observed as the several carriages 
of her Majesty's suite left in succession ; and at every halt in 
her progress, fair hands continued to offer symbolic flowers, 
till the halls of Louisburg rang once more with the royal wel- 
come. It is hardly two months since this beautiful and affect- 
ing ceremony took place for the last time ! But now, alas ! 
the scene is sadly reversed ; the mournful pageant is announced 
at every gate the mourners have arranged themselves in 
W eeds and the hands that so lately offered flowers are now 
twining the cypress wreath ! 

" Could a well-regulated life prolong or insure its duration, 
the lamented object of a nation's sorrow might still have lived 
to receive and to communicate happiness ; but, alas ! the race 
is not to the swift nor the battle to the strong, nor lengthened 
days to those whose life has been a blessing to mankind. 

" The mode of life pursued by her Majesty was invariable 
and systematic. During the summer she had usually con- 
cluded her morning toilet by six, often much earlier. She 


appeared in public at one o'clock, when she received the 
homage of her Court, and that of the strangers or functionaries, 
who had the entree to her table, and, followed by whom, she 
shortly after proceeded to the banquet-room. After dinner 
she adjourned to the drawing-room, where, after an inter- 
change of compliments, &c. she generally retired to her private 
apartment, leaving her guests at their own free disposal ; or, 
when the weather invited, she took an airing in some of the 
beautiful avenues in the neighbouring forests. At five o'clock 
tea was announced; music, vocal and instrumental, or other 
domestic pastimes occasionally an opera followed"; and 
filled up the space between tea and supper. This latter meal 
was announced at nine o'clock, during which an admirable 
band continued to play the select and popular airs of Ger- 
many, and occasionally introducing the royal anthem of Eng- 
land, and other patriotic airs, with great feeling and effect. 
By ten o'clock, or a little after, the repast had finished ; her 
Majesty had received the salutation of the night, and the 
officers and ladies of the court retired to their several apart- 
ments through the long and shadowy corridors. This daily 
practice of domestic order and arrangement reminded one 
forcibly of the excellent and similar habits of our forefathers 
during the reign of Queen Elizabeth habits which have 
been so imprudently infringed upon, though not without their 
forfeit, by the less salutary discipline of modern times. 

As the activity of her Majesty's mind was incessant, so were 
her hands seldom without some adequate subject for the dis- 
play of her refined and cultivated taste, or the exercise of that 
laudable industry which, to her, had become delightful from 
long habit, and of which innumerable traces remain, to excite 
our admiration, and to be treasured as the finest ornaments of 
the royal palace. In this her Majesty sought not pastime 
alone; she had a higher object in view. She sought to incul- 
cate a most important lesson, and to recommend it to those 
around by her own personal example, viz. that in the proper 
distribution of our time, and in the wise employment of our 
faculties, the great secret of human happiness is to be found ; 

A A 2 


and that, instead of pursuing pleasure as an occupation, 'we 
should Jind, on the contrary, that it is from prudent occupation 
alone that we can secure lasting pleasure and satisfaction. 

" The natural affability of her Majesty's disposition, the 
enviable talent of relieving the restraint and enlivening the 
conversation which her presence might have been supposed to 
impose, or to check, made a presentation at the Court of 
Louisburg an object of the first importance to every distin- 
guished traveller who sojourned m these parts. Few days 
during the summer but some illustrious family or individual 
were presented by the resident Ambassador, and took their 
place at her hospitable table. Of these the majority were the 
public Functionaries or the fair daughters of that beloved 
country, the land of her birth, and the proud inheritance of 
her royal brother. On these, and the cherished remembrance 
of her early days, her mind and conversation dwelt with pe- 
culiar delight ; while the sentiments she expressed were well 
becoming a daughter of that illustrious dynasty from which 
she sprung, and of that crown and kingdom of which she had 
become the pride and the ornament. 

" To those who have had the happiness to sojourn within 
the royal precincts of Louisburg, to partake of its hospitality, 
and mingle in its polished circle, the remembrance of such 
hours must long remain in vivid retrospect : they will confess, 
that for once they have beheld the highest dignity associated 
with the gentlest heart and the most generous dispositions, 
and that a conciliatory smile may subdue more hearts than 
the sword. 

" But henceforth, alas ! at Louisburg or Deinach, there 
will be no ear to receive the homage of our respect and 
loyalty ; no hand to beckon or welcome us to that banquet- 
hall where so long had presided the Princess Royal of England, 
the sister of our beloved SOVEREIGN ! There we shall only 
find a shrine and a sepulchre, where we may drop the tear of 
mingled sorrow and exultation over the hallowed urn of * the 
daughter of our people,' the good and lamented Queen ! 


" Her name, embalmed by those exalted virtues which 
added so much lustre to her life and her reign, will find a 
ready passport to the love and veneration of posterity ! The 
days of her life were only so many acts of beneficence. She 
supported the aged and patronised the young ; every hour had 
its allotted portion of evil to correct, or of good to communi- 
cate to those around her ; and faint, indeed, were language to 
convey their deep sense of the loss of her who never sought 
her own happiness but in advancing theirs. The gratitude of 
a nation, whose best interests it was her aim and happiness 
essentially to promote, may commemorate such exalted vir- 
tues by trophies less perishable ; but her proudest monument 
is in the hearts of those who had the happiness to know and 
to appreciate the excellence of her life, and have now the 
lasting misfortune to survive her." 




C.B. K.S.G. K.S.A. K.S.W. 


HAVING been disappointed in an expectation which we had 
been led to entertain, of receiving a number of interesting 
particulars respecting this gallant and able officer another 
lamentable sacrifice to the support of a settlement in a climate, 
a residence in which Providence seems to have forbidden to 
Europeans we must content ourselves with the following 
brief notice of him, which originally appeared in the " Gen- 
tleman's Magazine." 

Sir Neil Campbell was appointed Ensign in the 6th West 
India regiment in April, 1797, from which he exchanged to 
the 67th, October 29. 1798; and, August 23. 1799, was 
appointed, by purchase, Lieutenant in the 57th. 

After serving three years in the West Indies, he returned 
to England, and joined the 95th rifle corps, on its formation 
in April, 1800. He was promoted, by purchase, to a com- 
pany in the 95th, June 4. 1801. From February, 1802, to 
September, 1803, he was at the Military College, and sub- 
sequently appointed Assistant Quarter-master-general in the 
southern district of England ; in which situation he continued 
until promoted to a Majority, by purchase, in the 43d foot, 
January 24. 1805. 

He was removed from the second battalion 43d to the first 
battalion of the 54th foot, February 20. 1806. He accompanied 
that corps to Jamaica, and returned to England in January, 
1808. He was appointed Deputy Adjutant-general to the 


forces in the Windward and Leeward Islands, with the brevet 
of Lieutenant-Colonel, August 20. following ; and for a third 
time, proceeded immediately to the West Indies. He served 
in that capacity with the expedition which captured Mar- 
tinique, in January, 1809. 

In April following he accompanied Major-General Mait- 
land, as senior officer of the staff, in the expedition against the 
Saintes, near Guadaloupe, which were captured ; and from 
whence a French squadron, which had taken refuge there, was 
thereby forced to put to sea, and the French line-of-battle 
ship, Hautpoult, captured. Major-General Maitland remarked 
in his despatch, " Lieutenant- Colonel Campbell, Deputy 
Adjutant-general, has been always forward : he is an officer 
who must rise by his merit." 

In January, 1810, he served as Deputy Adjutant-general 
with the expedition which terminated in the capture of Guada- 
loupe; and, during those operations, was detached with a 
column under the command of Major-General Harcourt, in 
whose despatch to Sir G. Beckwith the following observation 
occurs : " Lieutenant-Colonel Campbell, Deputy Adjutant- 
general, merits my warmest acknowledgments, by his zealous 
services, which have been unremitting, and particularly for his 
exertions and able assistance in the affair of the 3d." 

The operations in the West Indies having expelled the 
French from those islands, Lieu tenant- Colonel Campbell re- 
turned home in the end of 3810, proceeded to the Peninsula, 
and resigned his staff situation as Deputy Adjutant-general in 
the Windward and Leeward Islands. In April, 1811, he was 
appointed Colonel of the 16th regiment of Portuguese infantry. 
Brigadier- General Pack's brigade, to which this regiment be- 
longed, was not placed in any division with British troops, but 
was invariably detached where the service was most active. 
In 1811 and 1812, this regiment, while under the command 
of Colonel Campbell, was employed in the blockade of Al- 
meida, which formed the left of the position during the battle 
of Fuentes d'Onor; also at the sieges of Ciudad Rodrigo, 
Badajoz, and Burgos, and the battle of Salamanca. Upon 

A A 4 


two of those occasions his name was particularized by the 
Duke of Wellington, viz. after the siege of Ciudad Rodrigo : 
" The 1st Portuguese regiment, under Lieutenant- Colonel 
Hill, and the 1 6th, under Colonel Campbell, being Brigadier- 
General Pack's brigade, were likewise distinguished in the 
storm, under the command of the Brigadier-General ; " and, 
in a despatch from Burgos, " As soon as it was dark, the same 
troops, with the addition of the 42d regiment, attacked and 
carried by assault the horn-work which the enemy had occu- 
pied in strength. In this operation, Brigadier-General Pack, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Hill, 1st Portuguese regiment, Colonel 
Campbell, 16th, Major Williams, 4th Cacadores, Major Dick, 
42d regiment, and the Hon. Major Cocks, 79th, distinguished 

In January, 1813, the army retreated from Burgos and 
Madrid to the frontier of Portugal, where the troops were dis- 
persed in winter quarters; and Colonel Campbell, in con- 
sequence of illness and the decision of a medical board, 
returned to England. 

In February he proceeded to Sweden, and from thence to 
the head-quarters of the Emperor of Russia, in Poland, to 
join Lord Cathcart, the Ambassador at the court of Russia, 
who accompanied the Emperor Alexander in that capacity, 
but who was also a general of the staff, and as such employed 
Sir R. Wilson, Colonel Lowe, and Colonel Campbell, to be 
detached to the different corps of the Russian army, in order 
to report upon their force and military operations. By the 
Gazette it appears that Colonel Campbell served in that 
capacity with those armies (chiefly with the corps d'armee 
commanded by Count Wittgenstein) from that period until 
their entry into Paris, March 31. 1814. During August, 
September, and October, 1813, he was detached to the siege 
of Dantzig, where a corps of 30,000 men was employed, under 
Prince Alexander of Wurtemburg. On March 24. 1814, he 
was severely wounded at Fere Champenoise, in France. Lieu- 
tenant-General Sir Charles Stewart, now Marquis of London- 
derry, observed in his despatch to Lord Bathurst, " Your 


Lordship will, I am sure, lament to learn that that very de- 
serving officer, Colonel Neil Campbell, was unfortunately 
wounded by a Cossack in the melee of the cavalry, not being 
known." And Lord Burghersh, in a despatch dated March 26., 
observes, " It is with the greatest regret I have to announce 
to your Lordship, that Colonel Campbell was yesterday most 
severely wounded by a Cossack. Colonel Campbell, con- 
tinuing that gallant and distinguished course which has ever 
marked his military career, had charged with the first cavalry, 
which penetrated the French masses. The Cossacks, who 
came to support this cavalry, mistook him for a French officer, 
and struck him to the ground." 

In April, 1814, Colonel Campbell was appointed, by the 
British government, to accompany Napoleon from Fontain- 
bleau to the island of Elba. General Kolla, General Count 
Shuwalloff, and Colonel Count Truchsess were respectively 
appointed by the sovereigns of Austria, Russia, and Prussia, 
to accompany Buonaparte from Fontainbleau, in the quality 
of commissioners. The two latter left him upon his embark- 
ation at Frejus, whilst General Roller and Colonel Campbell 
proceeded with him to Elba, and established him in possession 
of that island, in conformity with the treaty which the Emperor 
Alexander had entered into at Paris. 

Colonel Campbell obtained the rank of Colonel on the 
Continent of Europe, and the island of Elba, April ,14-. 18 14-, 
and received the brevet of Colonel in the army, June 4. fol- 
lowing. The Gazette of the 2d of June announces his Majes- 
ty's licence to Colonel Campbell to accept and wear the 
insignia of the order of St. Anne, of the second class, and the 
Cross of St. George, of the fourth class, conferred upon him 
by the Emperor Alexander ; and the Gazette of the 2d of 
October, that his Majesty had conferred upon him the honour 
of knighthood ; also certain armorial distinctions, in consider- 
ation of his able and highly-distinguished services upon various 
occasions, more especially at the conquest of Martinique, 
Guadaloupe, and their dependencies ; in the Peninsula, at the 
assault and capture of Ciudad Rodrigo, and the brilliant action 


of Salamanca ; as also in consideration of the zeal and ability 
manifested by him while attached to the Russian army, in the 
campaigns terminating in the restoration of peace to Europe ; 
and the signal intrepidity displayed by him in the action 
fought at Fere Champenoise, on the 25th of March, 1815. 
Colonel Campbell was subsequently appointed, by the Empe- 
ror of Russia, a Knight of the order of St, Wlademir, of the 
third class. 

It appears from official documents, and from the debates in 
Parliament, that Sir Neil Campbell was directed by the Bri- 
tish Government to remain in Elba till further orders, after 
establishing Buonaparte in territorial possession, if he should 
consider that the presence of a British Officer could be of use 
in protecting the island and his person against insult or attack ; 
that he did, therefore, continue to remain there at the request 
of Buonaparte, prolonging his residence until the Congress 
should terminate, occasionally passing to the adjoining parts 
of Italy, for the benefit of his health, and to communicate 
with other persons employed by the British Government, and 
our allies. It is not necessary to enter further into the details 
of the extraordinary circumstances connected with the mission 
upon which the deceased was employed, and the evasion of 
Buonaparte, on the 26th of February, 1815, during Sir Neil 
Campbell's absence from Elba, between the 17th and 28th of 
February, which were the days of this officer's departure from 
Elba, and of his return to that island. But thus much is 
necessary in recording his military career ; and it is but justice 
to him to add, that his Majesty's Ministers distinctly express- 
ed, in 1814, in both Houses of Parliament, that they had 
every reason to be satisfied with the activity and intelligence 
manifested by Sir Neil on every occasion, and more particu- 
larly during the delicate and very difficult charge imposed 
upon him while residing near the person of Napoleon. 

Sir Neil, after his return to England in April, 1814, had, 
upon the prospect of hostilities, joined his regiment, the 54th, 
in Flanders, and served with the Duke of Wellington's army, 
from the beginning of the campaign until their entry into 


Paris. The following is an extract of a despatch from Lieut.- 
General Sir Charles Colville, commanding the 4th division of 
that army : "I feel much obliged to Colonel Sir Neil 
Campbell (Major of the 54th Regiment), for his conduct in 
closing in the town of Cambray with the light companies of 
Major-General Johnstone's brigade, and in leading one of the 
columns of attack. The one which he commanded escaladed 
at the angle formed at our right side, by the Valenciennes 
gateway and the curtain of the body of the place. The Valen- 
ciennes gate was broken open by Sir Neil Campbell, and 
drawbridges let down in about half an hour," &c. 

Sir Neil was soon after appointed, by the Duke of Welling- 
ton, to command the contingent of troops furnished by the 
Free Hanseatic cities of Hamburg, Lubec, and Bremen, 
which were called the Hanseatic Legion, and consisted of 
3000 men, cavalry, infantry, and artillery. 

Sir Neil Campbell was sent to the fatal shores of Sierra 
Leone, in the summer of 1826, on the death of Major-General 
Sir Charles Turner. It is impossible not to lament the addi- 
tional sacrifice of Sir Neil Campbell to the horrible service, 
nor is any consolation afforded by the reflection that the 
British army could not boast a soldier more intrepid, or more 
devoted to honour and to duty ; nor society a gentleman whose 
heart was more generous, affectionate, and true. 

His death took place on the 14th of August, 1827, before 
the first year of his residence had been completed. 





^IR WILLIAM DOMETT was descended from a respectable 
Devonshire family, and was born in the year 1754. In 1769, 
he entered the naval service, as a midshipman, under the 
patronage of the late Lord Bridport, on board the Quebec 
frigate, commanded by Lord Ducie ; and served in that ship 
upwards of three years, on the West India station. 

The Quebec being paid off, on her return to England, Mr. 
Domett was received by Captain Elphinstone (the late Vis- 
count Keith) on board the Scorpion sloop, in which vessel 
he remained until the spring of the year 1 775, when he joined 
the Marlborough, of 74- guns, commanded by the late Viscount 
Hood, and from that ship went to the Surprise frigate, Capt. 
(afterwards Admiral) Robert Linzee, stationed at Newfound- 

In the spring of 1777, we find the Surprise assisting in the 
defence of Quebec, and annoying the American army in its 
retreat from before that important place, which it had besieged 
for about five months. Soon after this event, Mr. Domett 
was appointed acting Lieutenant of the Romney, a 50-gun 
ship, bearing the flag of Admiral John Montagu, Commander- 
in-Chief at Newfoundland, with whom he returned to England 
in the fall of the year ; and, on his arrival, was commissioned 
to the Robust, of 74? guns, in which ship he was present in the 
action between Keppel and d'Orvilliers, July 27. 1778 ; and 
the battle which took place off Cape Henry, March 16. 1781. 
In the latter affair, the Robust sustained a greater loss in 


killed and wounded than any other ship in the British squad- 
ron ; and by having at one time three of the enemy's vessels to 
contend with, her masts, sails, rigging, and boats, were cut to 
pieces. The following complimentary letter, addressed by 
Vice-Admiral Arbuthnot to Captain Cosby, is a sufficient 
proof of the high estimation in which the conduct of her offi- 
cers and crew was held by the Commander-in-Chief on that 

Royal Oak, off Cape Charles, March, 1781. 

" DEAR SIR, You have, since the time that we left Gar- 
diner's Bay, conducted yourself like an experienced, diligent 
officer, particularly on the 16th inst., in which you have ap- 
proved yourself a gallant Naval Commander, that has done 
honour to yourself and country ; and both yourself, officers, 
and ship's company, have my warmest thanks for your spirited 
conduct. ***** 

(Signed) " M. ARBUTHNOT. 

" Captain Cosby, Robust." 

In the ensuing autumn, Lieutenant Domett was removed to 
the Invincible, of 74 guns, commanded by the late Sir Charles 
Saxton, Bart., and was on board that ship in Rear- Admiral 
Graves's action with the French fleet, off the Chesapeake, on 
the 5th of September, in the same year. Soon after this, he was 
taken into the Barfleur,. and had the honour of serving as sig- 
nal officer to Sir Samuel Hood, during the memorable and 
masterly manoeuvres of that distinguished Admiral at St. 
Kitts, and the several battles which took place with the 
French fleet under De Grasse. He also participated in the 
glorious victory of April 12. 1782, when, on the Ville de Paris 
striking to the Barfleur, and the first Lieutenant being sent to 
take possession of that ship, Mr. Domett was appointed to 
succeed him in that situation. 

Some days after this event, Sir Samuel Hood having been 
detached in pursuit of the fugitives, came up with and captured 
two 64-gun ships, one frigate, and a sloop of war, to the com- 


mand of which latter vessel, the Ceres of 16 guns, Lieutenant 
Domett was promoted by Sir George Rodney, with whose 
despatches relative to this first success, he returned to 

On the 9th of September, in the same year, our officer was 
advanced to the rank of Post- Captain, and was selected by his 
friend Rear-Admiral Sir Alexander Hood, to command his 
flag-ship, the Queen, of 98 guns, in which vessel he accompa- 
nied the fleet under Earl Howe, to the relief of Gibraltar, 
and was present in the skirmish which took place off Cape 
Spartel, on the 20th of October. The Queen, on that occasion, 
had one man killed and four wounded. 

Captain Domett's next appointment was early in 1785, to 
the Champion, of 24* guns ; and from that period until the 
month of October, 1787, he was employed as senior officer 
on the Leith station. In the spring of 1788, he obtained the 
command of the Pomona frigate, and was ordered to the 
coast of Africa, and the West Indies, from whence he returned 
at the commencement of the year 1789, and was then removed 
to the Salisbury, bearing the flag of the late Admiral Mil- 
banke, Commander-in- Chief at Newfoundland. 

Our officer continued in the Salisbury until the month of 
June, 1790, when, in consequence of the dispute with Spain, 
relative to Nootka Sound, he was selected to command the 
London, of 98 guns. This appointment proceeded from the 
influence, and was made at the express desire, of Sir Alexan- 
der Hood, who had chosen that ship for the reception of his 
flag. The London proceeded to Torbay, where a fleet was 
assembled under the command of Earl Howe ; but the misun- 
derstanding with the Court of Madrid having been accommo- 
dated, it was dismantled at the end of the same year ; and 
Captain Domett immediately appointed to the Pegasus, in 
which frigate he again served on the Newfoundland station ; 
and soon after his return from thence, proceeded to the Me- 
diterranean as Flag-Captain to the late Admiral Goodall, in 
the Romney, of 50 guns, where he continued until the com- 
mencement of the war with France, in 1793, at which period 


he was again applied for by his old friend and patron, to be 
his Captain in the Royal George, a first-rate, attached to the 
Channel fleet under Earl Howe.* 

During the partial action of May 29. 1 794, and the decisive 
battle of June ] st, in the same year, the Royal George was 
exposed to an incessant and fierce cannonade, by which her 
foremast, with the fore and main topmasts, were shot away, 
20 of her men killed, and 72 wounded. On the return of the 
victorious fleet to port, Admiral Hood was created an Irish 
Peer, by the title of Lord Bridport; and, some time after, 
succeeded Earl Howe as Commander-in-Chief. 

At the dawn of day, on the 22d of June, 1 795, his Lordship's 
look-out frigates made the signal for an enemy's squadron, 
consisting of twelve ships of the line, two of 56 guns, eleven 
frigates, and two corvettes, attended by some smaller vessels. 
His Lordship soon perceived that it was not the intention of 
the enemy to meet him in battle ; consequently, he made the 
signal for four of the best sailing ships, and soon afterwards 
for the whole of the British fleet, to chase, which continued 
all that day and during the night, with very little wind. 
Early on the morning of the 23d, six of the English ships 
had neared the enemy so considerably, as to be able to bring 
them to an engagement about six o'clock. The battle conti- 
nued nearly three hours, and then ceased, in consequence of 
the greater part of the French squadron having worked close 
in with port 1' Orient, leaving three of their line-of-battle ships 
in the hands of the British, as a substantial reward for their 
brave and determined perseverance, f 

* Captain Cooke, of the Bellerophon, who fell at Trafalgar, was first Lieu- 
tenant of the Royal George, under Captain Domett. 

f The fleet under Lord Bridport consisted of fourteen sail of the line, six frigates, 
and three smaller vessels ; in addition to which, three other British line-of-battle 
ships were in sight, and joined in the chase, but were at too great a distance to 
share in the action, which only ceased when under the fire of the French batte- 
ries. The total loss sustained on our side was 31 killed, and 115 wounded. The 
captured ships were le Tigre, le Formidable, and T Alexandra (formerly British), 
which had been taken by a French squadron at the commencement of the war. 


On the following day, Lord Bridport despatched Captain 
Domett, with his official account of the action, to the Ad- 
miralty, where he arrived on the morning of the 27th. 

The following is an extract from his Lordship's public let- 
ter, which we introduce for the purpose of evincing the 
estimation in which that nobleman held the bearer's profes- 
sional conduct : "I beg also to be allowed to mark my 
approbation, in a particular manner, of Captain Domett's 
conduct, serving under my flag, for his manly spirit, and for 
the assistance I received from his active and attentive mind." 

Our officer continued in the command of the Royal George 
for a considerable time after Lord Bridport struck his flag, 
amounting in the whole to a period of about seven years and 
a half; a greater length of time, perhaps, than ever fell to the 
lot of an individual successively to command a first-rate. 
During this period, the Royal George was considered as one 
of the best-disciplined and most expert ships in the British 

In the month of November, 1800, in consequence of the 
Royal George being ordered to receive the flag of Sir Hyde 
Parker, Captain Domett was removed into the Belleisle, of 
80 guns, one of the prizes taken off 1'Orient ; and on a pro- 
motion of Flag-Officers taking place, January 1. 1801, he had 
the honour of being nominated to one of the vacant Colonelcies 
of the Marine corps. 

In the succeeding month, the subject of this Memoir was 
appointed Captain of the fleet to be employed in the Baltic, 
under the command of Sir Hyde Parker. He accordingly 
proceeded with that officer in the London, a second-rate, to 
the Sound ; and after the battle, which took place off Copen- 
hagen, on the 2d of April, and the departure of the Commander- 
in- Chief for England, he served in the same capacity under 
the gallant Nelson, during the short time his Lordship's health 
allowed him to retain the command of the force employed in 
that quarter. On his arrival from the Baltic, Captain Domett 
immediately resumed the command of his old ship, the Belle- 


isle, then off Ushant ; and in a short time afterwards, the late. 
Hon. Admiral Cornwallis applied for him to be appointed 
Captain of the Channel fleet, in which situation he continued 
to serve until the truce of Amiens. 

During the temporary suspension of hostilities, Captain 
Domett served as senior officer, with a broad pendant, on the 
coast of Ireland; but on the renewal of the war with France, 
he resumed his old station as Captain of the Channel fleet, 
under the gallant and persevering Cornwallis, with whom lie 
shared the duties and fatigues of service, in an unusually long- 
protracted blockade, during the severest season of the year, 
and until April, 1804; on the 23d of which month, he was 
promoted to the rank of Rear- Admiral. About the same time, 
he received the thanks of the Common Council of London, 
his name having been inadvertently omitted when that body 
voted thanks to the other Flag-Officers, for their perseverance 
in blocking up the enemy's fleet at Brest. 

Soon after his promotion, the Rear- Admiral was offered a 
command in the North Sea ; but ill health obliged him to 
decline it. About six months after he came on shore, he was 
appointed one of the Commissioners for the revision of Naval 
Affairs; the purport of which commission was, to form a 
complete digest of regulations and instructions for the civil 
department of the Navy. 

In the spring of 1808, our officer was called to a seat at the 
Board of Admiralty, where he continued until the summer of 
1813, when he succeeded the late Sir Robert Calder as Com- 
mander-in-chief at Plymouth; having been, in the intermediate 
time (October 25. 1809), advanced to the rank of Vice- 

Towards the conclusion of the war, we find him employed 
on the coast of France, with his flag in the Royal Oak, of 74- 
guns, under the orders of Lord Keith. At the enlargement 
of the Order of the Bath, January 2. 1815, the Vice- Admiral 
was nominated a K.C.B. ; and on the 16th May, 1820, he 
succeeded the Hon. Sir George C. Berkeley as a G.C.B. 



Sir William Domett's promotion to the rank of Admiral of 
the White took place August 12. 1819. 

Sir William died at Hawchurch, in Dorsetshire, on the 
19th of May, 1828, aged seventy- four. 

Marshall's Royal Naval Biography is our authority for this 

37 J 

No. XXIX. 





** Palma non sine pulvere." 

A LIVING monument of departed talent is one of the most dis- 
tressing objects of contemplation. The recovery of the noble 
subject of the following Memoir from the melancholy malady 
into which he fell nearly two years ago, having been from the 
first utterly hopeless, the termination of that malady in death 
was to be desired rather than deprecated ; and by those who 
were personally and affectionately attached to him, it must be 
considered as a relief, rather than as a new affliction. 

The family of Jenkinson, which had been respectably set- 
tled at Walcot, near Charlbury, in Oxfordshire, for above a 
century, was ennobled in the person of Charles Jenkinson, 
Esq., eldest son of Colonel Jenkinson, and grandson of Sir 
Robert Jenkinson, baronet (a dignity conferred upon Robert 
Jenkinson, Esq., of Walcot, on the 8th of May, 1661). Mr. 
Charles Jenkinson was educated at the Charter- House, and 
at the University of Oxford. In early life, he published 
Verses on the Death of Frederick Prince of Wales," " A 
Dissertation on the Establishment of a National and Constitu- 

B B 2 


tional Force in England, independent of a Standing Army," 
and " A Discourse on the Conduct of Government respecting 
Neutral Nations." It was said that he was also a contributor 
to the commencing numbers of the Monthly Review. Hav- 
ing obtained an introduction to the Earl of Bute, in 1761, he 
became one of the Under- Secretaries of State, and was re- 
turned to parliament in the same year for Cockermouth. In 
1763, he was appointed to the confidential office of joint Secre- 
tary to the Treasury; partook with Lord Bute of the marked 
and personal attachment of his late Majesty, and on that no- 
bleman's sudden retirement, became one of the most conspi- 
cuous members of a party then commonly called " the King's 
friends." The accession of the Rockingham administration to 
power in 1765, induced him to resign his public appointments ; 
but lie was at about the same period nominated Auditor of the 
Accounts of the Princess Dowager of Wales. In 1766, he 
was appointed by the Grafton administration a Lord of the 
Admiralty; and in 1767, became a Lord of the Treasury. 
Under Lord North new honours awaited him. He was, in 
1772, appointed one of the Vice- Treasurers of Ireland; and 
in 1775 was allowed to purchase the patent place of Clerkship 
of the Pells in that country. He afterwards succeeded Lord 
Cadogan as Master of the Mint; and in 1778 became Secre- 
tary at War. In 1783, he became a Member of the Board of 
Trade. In 1785 appeared his " Collection of all the Treaties 
of Peace, Alliance, and Commerce between Great Britain and 
other Powers, from the Treaty of Munster, in 1648, to the 
Treaties signed at Paris, in 1783." In 1786, the valuable ap- 
pointment of Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster was con- 
ferred upon him, and he was called up to the House of Lords 
as Baron Hawkesbury, of Hawkesbury, in the county of Glou- 
cester ; and was made President of the Board of Trade. The 
commerce of the country was always a prominent object of his 
attention. He is said himself to have drawn up the Com- 
mercial Treaty with America ; and to have first directed the 
attention of Government to the importance, and greatly to 
have facilitated the establishment of the South Sea fishery. 


His personal honours were completed in 1796, by his ad- 
vancement to the dignity of Earl of Liverpool. His Lord- 
ship married twice, while Mr. Jenkinson. His first wife was 
Amelia, daughter of William Watts, Esq., governor of Fort 
William, Bengal, by whom he had an only son, Robert 
Banks Jenkinson, the subject of the following Memoir. His 
second wife was Catherine, relict of Sir Charles Cope, Baronet, 
and daughter of Sir Cecil Bishopp, Baronet, by whom he had 
a son, Charles Cecil Cope Jenkinson (the present Earl of 
Liverpool), and a daughter, Charlotte, who married James 
Walter, Lord Forrester and Grimstone, afterwards Earl 
Verulam. After the acquisition of his earldom, Lord Liver- 
pool rarely quitted his retirement ; but whenever he spoke in 
the House of Peers, the extent and accuracy of his inform- 
ation, particularly on commercial topics, procured him marked 
attention. In 1805, he addressed to the King a " Letter on 
the Coins of the Realm," containing a concise and luminous 
statement of almost all the facts deserving notice in the history 
of the British coinage. His Lordship died on the 17th of 
December, 1808. 

We now come to his equally gifted, and valuable, and 
honoured son, the late Earl of Liverpool. He was born on 
the 7th of June, 1770,* and while he was an infant, and un- 
conscious of his loss, his mother died. At a very early age, 
he was placed at a respectable academy at Parson's Green, 
near Fulham, in which he remained until he entered his thir- 
teenth year. His father, having experienced the benefits of the 
system of education adopted at the Charter-house, then re- 
moved him to that school, where he continued between two 
and three years, and considerably increased his acquaintance 
with classical learning. There are in the possession of one 
of his schoolfellows several accurate and elegant translations 
from Greek and Latin authors, as well as many original com- 
positions, manifesting superior taste and judgment, which were 
produced by him at that time. 

No long interval elapsed between his leaving the Charter- 
house and his entering the college of Christ Church, Oxford. 

B B 3 


During the intervening period his father availed himself of 
the opportunity to give a more definite direction to his studies, 
and to sow the seeds of that attachment to state affairs, and 
that acquaintance with the best models and means of political 
government, which afterwards sprang up into a harvest of 
utility to these realms, during' a season of the most pressing 
importance. A catalogue of the best writers on the different 
branches of public economy was put into his hands, and a 
selection from their purest and ablest works was prepared for 
him, to blend with his other college exercises. Among other 
branches of political science, commerce and finance were espe- 
cially attended to ; and while the more abstract departments 
of knowledge were not neglected, chief attention was paid, 
by both father and son, to the more practical and popular. 

At college Mr. Jenkinson was the companion and friend of 
Mr. Canning : a circumstance to which Mr. Moore and others 
have attributed, how justly we know not, the secession of the 
latter from the political faith in which he had been educated. 
The friendship thus early commenced, was of an unusually 
permanent character, and had more than once a very import- 
ant influence on Mr. Canning's public life. 

Mr. Jenkinson paid a visit to the metropolis of France about 
the period of the breaking out of the Revolution. He was at 
Paris when the Bastille was demolished by the mob, and, it is 
said, was an eye-witness to many of the worst excesses which 
the streets of the city exhibited at that time. Nor was he an 
idle spectator of what was then going forward. He could not 
but foresee the effect which the atrocities of Paris must have 
on the peace of his own country ; nor could he be unacquainted 
with the industrious efforts of the revolutionists of France to 
excite a similar flame in England, as well as all through 
Europe. Intimately acquainted with Mr. Pitt, and in all pro- 
bability requested by him to watch the progress of the Revo- 
lution, and communicate every fresh form which it assumed, 
Mr. Jenkinson's residence at Paris was at that time of essential 
service, in preparing the British government for the firm 


and effectual stand which it made against French ascendency 
in this country. 

On his return to England he was introduced to parliament 
as one of the representatives of Rye, and under the avowed 
patronage of the minister. His election, it is remarkable, took 
place full twelve months before his age allowed him to sit in 
the house, and he returned to pass the intervening time in 
acquiring fresh continental information. In the year 1791, 
having reached his twenty-first year, he took his seat in the 
house, and on the 27th of February, 1792, he made his first 
speech, in opposition to the resolutions of Mr. Whitbread on 
the question of the Empress Catherine persisting in her claim 
to Ockzakow and the adjoining district. His address mani- 
fested a profound knowledge, not only of the subject in dis- 
pute between Russia and Turkey at that juncture, but also of 
the general affairs and prospects of Europe, and the proper 
duty of England in relation to the continental nations. No 
doubt was entertained, from this first effort, that Mr. Jenkin- 
son would rise to be a distinguished parliamentary speaker, 
and an efficient member of the British cabinet. 

It is painful to be obliged to admit that, in the debates 
which soon after took place respecting the slave trade, we find 
Mr. Jenkinsoii opposing the abolitionists. His father was one 
of the chief opponents of the abolition in the House of Lords, 
and that probably influenced the early decision of Mr. Jenkin- 
son on the subject. The nature of his opposition, however, 
has been much exaggerated, for he never defended the principle 
of this enormous iniquity. On the 2d of April, J 792, Mr. 
Wilberforce moved as a resolution in a committee of the 
whole house, " That it is the opinion of the Committee that 
the trade carried on by British subjects, for the purpose of 
obtaining slaves on the coast 6f Africa, ought to be abolished." 
Mr. Dundas proposed to insert the word " gradually " before 
the word " abolished." It has been said, that never was so 
much splendid oratory displayed in the House of Commons, 
as in the debate that followed. In the course of it Mr. Jen- 
kinson moved as an amendment, " That the chairman should 

B B 4 


leave the chair." This amendment was rejected by a large 
majority ; and Mr. Dundas's proposition was agreed to. 

On the deposition of the King of France, to whom he had 
been accredited, the British Ambassador, Lord Gower, was 
recalled from Paris. When, on the 1 5th of December follow- 
ing (1792), Mr. Fox moved an Address to the King, praying 
" that his Majesty would be graciously pleased to give direc- 
tions that a Minister might be sent to Paris, to treat with 
those persons who exercised provisionally the functions of the 
Executive Government of France, touching such points as 
might be in discussion between his Majesty and his allies, and 
the French nation," Mr. Jenkinson, in the temporary absence 
of Mr. Pitt (who had vacated his seat in the House of Com- 
mons, by accepting the Wardenship of the Cinque Ports), 
replied to Mr. Fox, in a speech of great animation and power. 
" On this very day," he exclaimed, " on this very day, while 
we are here debating about sending an Ambassador to the 
French Republic on this very day is the King of France to 
receive sentence ; and, in all probability, it is the day of his 
murder. What is it, then, that gentlemen would propose to 
their Sovereign ? To bow his neck to a band of sanguinary 
ruffians, and address an Ambassador to a set of murderous 
regicides, whose hands were still reeking with the blood of a 
slaughtered monarch, and who, he had previously declared, 
should find no refuge in this country ? No, sir ; the British 
character is too noble to run a race for infamy ; nor will we be 
the first to compliment a set of monsters who, while we are 
agitating this subject, are probably bearing, through the streets 
of Paris horrid spectacle ! the unhappy victim of their 
fury." Mr. Fox's motion was rejected without a division. 
The talents and efforts] of Mr. Jenkinson on this occasion 
were warmly complimented, especially by Mr. Burke. From 
that time, he rapidly rose in the consideration x>f all parties ; 
and began commonly to take a prominent part in combating 
the arguments of the Opposition. 

In April, 1 793, Mr. Jenkinson was appointed one of the 
Commissioners of the India Board, the duties of which situa- 


tion be performed with equal satisfaction to the Company and 
the Government. 

When Mr. Grey, on the 6th of May, 1793, brought for- 
ward his memorable petition on the subject of Parliamentary 
Reform, Mr. Jenkinson stood foremost in the rank of its 
opposers ; defending with great acuteness the existing state 
of the representation, and maintaining that the House of 
Commons, constituted as it was, had answered the end for 
which it was designed. 

On the 6th of March, 1794-, Mr. Grey moved an Address 
to the King, expressive of the concern of the House that his 
Majesty should have formed a union with powers whose appa- 
rent aim was to regulate a country wherein they had no right 
to interfere. Mr. Jenkinson, in reply, rapidly sketched the 
real views of the combined powers, whose object, he insisted, 
was both real and practicable. On the 10th of April, Major 
Maitland having proposed to the House of Commons to re- 
solve itself into a Committee, to take into consideration the 
causes which had led to the failure of the army commanded by 
his Royal Highness the Duke of York, at Dunkirk ; and hav- 
ing entered into an elaborate examination and condemnation 
of the measures of Ministers throughout the whole of the pre- 
ceding year, Mr. Jenkinson contended, in opposition to the 
Major, that no exertions had been wanting on the part of the 
Ministry. It was on this occasion that Mr. Jenkinson ob- 
served, " he had no difficulty in saying, that the marching 
to Paris was attainable and practicable ; and that he, for one, 
would recommend such an expedition." It will be remem- 
bered that our young statesman was long twitted in Parlia- 
ment, and elsewhere *, with this memorable suggestion ; but 
it is even less likely to be forgotten, that he lived to see the 
idea realised by the measures of himself and his colleagues. 

* " The conquest of France ! " said Mr. Fox, in his letter to the electors of 
Westminster, " Oh ! calumniated crusaders, how rational and moderate were 
your objects ! Oh ! tame and feeble Cervantes, with what a timid pencil and 
faint colours have you painted the portrait of a disordered imagination ! " 


It is impossible for us closely to follow Mr. Jenkinson 
through all his laborious exertions in Parliament, at this, 
which was one of the most active periods of his life. His 
reply to Mr. Fox's motion, on the 30th of May, 1794, for 
putting an end to the war with France, was one of the most 
powerful of these efforts. 

In the next session Mr. Jenkinson was absent from his 
place in Parliament, urging a debate of a more interesting 
character than any in which he had previously engaged ; and 
on the 25th of March, 1795, he married the Hon. Lady 
Theodosia Louisa, third daughter of Frederick Augustus 
Hervey, fourth Earl of Bristol, and Bishop of Derry. 

The Address at the opening of the session of 1795-6 was 
remarkable for being seconded by the late Marquis of Lon- 
donderry, then Mr. Stewart, in the first speech delivered by 
him in the English House of Commons. He was answered 
by Mr. Sheridan, who threw out many invectives against Mi- 
nisters, advising them to declare themselves willing to treat 
with the French Republic. Mr. Jenkinson replied to Mr. 
Sheridan, and repeated, with great force and success, his for- 
mer arguments in justification of the measures of Government. 

Upon commercial subjects, Mr. Jenkinson might be expect- 
ed, in the language of Mr. Sheridan, to have some claims to 
66 hereditary knowledge." He always, at any rate, entered 
upon them with confidence ; and, on Mr. Grey's motion in the 
House of Commons, 10th March, 1796, for an Inquiry into 
the State of the Nation, he took an able view of the effect of 
the war upon our commerce, from its commencement, and 
contended that, notwithstanding the weight of so great a war, 
the commercial situation of Great Britain was more pros- 
perous than at any antecedent period. 

On the 28th of May, 1 796, Mr. Jenkinson participated the 
honours of his family so far, as to exchange that surname for 
the second title of his father Lord Hawkesbury ; his vener- 
able parent being at that time, as we have already stated, 
created Earl of Liverpool. 


When the great measure of a legislative union with Ireland 
was proposed, it received Lord Hawkesbury's entire concur- 
rence. The subject was introduced on the 22d of January, 
1 799, by a message from the Crown ; and in the discussion 
which ensued, his Lordship expressed his warm approbation 
of the intentions of Government respecting it. 

We now approach the period of the introduction of the 
noble subject of our Memoir into the Cabinet, and of his first 
possession of that important share in the public councils, 
which, with the exception of a very short interval, he retained 
for above a quarter of a century. The circumstances which 
attended the temporary retirement of Mr. Pitt from power, 
early in 1801, are too well known to render it necessary for us 
to say any thing respecting them. In the new Ministry, the 
formation of which was announced on the 14-th of March of 
that year, and at the head of which was Mr. Addington, Lord 
Hawkesbury was appointed to the important office of Secre- 
tary of State for the Foreign Department, and actively en- 
gaged in the debates which ensued on the changes. In one 
of those debates, Mr. Pitt took an opportunity of warmly 
eulogising him ; and asked the gentlemen on the opposite side 
of the House, " if they knew any one among them superior to 
the noble Secretary saving, indeed, one person, unnecessary 
to name, whose transcendent talents made him an exception 
to almost any rule." 

The great business of the succeeding summer and autumn, 
however, was the adjustment of preliminaries of peace with 
France. Of course, Lord Hawkesbury, as Foreign Secretary, 
was intrusted with the interests of Great Britain in the nego- 
tiation which was opened on the subject ; a statement of the 
particulars of which is the province of the historian, not of the 
biographer. Suffice it to say, that on the 28th of March, 
1 802, the definitive treaty of peace was at length signed at 
Amiens, between the French Republic, the King of Spain, and 
the Batavian Republic, on the one hand, and the King of 
Great Britain and Ireland on the other. 


In the memorable debate on this peace, which occurred on 
the 13th of May, 1802, Lord Hawkesbury defended the 
treaty in a speech of great length; and which was considered, 
at the time, to be much the ablest that had been delivered on 
the subject in either House of Parliament. 

While France was every month adding to her influence or 
actual domination over the states of the Continent, the First 
Consul endeavoured to divert the attention of the British 
Ministers from his plans, by complaints of the British press. 
He sent instructions to his Ambassador to remonstrate with 
Government upon the remarks of the public writers on his 
character and conduct ; affecting to be totally ignorant of the 
little redress any ministers of this country could obtain for 
him in such a case. Lord Hawkesbury is admitted by all 
parties to have nobly vindicated the public character and liber- 
ties of his country in the correspondence that ensued. " I 
am sure," says the noble Lord, in his reply, through Mr. 
Merry, to one of M. Otto's official notes, " I am sure you 
must be aware that his Majesty cannot, and never will, in con- 
sequence of any representation or any menace from a foreign 
power, make any concession which can be in the smallest 
degree dangerous to the liberty of the press, as secured by the 
constitution of this country. This liberty is justly dear to 
every British subject. The constitution admits of no previous 
restraints upon publications of any description ; but there 
exist judicatures, wholly independent of the executive govern- 
ment, capable of taking cognizance of such publications as the 
law deems to be criminal, and which are bound to inflict the 
punishment the delinquents may deserve. These judicatures 
may take cognizance, not only of libels against the govern- 
ment and the magistracy of this kingdom, but, as has been 
repeatedly experienced, of publications defamatory of those in 
whose hands the administration of foreign governments is 
placed. Our Government neither has nor wants any other 
protection than what the laws of the country afford ; and 
though they are willing and ready to give to every foreign 
government all the protection against offences of this nature 


which the principle of the laws and constitution will admit, 
they never can consent to new-model laws, or to change the 
constitution, to gratify the wishes of any foreign power. If 
the present French Government are dissatisfied with our laws 
on the subject of libels, or entertain the opinion that the 
administration of justice in our courts is too tardy and lenient, 
they have it in their power to redress themselves, by punish- 
ing the vendors and distributors of such publications within 
their own territories in any manner that they may think proper, 
and thereby preventing the circulation of them. If they think 
their present laws are not sufficient for this purpose, they may 
enact new ones ; or, if they think it expedient, they may exer- 
cise the right which they have of prohibiting the importation 
of any foreign newspapers or periodical publications into the 
territories of the French Republic. His Majesty will not com- 
plain of such a measure, as it is not his intention to interfere 
in the manner in which the people or territories of France 
should be governed ; but he expects, on the other hand, that 
the French Government will not interfere in the manner in 
which the government of his dominions is conducted, or call 
for a change in those laws with which his people are perfectly 

In October, Lord Hawkesbury became the equally able 
advocate of the liberties of Switzerland. Against every plea 
of moderation and justice, Buonaparte had ordered the French 
army, under General Ney, to march into the unresisting can- 
tons, to enforce the reception of a new constitution for that 
country, prepared in his own cabinet. His Lordship addressed 
a note to M. Otto (still in London), wherein he expressed the 
sentiments of deep regret excited in his Majesty's breast by 
the proclamation of the French Consul to the Helvetic people, 
and declared that his Majesty " saw the late exertions of the 
Swiss cantons in no other light than as the lawful efforts of a 
brave and generous people to recover their ancient laws and 
government, and to procure the re-establishment of a system 
which experience had demonstrated not only to be favourable 
to the maintenance of their domestic happiness, but to be 


perfectly consistent with the tranquillity and security of other 

On Lord Hawkesbury devolved, at this period, much of 
what is technically called the management of the House of 
Commons ; and of course he spoke on every topic involving 
the character of the administration, as well as on the great 
political questions which were brought under the consideration 
of the House of Commons. 

At the opening of the next session, Lord Hawkesbury, as a 
means of strengthening the Ministry in the House of Lords, 
was called up to that House, by writ, as a peer's eldest son. 
The only measure of importance, however, which in that ses- 
sion he brought forward in his new situation in the legislature 
was the Volunteer Consolidation Bill. 

About this period a circular note was sent by Lord Hawkes- 
bury to the Ministers of foreign courts resident in London, 
disclaiming, with just indignation, the atrocious and utterly 
unfounded calumny that the Government of his Majesty had 
been a party to plans of assassination ; " an accusation already 
made with equal falsehood and calumny by the same authority 
against the members of his Majesty's Government during the 
last war ; an accusation incompatible with the honour of his 
Majesty, and the known character of the British nation ; and 
so completely devoid of any shadow of proof, that it may be 
reasonably presumed to have been brought forward at the 
present moment for no other purpose than that of diverting 
the attention of Europe from the contemplation of the san- 
guinary deed which has recently been perpetrated, by the 
direct order of the First Consul, in France, in violation of the 
rights of nations, and in contempt of the most simple laws of 
humanity and honour." This was the detestable murder of 
the Duke d'Enghien. 

On the 12th of May it was announced that Mr. Addington 
had resigned. The administration was of course dissolved 
Mr. Pitt returned to the head of the Ministry, and Lord 
Hawkesbury received the seals of the Home Department. 


The first effort of the new Government was to place the 
military establishments of the country on a more enlarged and 
permanent footing; and Lord Hawkesbury successfully ex- 
erted himself in the House of Lords in the support of the 
Additional Force Bill. At a late period of the session, Mr. 
Wilberforce renewed his noble attempts to put an end to the 
slave trade, and a bill for that purpose passed the House of 
Commons; but r on its transmission to the Upper House, it 
was postponed, and, we regret to add, on the motion of Lord 
Hawkesbury, for maturer investigation in the ensuing session. 

On the 10th of May, 1805, Lord Grenville moved the 
order of the day for taking into consideration the petition of 
the Roman Catholics of Ireland. This motion Lord Hawkes- 
bury opposed. He observed, " that at any time, and under 
any circumstances, he must oppose a motion which might 
lead to such alarming consequences as the abrogation of all 
the tests at present subsisting in the empire. Experience had 
shown the desolation it had occasioned, by a republic of 
Atheists, established in the heart of Europe. While every 
religion deserved to be protected, the possession of political 
power should be extended only with that degree of jealousy 
and circumspection, that would guard against the abuse of it, 
and prevent it from being made the instrument to destroy the 
government for whose support it was created. One of the 
fundamental principles of the British Government, as esta- 
blished by the Bill of Rights and Act of Settlement, was, that 
the King must be a Protestant, and hold communion with the 
Church of England ; and the same limitation should, in his 
opinion, apply to the immediate advisers and officers of the 
crown. Our ancestors thought it expedient to change the 
succession, sooner than have a king of a religion hostile to 
that of the state ; and was it rational that the same principles 
should not apply to ministers, chancellors, and judges of the 
day ? To open the door in this instance, would be to let in 
all the Dissenters in the kingdom ; and who would consent to 
intrust the patronage of the Church to persons considering 
her establishment as heretical? Upon the whole," he con- 


eluded, " that as long as the Catholics refused to take the Oath 
of Supremacy, they should be deprived of political power ; 
arid there never was a moment when it was more necessary 
than now, when all Catholic Europe was nearly subjected to 
France, and the Pope placed in a state of absolute dependence 
on that country. The ruin of the Church and the Monarchy, 
in our own country, accompanied each other; and as his prin- 
ciple was to uphold the establishment of both, he must resist 
the motion." 

Mr. Pitt retired to Bath in the autumn of 1805, his health 
being in a state of rapid decline. With difficulty he returned 
to his house at Putney on the Uth of January, 1806, and 
could take no part in the opening of Parliament on the 21st. 
On the morning of the 23d he died. 

The death of Mr. Pitt afforded Lord Hawkesbury, who 
had continued, with distinguished zeal and ability, to manage 
the duties of his own office, and materially to assist Mr. Pitt 
in the general concerns of that changing time, the first oppor- 
tunity that was afforded him of having supreme control in 
the national councils. His late Majesty, in the first instance, 
honoured him with his confidence and commands with respect 
to the formation of a new Ministry ; but Lord Hawkesbury, 
well knowing the situation and relative strength of public par- 
ties, with that sound good sense which always distinguished 
him, declined the flattering offer. He received, however, a 
decided proof of the King's attachment, by being appointed 
to the vacant situation of Warden of the Cinque Ports. 

On the return of Mr. Pitt's friends to power in the follow- 
ing year, Lord Hawkesbury resumed his station in the cabinet 
as Secretary of State for the Home Department ; still declin- 
ing any higher, and especially avoiding the highest office. In 
the defence of all the great measures of government, more 
especially the expedition to Copenhagen, and the celebrated 
Orders in Council, he, however, took a prominent and most 
efficient part. 

In the latter end of the year 1808, Lord Hawkesbury was 
called to the mournful office of attending the death -bed of hi 


revered parent ; who, after a lengthened illness, died, as we 
have already stated, on the 17th of December in that year. 
By this event the subject of our Memoir was placed at the 
head of his family, as second Earl of Liverpool. 

Lord Liverpool, throughout his public life, evinced great 
practical confidence in the cause of his country. He had seen 
her institutions survive unimpaired the conflict with democratic 
fury ; he now saw them assaulted by the concentrated des- 
potism of the French empire, ^et, though the deepest dark- 
ness seemed still to rest on considerable portions of the world, 
he had faith in the nearer approach of day. The counsels of 
history and of his own experience had alike taught him to 

" Despair, whate'er our passing plight, 

In duty's well-known path, or suffering for the right." 

With these feelings it was that in the session of Parliament 
which commenced on the 19th of January, 1809, he warmly 
advocated the cause of Spain. " They," observed his Lord- 
ship, "who infer from the disasters which have happened, 
that that cause is desperate, reason on a most imperfect view 
of the relative situation of the parties engaged in the contest. 
I entreat those who are inclined to despond, to consult the 
records of history, and to review the instances of countries 
which have been compelled to struggle for their independence, 
in circumstances similar to those in which the Spaniards are 
now placed. There it will be found that nations, after main- 
taining such contests for ten or twenty years, in the course of 
which they have almost uniformly been worsted in battle, have 
eventually succeeded, in spite of the temporary triumphs of 
their adversaries, in securing the object for which they con- 
tended. It is difficult to conceive any situation which could 
better warrant hopes of ultimate success than that of Spain 
does at the present day." 

In a few days after, namely, on the 23d of January, the 
noble Earl had the gratification of being the first to move the 
thanks of the House of Lords for the conduct of Lord Wel- 

VOL. xnr. c c 


lington in the Peninsula. This motion especially related to 
the battle of Vimiera. 

When the quarrel and subsequent duel between Lord Cas- 
tlereagh and Mr. Canning induced them to resign their situa- 
tions in the Government, and the Duke of Portland to with- 
draw from being its nominal head, Mr. Perceval, still finding 
the Earl of Liverpool averse to the premiership, united in 
name, as he had already done in effect, the two offices of first 
Lord of the Treasury and Chancellor of the Exchequer. Lord 
Liverpool, however, consented in this new arrangement to 
become Secretary of State for the War Department. In this 
capacity he nobly exhorted Parliament and the country to an 
energetic perseverance in the vigorous efforts which were then 
making. On the 13th of June, in particular, after Lord Grey 
had submitted to the House of Lords a motion on the state 
of the nation, Lord Liverpool, in contrast to the gloomy pic- 
ture which had been exhibited by the noble Earl, insisted that 
a favourable change was taking place in the posture of our 
affairs. The result, although not immediate, proved how well 
founded were his anticipations. 

The lamented illness of his late Majesty, the introduction 
of a Regency Bill, the insuperable difficulties which beset the 
Prince Regent in his endeavours to form a new administration, 
and his ultimate determination to repose in Mr. Perceval the 
confidence which his royal father had placed in him, are all 
too well known to require detail. Nor, although the exertions 
of Lord Liverpool in the discharge of his parliamentary duties 
for the two succeeding sessions were unremitting, did any 
thing occur requiring marked notice. 

At length an event as unexpected as it was calamitous, the 
assassination of Mr. Perceval, on the llth of May 1812, left 
the ministry in so disjointed a state, that Lord Liverpool 
yielded to the request of the Prince Regent to place himself 
at its head. So reluctant, however, was he, to the last, to be- 
come the chief minister of the realm, that he did not consent 
until Marquis Wellesley, and Lords Grey and Grenville, had 
decidedly declined the offer. 


No man ever rose to an exalted station by more gradual or 
more natural steps than those by which Lord Liverpool at- 
tained the premiership. He had now been in Parliament 
twenty years, taking in each house successively a leading part 
in every debate of national importance ; and he had been, 
during more than half that period, in the confidential service 
of the crown. In the prime and vigour of his life, he had en- 
joyed, in the unprecedented changes, external and internal, to 
which the affairs of the country were, during that momentous 
period exposed, an unequalled opportunity for experience ; 
had been trained in the practice of the constitution, and had 
fought some of its hardest battles with each variety of its foes : 
above all, he had imbibed that spirit of patient confidence in 
a righteous Providence, and in his country's good cause, 
which peculiarly fitted him to take the helm in her present 

On the 8th of June, 1812, his Lordship rose in his place 
in the House of Lords, and stated to their Lordships that the 
Prince Regent had on that day been pleased to appoint him 
First Commissioner of the Treasury, and had given him autho- 
rity for completing the other arrangements for the adminis- 
tration as soon as possible. The only additions to the ministry 
on the occasion were Lord Sidmouth and Mr. Vansittart, 
now Lord Bexley. 

The first important measure of the Earl of Liverpool's 
government was rendered necessary by the riotous disposition 
which the restricted demand for our manufactures abroad, 
combined with the adoption of the new machinery, and the 
consequent want of employment felt by the manufacturers, had 
produced in the northern districts. A secret committee was 
appointed to investigate the circumstances, and a bill was in- 
troduced, in pursuance of the report of that Committee, to 
prevent the rioters from possessing themselves of arms, to 
guard against the effect of tumultuary meetings, and to give 
more effectual power and more extensive jurisdiction to the 
magistrates of the disturbed districts. 

c c 2 


Towards the close of the session, Marquis Wellesley pro- 
posed in the House of Lords a resolution, to the effect that 
the House would, early in the next session of Parliament, take 
into consideration the state of the laws respecting the Catho- 
lics. The previous question was carried by a large majority. 
In stating his reasons for opposing the original motion, the 
Premier was very explicit. " He would never," he observed, 
" meet a great question with little shifts and expedients. It 
ought to be met upon great and general principles. But if, 
when taken upon great and general principles, he could not 
see his way to a safe conclusion, he should not be acting justly 
and manfully, if he did not avow that sentiment, and act 
accordingly. Were the religious opinions of the Catholics the 
only obstacle, it would be another affair. But the oath of 
supremacy, so far as it included an abjuration of all foreign 
jurisdiction, spiritual as well as temporal, he considered to be 
a fundamental part of the settlement of the government at the 
Revolution. It was at that period laid down as an essential 
principle, that the Protestant Government was to be firmly 
established in these realms. He conceived this to mean, that 
the power of the state was to be Protestant, and to be so 
maintained for the benefit of all descriptions of its subjects. 
If any one political principle were more firmly established 
than another, he took it to be this : - that the subject of a 
state should own no allegiance out of that state. He could 
see no beneficial results from the motion of his noble friend. 
It was a maxim of his political life, a maxim confirmed by 
all he had ever heard, read, or observed, that, with respect 
to a great constitutional question, if a stand were to be made, 
it should be made in limine. Therefore, as he could not 
clearly see any prospect of a practical conclusion from the 
present proposition, he thought the true way in point of prin- 
ciple, and the most manly way, was to resist it in. the first 
instance. He would even go further, and say, that if he were 
disposed to make concession, he would still oppose the mo- 
tion, because he would never pledge himself to make any 


great change in the laws without knowing exactly what that 
change was to be." 

An unsolicited concession to the Dissenters marked this 
era of Lord Liverpool's Government. Some difference of 
construction having arisen respecting the right of their teachers 
to qualify under the existing Acts of Parliament, a bill was in- 
troduced and passed, removing the discretion of magistrates 
with regard to granting certificates of qualification, and re- 
quiring no other oath to be taken than that of allegiance. 

On the 20th of September, 1812, Parliament was dissolved. 
In the meantime, the transactions in Spain and in the north of 
Europe were of a very gratifying nature. In the Peninsula, 
the fall of Ciudad Rodrigo and of Badajoz, the victory of 
Salamanca, the advance of Lord Wellington on Madrid, the 
abandonment of the siege of Cadiz, and the evacuation of the 
whole of the south of Spain by the enemy, were among the 
brilliant events of the campaign. In the north of Europe, the 
French Emperor received a yet more severe check. Having 
rashly advanced to Moscow, on the approach of the French 
the city was discovered to be on fire in several places. It was 
the torch that lighted Europe to her deliverance. Buonaparte 
found it necessary to retreat ; and the horrors of that retreat 
have been unequalled in the history of modern warfare. These 
events became known in England during the bustle of electing 
the new Parliament, and largely contributed to strengthen the 
public confidence in our war policy. 

The first session of the new Parliament was opened on the 
28th of November, 1812. The defence of Government against 
a charge on the part of the Marquis of Wellesley, of not 
having afforded sufficient force to his illustrious brother in the 
Peninsula ; a proposition for granting relief to the suffering 
Russians ; an explanation of the causes of our rupture with 
America; the alteration in the operations of the Sinking 
Fund ; the renewal of the East India Company's Charter ; the 
treaty between Great Britain and Sweden; these were the 
principal topics on which the Earl of Liverpool addressed the 

c c 3 


House of Lords during the Parliamentary campaign, which 
closed on the 22d of July, 1813. 

The military campaign was one of equal activity. Lord 
Wellington, after repulsing Suchet, gaining the victory of 
Vittoria, and taking Pampeluna and St. Sebastian, entered 
France as a conqueror, beat the French with great loss on 
their own ground, crossed the Nive, and fully established 
himself in France. The campaign in the north of Europe 
also opened propitiously ; and the subsequent loss of the 
battle of Leipsic threatened Buonaparte with utter ruin. 

Administration, and indeed the whole country, now felt the 
importance of the crisis, and of every possible aid being given 
to the Allies. Parliament met on the 4<th of November, and 
sanctioned loans of large amount to various foreign powers. 
There was at this time but one opinion, that the hour for the 
most strenuous exertions was come. Before Christmas, Par- 
liament adjourned to a period longer than usual, viz. the 1st 
of March; and on meeting on that day, adjourned further 
until the 21st. It was, in fact, to the executive rather than to 
the legislative body, and to the important movements of our 
Allies, that the eyes of the country were directed. The great 
events which followed were, the entrance of the Allies into 
Paris, the abdication, by Buonaparte, of the French throne, 
and his retirement to Elba, and the signature, on the 30th of 
May, 1814, of the definitive treaty of peace between France 
and the Allied Powers. 

It has been stated, that there is no instance in modern 
English history, of the termination of a long war by a treaty 
so generally approved as that which restored peace at this 
time to Great Britain and France. In neither House was 
there a debate of any consequence respecting it. When the 
address to the King upon the subject was moved in the House 
of Lords (July 28.), Lord Liverpool, after explaining the 
general principle and stipulations of the treaty, adverted to 
that part of the address which declared that we had attained the 
great objects of the war. " What," said the noble Earl, " were 
those objects ? Iti 1 793, we entered into the war to defend 


Holland from the invasion of the French ; that ally is now 
restored to independence under the House of Orange. During 
the whole course of the war, the balance of Europe was the 
wished-for end of our exertions ; it is now secured by the 
reduction of the power of France within reasonable limits. 
The restoration of the Bourbons has never been our object ; 
yet I am convinced that we could have had no satisfactory 
peace with any other Government in France. At the conclusion 
of former wars, we have sometimes abandoned our allies, and 
consulted only our own interests : the present peace has been 
made in conjunction with our allies, and with their full appro- 
bation and gratitude for our services. Never did the character 
of Great Britain stand so high as at the present moment." 

To add to the general subjects of congratulation, a treaty 
with America was signed at Ghent, on the 24-th of December. 
And thus closed a year, as honourable and fortunate for Great 
Britain as any in her annals : establishing her independence, 
and her superiority to every foe ; while it shed the blessings of 
peace on both hemispheres, and promised unequalled future 
happiness and civilisation to the tranquillised globe. 

These agreeable anticipations were, however, soon inter- 
rupted by the astounding intelligence of the return of Buona- 
parte from Elba. Messages on the subject, from the Prince 
Regent, having been sent to Parliament, Lord Liverpool, on 
the 7th of April, and on the 23d of May, moved corresponding 
addresses, dwelling, in the speeches by which they were intro- 
duced, on the peculiar advantages of an attempt to overthrow 
this dangerous enterprise of the enemy, while the confederacy 
of the Allies was subsisting in entire unanimity, and they were 
prepared to act in concert. These were not mere words. 
Never did England make efforts so gigantic, either in a finan- 
cial or in a military point of view as on this occasion ; and the 
result was the proud day of Waterloo. This was followed by 
the celebrated Treaty of Paris. 

In the session of 1816, the principal subjects to which the 
Earl of Liverpool directed his attention were, the defence of 
the amount of military force which Ministers thought it pru- 

c c 4 


dent still to retain, the explanations of the recent treaty, the 
transactions between Government and the Bank of England, 
and the state of the Silver Coinage. 

Towards the close of this year, distress among the manu- 
facturers produced disturbances in the inland counties ; and 
the machinations of factious demagogues excited a riot of a 
very serious character, in the Metropolis itself. The opening 
of Parliament, in 1817, was anticipated, therefore, with much 
anxiety. The suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act was pro- 
posed by Government. In supporting this proposition, the 
Earl of Liverpool said, that " with respect to the Habeas 
Corpus Act, he regarded it with as much veneration as any 
one. He venerated it, not as an Act of Charles the Second, 
but as an anterior and integral part of the Constitution. The 
question was, whether there were sufficient grounds to intrust 
his Majesty's Ministers with the power they required for the 
conservation of the state ? Domestic treason was worse than 
foreign treason. There might, indeed, be circumstances in 
foreign treason to take away its vital, its deadly stab. Their 
Lordships had proofs of the existence of a system to over- 
throw the Constitution of the country ; and when they saw 
such a system, with malignant spirits ready to set it in full 
motion, was it too much to ask them to intrust the executive 
with powers that might be adequate to its suppression ? He 
felt the importance of the crisis ; he was prepared to meet it ; 
and he would suffer no odium to frighten him from the stern 
path of duty." 

The Catholic Question having been brought under the con- 
sideration of the House of Lords, on the 16th of May, by Lord 
Donoughmore, Lord Liverpool restated his opinions on it. 
" He would still advocate adhering to the Revolution Settle- 
ment in Church and State. If the demands of the Catholics 
were complied with, Parliament would cease to be a Protest- 
ant Parliament ; and he was not disposed to risk an experi- 
ment whether a Government dissociated from the Established 
Church could long exist." 


At a subsequent period of the session Ministers found it 
necessary to urge the continuance of the suspension of the 
Habeas Corpus Act. The Earl of Liverpool declared, that 
he called upon Parliament to do so, " because he considered 
the measure essential to the preservation of property and 
morality, and to afford protection against all the anarchy and 
disorder that would arise from a revolution." 

The attachment of Lord Liverpool to the established 
church was uniform and ardent. He was the parent of the 
bill for erecting an additional number of churches, which came 
on for consideration in the House of Lords on the 15th of 
May, 1818, when his Lordship observed, that " if the mea- 
sure did not come up to the wishes of every man, it would, at 
least, substantially effect what had been so long desired. It 
would in its results have the most beneficial effects on the 
religion, morality, and general instruction of the country." 
The Bill of Indemnity, the arrangements consequent on the 
intended marriages of the three Royal Dukes, the renewal of 
the Alien Bill, and the continuance of the Bank Restriction, 
were the remaining subjects of importance on which the Earl 
of Liverpool addressed the House of Lords during this ses- 
sion, at the close of which Parliament was dissolved by the 
Prince Regent in person. His Royal Highness, on commu- 
nicating his intention of calling a new Parliament, adverted at 
some length, and with just exultation, " to the important 
changes which had occurred since he first met the two 

The death of her Majesty Queen Charlotte rendered it 
expedient to summon the new Parliament, which assembled on 
the 14th of January, 1819. Lord Liverpool conducted 
through the House of Lords the various new arrangements 
which by that event were called for in the Royal Family. 
During the whole of this session of Parliament, and the 
months intervening between its earlier and later sitting, the 
internal peace of the country was much disturbed. Nume- 
rous portions of the lower classes were clamorous for a radi- 
cal reform of Parliament, as the only remedy for their alleged 


grievances. Riotous meetings of immense bodies took place 
in various parts of the north of England, especially at Man- 
chester, which it was unhappily found to be impossible to 
disperse without the shedding of blood. This affair, and the 
bills commonly known by the name of the Six Acts, which 
Government felt it necessary to propose in consequence, 
became the principal topics of discussion, in which the Earl of 
Liverpool took a prominent part on the meeting of Parlia- 
ment in November. 

On the 29th of January, 1820, the venerable monarch, 
under whose particular favour the family of Lord Liverpool 
had risen to its present honours, departed this life. No man 
better knew, or more highly appreciated, the private virtues 
and public conduct of the deceased sovereign, than his Lord- 
ship. He had, as we have seen, been honoured with a remark- 
able share of the royal confidence : and that it was the con- 
stitutional preference of a patriotic prince cannot be better 
proved than from its being continued to Lord Liverpool by 
his successor. There were, however, remarkable features of 
mental and moral likeness in this case: and these, while 
princes are human, will account even for their attachments. 
The same soundness of judgment, and the same firmness of 
purpose, not to be beguiled out of what was once understood, 
and not to be induced to act without understanding, distin- 
guished the royal master and his faithful servant : the same 
steadiness in their greater attachments, and, we may add, in 
their few decided aversions : the same contempt of intrigue, 
with the same noble consciousness of being superior to it : 
above all, that uncompromising honesty of principle, which 
adds dignity to any station, which, while the unthinking and 
unprincipled are naturally slow to admire it, all honourable 
men must approve, and the existence of which, in both these 
cases, all honourable men did at last acknowledge. 

George the Fourth, at the period of his accession, had 
exercised the sovereign power nearly eight years. He had 
freely and solemnly decided on the policy he would adopt, 
and the administration to whom the interests of the country 


should be committed. While the country had become ac- 
quainted with his disposition towards all the great political 
parties, he had directed its energies and witnessed its exer- 
tions through a long course of unexampled difficulties. There 
was now a just and universal feeling that the greater portion 
of those difficulties had been overcome ; and the Prince, the 
administration, and the people, were never more happily 
united. The usual changes of a new reign were, therefore, 
not looked for; and when Lord Liverpool arid the other 
ministers resigned their seals, pro forma, on the morning after 
the late King's demise, they were severally reinstated in their 
respective offices. 

The Parliament, which the King's death had necessarily 
assembled, was dissolved on the 13th of March, 1820, and 
the new Parliament met on the 21st of April. The allevia- 
tion of the existing commercial distresses, and improvements 
in our internal polity, furnished the predominant topics of the 
session. The Earl of Liverpool opposed what he considered 
futile and dangerous expedients for the relief of the manufac- 
turers ; while we find him, during this sitting of Parliament, 
first developing those liberal ideas on the subject of foreign 
commerce, which finally distinguished his administration. 
This was especially evident in his speech on the Marquis of 
Lansdown's motion for a committee to consider, the means 
of extending and increasing the foreign trade of the country. 
In the first part of his speech on that occasion Lord Liver- 
pool endeavoured to prove that the existing distress was 
neither produced nor accompanied by any diminution of our 
internal consumption, except in the article of wine. He then 
proceeded to the consideration of the topics which Lord 
Lansdown had discussed. " He admitted most fully the 
advantages of a free trade ; but we had grown up under, 
though in spite of, a system of restrictions from which it was 
impossible hastily to depart. In the actual condition of our 
affairs, with our present load of debt and taxes, an immediate 
recurrence to first principles would unsettle the value of all 
property. Our laws, with respect to agricultural produce alone, 


threw an insurmountable obstacle at present in the way of 
complete freedom of trade." " He allowed, at the same 
time, that our restrictive system might in some degree be 
modified, and that those parts of it in particular to which the 
noble Marquis had turned their Lordships' attention ought 
certainly to be reconsidered, and might probably be partially 
altered without much inconvenience." 

The spring of this year was largely and painfully occupied 
by his Lordship in negotiations with the late Queen and her 
advisers. Lord Castlereagh well described them as involving 
" the most embarrassing questions which ever perplexed any 
government." With her Majesty's sudden and ill-advised 
appearance in this country, her conduct and that of her 
friends, her great momentary popularity, the various proposi- 
tions made for her return to the Continent, and their abortive 
issue, all England rang at the time. These events were fol- 
lowed by the Bill of Pains and Penalties, and the examination 
of witnesses in support of it at the bar of the House of Lords. 
Lord Liverpool, being firmly and conscientiously convinced 
of the Queen's guilt, although he would gladly have avoided 
the public discussion of the question, felt that her Majesty's 
own conduct left to Government no alternative but to bring 
forward the grounds of that conviction. " Admitting, my 
Lords," he observed, in the debate on the second reading of 
the Bill of Pains and Penalties, " admitting that we are so 
situated that- we are in some measure compelled to make a 
choice between evils, I say that in this, as in other cases, the 
straight-forward course is the most expedient to pursue. 
There may be inconveniences, my Lords, in going on with 
this bill ; but, if you believe her Majesty guilty, you are bound 
by every just and moral consideration not to stop here. I say, 
let the consequences be what they may, if you believe her 
Majesty guilty, you are bound to agree to the second reading 
of this bill." He thus concluded his speech : " I am content 
to be judged by your Lordships, I am content to be judged 
by the public at large, as to the whole of my conduct in the 
course of these proceedings. I appeal to HIM who alone 


knows the secret of all hearts, and who alone can unravel all 
the mysteries and intricacies of this great case, if the judg- 
ment which I have given is not true if it is not at least 
founded on a sense of integrity, and on a most sincere wish to 
do justice in mercy; not with any disposition to visit the 
illustrious individual accused with a harsher measure of punish- 
ment than necessity requires ; but with an anxious desire, 
a desire which I am sure is entertained by all your Lordships, 
to do justice, in this most important cause, between the 
crown, the Queen, and the country." 

In the next session, the recent revolution in Naples, the 
Catholic Question, and the Bill for the Resumption of Cash 
Payments by the Bank of England, were the chief topics on 
which Lord Liverpool addressed the House of Lords. 

On the 12th of June, 1821, Lord Liverpool was deprived 
by death of his amiable and excellent lady. Various official 
duties claimed his attention in the autumn, particularly in the 
King's absence ; but his Lordship was a real mourner, and 
we do not find him bearing any prominent part, even in the 

During the session of 1 822, the Earl of Liverpool called 
the attention of Parliament, at various periods, to the state of 
Ireland, the depressed condition of the agricultural interest 
(which, however, he maintained, was attributable, not to taxa- 
tion, but to the want of a sufficient market for agricultural 
produce), and to the rupture which had recently taken place 
between Russia and the Porte. 

On the 24th of September, 1822, his Lordship again 
entered into matrimonial life, by conducting to the altar Miss 
E. Chester, daughter of the Reverend Charles Chester, and 
sister of Sir Robert Chester. 

Parliament re-assembled early in February, 1823, under 
the cheering prospect of a progressive internal prosperity. 
The principal topic of consideration, in our relation to 
other governments at this time, was the conduct of France 
and the allies in regard to Spain. The Earl of Liverpool 
declared that " the policy of the British government rested 


on the principle of the law of nations, which allowed every 
country to judge how it could best be governed, and what 
ought to be its institutions." " He and his colleagues viewed 
the question of Spain as one purely Spanish, and not mixed 
up with any other." " He deprecated war ; but while he 
said this, he protested against being supposed for a moment to 
admit the idea, that, if unavoidable circumstances presented 
no alternative to England but war or dishonour, we were not 
in a state to go to war." 

The subject was renewed on the opening of the session of 
Parliament in 1824. Adverting to some remarks which had 
fallen from the Marquis of Lansdown, Lord Liverpool ob- 
served, " that he had never hesitated to declare his opinion 
that France had no right to invade Spain. He had dis- 
approved of that interference, and deprecated that attack, 
because France could make out no specific case which gave 
her any title to interfere. At the same time, he had been 
desirous that the evil might be averted by some concessions ; 
not a concession from Spain to France, for France had no 
right to make any such demand ; but a concession from Spain 
to herself, which might have taken away the motive for in- 
vasion. The British Cabinet had advised this, and could do 
no more. The advice was rejected by the Spaniards. The 
French army entered ; and the ease with which they obtained 
possession of the country showed the wisdom of our having 
abstained from interfering in the policy of a divided nation. It 
was evident, not only that the great majority, but a majority 
so great as to be a subject of surprise, hailed the French as 
friends who came to overthrow the constitution." 

The Catholic question was not this session brought forward 
in any distinct form, but some practical concessions were made 
to the Catholic body, in which Lord Liverpool readily con- 
curred. The Marquis of Lansdown, indeed, lost his two bills 
for enabling the English Roman Catholics to exercise the 
elective franchise, and to act as magistrates, or in subordinate 
revenue offices, although those bills were supported by the 
Earls of Liverpool and Westmoreland, and the Bishop of 


Lichfield. Subsequently, however, an act, enabling any per- 
son to hold a revenue office, on taking the oath of allegiance, 
and an oath for the faithful performance of his official duties, 
was passed without discussion ; as well as one to enable the 
Earl Marshal and his deputy to exercise that office without 
taking the oath of supremacy, or signing the declaration 
against transubstantiation. Lord Liverpool also supported 
the Unitarian Marriage Bill, although it was eventually lost. 

The only topic of importance on which Lord Liverpool 
spoke in the session of 1825 was on the new Catholic bill, 
which was accompanied by two auxiliary measures, not inaptly 
termed " wings," and which provided respectively for the de- 
pendence of the Catholic priesthood on the Government, 
through the agency of a state provision, and for the preserv- 
ation of the Protestant interest in elections, by disfranchising 
the smaller freeholders in Ireland. On the 17th of May, 
these measures were debated in the House of Lords, and the 
Premier delivered his sentiments with considerable energy. 
It was his last speech on the subject. Rumours had been 
circulated (founded, probably, on his Lordship's conduct in the 
measures adopted in the preceding year) that he was prepared 
to make concessions to the Romanists. " The grounds," said 
Lord Liverpool, " on which the noble Lords opposite main- 
tain it to be fitting to grant the concessions demanded are, 
that the Catholics of this country and of Ireland are entitled 
to enjoy equal civil rights and immunities with their Protestant 
brethren ; and upon that broad principle I am at issue with 
them. I admit that all subjects in a free state are entitled to 
the enjoyment of equal rights upon equal conditions ; but then 
the qualification of that principle in the case of the Catholics 
is clear the Catholics who demand these equal rights do not 
afford equal conditions. The difference is this : the Protestant 
gives an entire allegiance to his Sovereign, the Catholic a 
divided one. The service of the former is complete, that of 
the latter incomplete ; and unless it can be proved that the 
man who works for half a day is entitled to as much wages as 
the man who works the whole day, or, in other words, that 


the half is equal to the whole, I cannot admit that the Roman 
Catholic, whose allegiance is divided between a spiritual and 
a temporal master, is entitled to the enjoyment of the same 
civil rights and privileges as the Protestant, whose allegiance 
is undivided, and who acknowledges but one ruler. I care 
not for the speculative dogmas of the Roman Catholic church, 
such as the doctrine of transubstantiation, or the invocation 
of saints ; but I cannot be indifferent to the power which the 
Pope still holds over the great body of the Roman Catholics. 
It has indeed been the policy of the advocates of the Catholics 
to maintain that this power is extinct; but the very evidence 
before your Lordships proves the extraordinary influence 
which ,is even at this day exercised by the Pope of Rome. 
The presentation to vacant sees hi the Roman Catholic church 
in Ireland is vested in the Pope at this moment : he exercises 
an absolute and uncontrolled power of appointing whom he 
pleases to vacant bishoprics. He may yield occasionally to 
the recommendation of others, but the strict right of nomi- 
nation he reserves to himself. That he has occasionally 
yielded to the representation of others, has been fully proved 
by the evidence of Dr. Doyle, who has stated before your 
Lordships' Committee, that James the Second, his son, and 
grandson, did, for a succession of years, recommend to the 
vacant Irish bishoprics, and that the Pope did invariably 
attend to their recommendations. If, therefore, the King of 
France or the King of Spain, or any of the members of that 
bugbear of the noble Lords opposite, the Holy Alliance, were 
now to recommend to the Pope, who can say that he would 
not listen to their recommendation? Will any one, then, 
affirm that a people so circumstanced are entitled to a com- 
munity of civil rights and privileges with the Protestants ? I 
know it has been said that the progress of education and the 
march of civilisation have wrought wonders among the Catho- 
lics : and, looking to the present aspect of the times, it may, 
perhaps, appear to superficial observers, that little danger is 
to be apprehended. But I will remind their Lordships that 
the horizon is often the clearest and most serene when the 


tempest is at hand. At what time did the established Church 
appear to be in a more flourishing condition than at the re- 
storation of Charles the Second ? And yet, within twenty years 
afterwards, the greatest revolution took place in the condition 
of that church; and it was next to a miracle that it was not 
overwhelmed, by the machinations of a Popish prince, in one 
common ruin with the state and constitution of this country. 
It is not to the Pope, as Pope, that I object ; it is to the prin- 
ciple of the existence of such a power as that in the Pope, and 
to the temporal and practical power of the Catholic priesthood, 
extending over all the relations of private life, and penetrating 
into every domestic scene. Your Lordships hold the bill 
holds that a Protestant succession is the foundation of our 
constitutional system; but if this measure should pass, the 
Protestant succession will not be worth a farthing." 

At the close of the year, an unexampled panic of the money 
market was followed by extensive embarrassments of the mer- 
cantile interests, and the most numerous bank failures ever 
known. The whole circulation of the country became, in fact, 
paralysed. In the debate on the address at the opening of 
Parliament, February 18th, 1826, the Earl of Liverpool re- 
minded the House that he had last year " created an oppor- 
tunity" to admonish the public of the ruin which must follow 
the then prevailing rage for speculations. " One effect of 
those speculations had been to increase the circulation of 
country bank notes to the amount of four millions in two 
years, or, in point of fact, to double it. The remedy which 
he should propose would be to remove the limitation to six 
persons, imposed upon bank partnerships by the Bank of 
England charter, as far as it affected bankers at above sixty- 
five miles distance from London, and gradually to withdraw 
one and two pound notes from circulation." These measures 
were accordingly carried into effect. 

The administration of Lord Liverpool sincerely laboured 
at the amelioration of the condition of our West India slave 
population. His Lordship did not hesitate, in the latter period 
of his life, to speak of the final " extinction " of slavery in the 

VOL, xn r. D D 


West India colonies as most desirable. He therefore, this 
year, warmly supported the adoption, by the House of Lords, 
of the resolutions of the Commons in 1823. 

But the most important subject of consideration with Minis- 
ters at this period was the state of the Corn Laws. The 
recent commercial distresses at once precluded the possibility 
of a final arrangement, and yet rendered it the more needful 
that something practical should be done. In the spring, there- 
fore, it was determined to liberate the bonded corn at a cer- 
tain duty ; and, as it was impossible to foresee the result of 
the harvest, to obtain from Parliament a discretionary power 
to admit the importation of foreign corn, if needful, on the 
payment of a fixed duty. This last measure was stoutly op- 
posed in the House of Commons; and, after repeated divi- 
sions, the discretion allowed to Ministers was limited to the 
admission of five hundred thousand quarters. When the bill 
respecting it was undergoing discussion in the House of Lords, 
Lord Liverpool expressed his conviction that " the grounds 
of the proposed measure could not be resisted by any fair and 
reasonable mind, or by any person who was not prepared to 
shut his eyes to the dreadful consequences which might result 
from a scarcity of corn during the recess." 

During the recess, an event of the kind provided for by 
Parliament did occur, in the failure of the crop of oats ; and 
an order in council was issued, allowing foreign oats to be 

In the mean time, writs had been issued for the election of 
a new Parliament ; which, with a view to the indemnity of 
Ministers, for issuing the order in council just mentioned, was 
called together on the 14th of November, 1826. In reply to 
a question by Lord King, on the 29th, the Earl of Liverpool 
stated that Ministers were prepared to propose a general 
measure in regard to the Corn Laws ; but that they thought it 
would be unfair, both to Parliament and to the country, to 
bring it forward before the Christmas holidays, as it had been 
fully understood that Parliament was not to meet for business 


till after Christmas, and that it had been convoked in Novem- 
ber merely for a special purpose. 

That purpose having been accomplished, an adjournment 
to the 8th of February, 1827, took place. On that day, of 
course, Parliament met ; and Lord Liverpool, after first giving 
notice, in the House of Lords, that he should move on the 
following Monday an Address of Condolence to his Majesty, 
on the melancholy loss of his brother, the late Duke of York, 
said, " it was his intention to submit to the House, on Monday 
se'nnight, the views of Government on the Corn Laws." 

The noble Earl was permitted to fulfil but one of those 
pledges, namely, to move the Address of Condolence to his 
Majesty. In performing this melancholy duty, he very ably 
reviewed the claims of his late Royal Highness on the public 
regard, and the peculiar situation in which he stood with 
reference to his Majesty. 

The Earl of Liverpool was in his place in the House of 
Lords on the 15th, and brought down a message from his 
Majesty, recommending a further provision for the Duke and 
Duchess of Clarence. The next day he moved an address 
expressive of the willingness of the House to make a suitable 
provision for their Royal Highnesses. It was the last occa- 
sion on which this faithful servant of the crown and of the 
country was seen at his post. His Lordship retired to rest 
at Fife House at his usual hour, and, apparently, in good 
health. On the following morning, Saturday, the 17th of 
February, he took his breakfast alone, in his library, at ten 
o'clock. At about that hour, also, he received the post letters. 
Some time after, his servant, not having, as usual, heard his 
Lordship's bell, entered the apartment, and found him 
stretched on the floor, motionless and speechless. From his 
position, it was evident that he had fallen in the act of opening 
a letter. Dr. Drever, the family physician, happened at that 
moment to call, and Sir Henry Halford and Sir Astley 
Cooper were immediately sent for ; when it appeared that his 
Lordship had been seized by a fit both of an apoplectic and 
of a paralytic nature ; which affected the whole of his right 

D D 2 


side. The history of the progress of the infirmity which thus 
at once prostrated his mind and body "belongs to that sacred 
privacy, which we would be the last to invade, even if we had 
the power to do so. As soon as his situation would admit, he 
was removed to his seat at Combe Wood. After various 
fluctuations, although at no time with the slightest prospect 
of convalescence, the fatal moment at length arrived. The 
noble Earl had for some days been in his ordinary state, and 
no symptoms calculated to excite immediate apprehension had 
occurred. On Thursday, the 4th of December, 1828, he had 
breakfasted as usual, when, about half-past nine o'clock, he 
was attacked with convulsions and spasms. A messenger was 
instantly despatched to Mr. Sandford, one of his medical 
attendants, who resides in the neighbourhood; but, before 
that gentleman could arrive, his Lordship had breathed his 
last. The Countess of Liverpool, the Honourable Cecil 
Jenkinson, and Mr. Childs, his Lordship's steward, were in 
the apartment when the noble Earl expired. 

The character of one who for so many years performed so 
prominent a part in conducting the affairs of this great nation, 
is too well known to render it necessary for us to expatiate on 
the subject. If the Earl of Liverpool was not a man of bril- 
liant genius, or lively fancy, no one can for a moment deny 
that he was possessed of powerful talents, sound principles, 
and unimpeachable integrity. He seemed born to be a states- 
man. From his youth he abstained from mixing in the com- 
mon-place business of the world ; he had no relish for those 
amusements and occupations which other men pursue with 
such eagerness ; he looked upon life as a gift bestowed upon 
him with the condition that it should be entirely devoted to 
the service of his country. It was so devoted ; and the disor- 
der by which he was eventually attacked, the effect of his 
unremitting labours, proved how thoroughly the condition had 
been fulfilled. 

Gigantic events filled the space of time during which his 
Lordship was at the head of the British Government. That 
any man living could have been selected more equal to the 


difficulties of the crisis we do not believe. He combined, in an 
extraordinary degree, firmness with moderation. His mea- 
sures were the result of deep deliberation ; he weighed them 
carefully; but when he once adopted them, they were pur- 
sued by him with inflexible resolution. While Lord Liver- 
pool was at the helm, the vessel of the state was often involved 
in storms and tempests, and a mind of less manliness and for- 
titude might have sunk under the pressure of the arduous 
duties which he was called upon to perform. But despondency 
formed no feature of his character : he never despaired of his 
country and he saved her. If the sun of his career as 
Prime Minister of England rose amidst the war of elements, 
amidst clouds, and lightnings, and thunder, it set in splendour 
and in glory. 

Lord Liverpool's eloquence, if it did not reach the highest 
point of excellence, always impressed the hearer with a con- 
viction of the sincerity and the patriotism of the speaker. In 
debate he was vehement, but never intemperate. He did not 
seem to entertain one angry feeling towards his parliamentary 
rivals, however wanton their attacks, or undeserved their in- 
sults. He never refusecl to others the tribute of applause which 
he thought they merited ; and his gentlemanly deportment, 
unruffled by the coarsest personalities which could be vented 
against him, has frequently disarmed his fiercest adversary. 

In private life, Lord Liverpool was most amiable, and was 
greatly beloved. What Horace says of laws, 

" Quid leges sine moribus 
Vanae proficiunt ? " 

may, with a slight alteration, be applied to those who make 
them. Their manners give the greatest effect to their mea- 
sures. Hence, a considerate statesman, a statesman who 
would win a full measure of success by the noblest and fairest 
means, will uniformly aim at the preservation of a bright and 
attractive character. Like the sovereign who first bestowed 
on him royal confidence and political ascendancy, Lord Liver- 

D D 3 


pool afforded an admirable and striking example of domestic 
and social virtue to the higher ranks in this country. 

Lord Liverpool never having had any children, his title 
devolves to his half-brother, the Hon. Charles Cecil Cope 

The materials for the foregoing biographical sketch we 
have derived from various sources ; but principally from co- 
pious and interesting " Memoirs of the Public Life and Ad- 
ministration of the Right Honourable the Earl of Liverpool," 
published in 1827, by Messrs. Saunders and Otley. 



FOR 1828. 



ABEL, Clarke, M.D. Fellow of 
the Linnaean, Geological, and Asiatic 
Societies, and late surgeon to the Go- 
vernor General of India, December, 
1826, in India. 

Dr. Abel was well known as the his- 
torian of Lord Amherst's Embassy to 
China, which he accompanied as chief 
medical officer and naturalist. Al- 
though at the most interesting period of 
that expedition he was disabled, by a 
most serious attack of sickness, from 
following up his observations with the 
closeness and regularity he had antici- 
pated, his " Narrative'' sufficiently tes- 
tifies his masculine understanding, his 
various yet sound knowledge, his high 
talents, and benevolent bent of mind. 
Indeed, had Dr. Abel never written any 
thing besides his Essay on the Geology 
of the Cape of Good Hope, contained 
in the work alluded to, he would have 
sufficiently proved his claim to the title 
of a deep and philosophical thinker, 
and of an acute observer of the mys- 
teries of nature. 

As a Member of the Asiatic Society, 
and of the Medical and Physical Society 
of Calcutta, Dr. Abel was held in high 
and just estimation by his colleagues. 
He took great interest in the prosperity 
of these institutions ; and his valuable 
acquirements rendered him eminently 
qualified to promote the objects for 
which they were founded. Previously to 
his final departure from the Presidency 

of Calcutta he was heard to express a 
hope, that his journey to the upper pro- 
vinces would have enabled him to add 
considerably to the researches of both 
institutions, and much more so than his 
limited opportunities in Calcutta could 
admit of. 

The conversation of Dr. Abel was in- 
structive and entertaining, his manners 
were urbane, and his attainments were 
not confined to the department of 
knowledge alluded to, but comprised 
that general range of mental cultivation 
which adorns the "character of the scho- 
lar and the gentleman. Gentleman's 

ABERCROMBY, General Sir 
Robert, G.C.B., Nov. 3. 1827, at his 
seat Airthrey, near Stirling. He was 
the oldest general in the British ser- 
vice, was for forty years Colonel of the 
75th foot, and for thirty years Governor 
of Edinburgh Castle ; he was younger 
brother to the immortal Sir Ralph 
Abercromby, and uncle to the present 

Sir Robert was the third son of George 
Abercrombie, of Tullibody, in Clack- 
mannanshire, Esq. by Mary, daughter of 
Ralph Dundas, of Manour. He entered 
the army in July, 1758, as an Ensign m 
the 44th foot ; and his first services were 
in North America. He was present as 
a volunteer at the battle of Ticondero- 
ga, July 8th, 1758 ; at the siege of Nia- 
gara, and in the action in which a 
corps of the enemy, that attempted to 
raise the siege, was defeated ; at the y- 
D D 4- 



duction of Port Levi, and at Montreal 
when the French army laid down their 
arms and surrendered the colony. In 
1 759 he received a Lieutenancy, and in 
1761 a company in the 44th." He re- 
mained with that corps in Canada till 
the peace of 1763, when, being the 
youngest Captain, he was reduced on 
half-pay with the 10th company; but 
he soon after succeeded to a vacant Cap- 
taincy, and served in Ireland till 1765. 
In 1772 he received a Majority in the 
62d, and in 1773 a Lieutenant- Co- 
lonelcy in the 37th foot. 

He served in North America from the 
commencement of 1776 till the peace 
of 1783 ; and was present at the battles 
of Brooklyne, Brandywine, and Ger- 
mantown ; also at the siege of Charles- 
town, and at Yorktown when it was at- 
tacked by the French and American 
armies, and surrendered to them. He 
received the rank of Colonel Feb. 15. 
1781 ; and was appointed Aid-de-Camp 
to his Majesty ; and obtained the Co- 
lonelcy of the 75th foot, Oct. 12. 1787. 

From September, 1788, till the mid- 
dle of April, 1797, he served in India; 
and, in January, 1790, he succeeded 
Gen. Sir Wm. Meadows in the govern- 
ment of Bombay, and in the chief com- 
mand of the army on that establish- 
ment. He received the rank of Major - 
General April 28. following. He was 
present at the reduction of Carcron, the 
surrender of Tippoo'sarmy in that quar- 
ter, and the fall of the province of Ma- 
labar. In 1792, he joined Lord Corn- 
wallis before Seringapatam, where soon 
after peace was concluded with Tippoo ; 
and, in the same year, he was made a 
Knight of the Bath. In 1793 he suc- 
ceeded Lord Cornwallis in the chief 
command of the army in India ; and 
was present at the action at Batina, in 
Rohilcund, where the Rohillas weie 
totally defeated. 

Sir Robert received the brevet of 
Lieutenant- General January 26. 1797 ; 
and in December was appointed on the 
staff in North Britain ; but was com- 
pelled to resign that situation from a 
severe complattv^in his eyes, contracted 
in India, from t^ie effects of which he 
suffered ever after. He was appointed 
Governor of Edinburgh Castle, on the 
death of Lord Adam Gordon, Aug. 25. 
1801, and was raised to the rank of 
General, April 29. 1802 Royal Mi- 
litary Calendar. 

ALLAN, George, Esq. of Block- 
well Grange, iu the county of Durham, 

M.A. F. S. A., a Justice of the Peace, 
and Deputy for the County, and for- 
merly M.P. for the City of Durham, 
July 21., at St. Omer, in France, aged 

This gentleman was the only surviving 
son of George Allan, Esq. F. S.A. the 
colleague of Mr. Hutchinson in his His- 
tory of Durham. With the estate of his 
father Mr. Allan inherited also his taste 
for polite literature, and his communi- 
cative spirit. Of the father an inter- 
esting memoir, written by his son now 
deceased, is printed in Nichols's Lite- 
rary Anecdotes, vol. vm. pp.351 368. 
To the same volume also Mr. Allan 
communicated Memoirs, with corre- 
spondence, of his schoolmaster Dr. John 
Carr, Mr. John Cade, Mr. Robert 
Harrison, Rev. Daniel Watson, the 
Rev. John Noble, the Rev. Tobias 
Hey rick, and Joseph Ritson, Esq. ; 
and numerous Letters of Mr. Grose, 
Mr. Gough, Mr. Bigland, Mr. Pen- 
nant, Mr. Tunstall, and Mr. Wallis, 
addressed to his father, with his father's 

Mr. Allan was educated at Hertford, 
under John Carr, LL. D., the translator 
of Lucian ; entered a Fellow Com- 
moner of Trinity Hall, Cambridge, in 
1784; and of the Middle Temple in 
1785. He took the degree of B A. in 
1788; in Hilary Term, 1790, was 
called to the bar, and at the commence- 
ment at Cambridge, in 1792, took the 
degree of M. A. At the death of the 
father in 1800, his large collection of 
books and prints, and a valuable mu- 
seum, once the property of his fiiend, 
Mr. Tunstall, were sold under his will, 
and were purchased by his eldest son, 
the subject of this article. In 1818 the 
collections continued at the Grange, 
Mr. Allan's seat near Darlington ; but 
the whole, we believe, have since been 
sold. The books were dispersed by 
Mr. Sotheby in 1822. 

In 1813 Mr. Allan was a candidate for 
the City of Durham, on the resignation 
of R. J. Lambton, Esq., and, after a se- 
vere, lengthened, and expensive strug- 
gle, he was returned by a considerable 
majority. During the short period that 
he sat in Parliament, his votes were con- 
sistent, and marked wilh a strict sense 
of independence. Indeed, on one or two 
occasions he differed from a large por- 
tion of his constituents ; but he was 
always ready to explain his motives, and 
he would rather refrain from voting at 
all than give a vote contrary to his con- 



science. On the dissolution of 1818 he 
was again a candidate, and it was confi- 
dently asserted, that if he had persevered 
in his intentions he would have been 
again returned ; but the heavy pecuniary 
sacrifices of the first election did not 
warrant his perseverance in a second 
contest, and he manfully declared his 
"inability to command such pecuniary 
resources as would be necessary to se- 
cure his election." When this deter- 
mination was communicated to the free- 
men, it was received with sentiments of 
universal regret, highly honourable to all 
parties. Since that period he continued 
to reside at St. Omer, with limited 
means, yet without repining, and devot- 
ing his leisure to the pursuits of litera- 
ture. Mr. Allan was a gentleman not 
more distinguished for his literary ta- 
lents than for an elegant, accomplished, 
and generous mind, and the most bland 
and conciliatory manners and demean- 
our. His hearse was followed out of 
St. Omer by the principal English gen- 
tlemen resident there, and the corpse 
brought to England for interment in the 
family vault. He died childless, and his 
estates have consequently devolved on 
William Allan, Esq. eldest son of the 
late Robert Allan, Esq. of Newbottle. 
Gentleman s Magazine. 


BACKHOUSE, Lieut.-Gen. Tho- 
mas Joseph ; M;iy 22, in Wimpole 
Street. This officer entered the army 
as ensign in the 13th foot in March 
1780, and commenced his military ca- 
reer in the West Indies under Major- 
General (afterwards Sir John) Vaughan, 
with whom he served at the capture of 
St. Eustatius and some other islands. 
He was promoted in 1784 to a Lieute- 
nancy and Adjutancy in the 64th foot, 
and in 1788 to a company in the 47th. 
He obtained the brevet of Major in 
1796 ; and the Lieut.-Colonelcy of the 
47th foot in 1 798. His services through 
out these years were mostly in the 
West Indies ; and being on his way 
thither, in command of the 47th, in 
August, 1806, he was detained by Sir 
David Baird at the Cape of Good 
Hope, and immediately sent, with the 
regiment under his command, as part 
of the reinforcement intended to assist 
Major- Gen. Beresford in South Ame- 
rica. On his arrival in the Rio de la 
Plata, he had the mortification to find 

that officer, together with the troops he 
commanded, had been overpowered by 
the superiority of the enemy's numbers, 
and made prisoners of war to the Spa- 
niards. By this unlooked-for event, he 
became the senior officer at the head of 
a small force (consisting of three squa- 
drons of dismounted dragoons, with the 
38th, 47th, and a company of the '54th 
regiments, not in the whole exceeding 
1,900 men), without artillery and with- 
out any specific instructions, in a trying 
situation. In co-operation with Sir 
Hope Popham, who commanded the 
squadron in the river Plata, a project 
was formed of assaulting and endeavour- 
ing to carry the town of Monte Video, 
on the side bounded by the river; but 
the ships were not able to approach suf- 
ficiently near to silence the batteries, 
so as to permit the troops to enter. 
For the troops to remain much longer 
in transports, when many had been 
several months at sea, and without the 
opportunity of procuring refreshments, 
might have been attended with un- 
healthy, and perhaps serious conse- 
quences. He therefore formed the 
resolution of immediately making him- 
self master of some position in the 
enemy's country, where he might keep 
a communication open with the ship- 
ping, command supplies for his men, 
endeavour to mount his cavalry, and, if 
possible, to retain it until he could re- 
ceive instructions from the Cape, or a 
reinforcement might chance to arrive 
from Europe. Maldonado appearing 
the most eligible position for these 
purposes, he directly proceeded with Sir 
Hope Popham in the Diadem, and with 
such of the troops (a part of the 38th 
regiment, the 54th Light Company, and 
a few of the dismounted dragoons) as 
could be conveyed in that ship and a 
frigate, landed without loss of time, on 
the evening of the 29th of October, 
crossed the sand-hills, and after a fruit- 
less opposition from the enemy, in which 
they lost numbers of their men, together 
with their guns, he made good his 
position, which he had the fortune to 
maintain amid many difficulties, in the 
face of the enemy, with whom he had 
mostly to fight for his supplies, until 
the arrival of Sir Samuel Auchmuty 
with the troops from England, in Ja- 
nuary following. By this means, in 
consequence of Major- Gen. Backhouse 
not having evacuated the country, Sir 
Samuel's force became strong enough 
immediately to proceed to the attack 



and conquest of Monte Video. After 
the arrival of Sir Samuel, Major- Gen. 
Backhouse could only act in his capa- 
city as commanding the 47th ; but the 
measures he had pursued were not only 
approved by Sir Samuel Auchmuty, 
whose thanks he received in public 
orders, but were also honoured with the 
express approbation of his Itoyal High- 
ness the Commander-in-chief. 

After the evacuation of South Ame- 
rica, the deceased went to the East 
Indies, where he was Commandant of 
the garrison of Bombay, &c. He at- 
tained the rank of Colonel in 1808, of 
Major- General in 1811, and Lieut.- 
General in 1821. Royal Military Ca- 

BARWIS, the Rev. John, M. A. 
of Langugg Hall, Cumberland, Rector 
of Niton in the Isle of Wight, and 
Justice of the Peace for the Counties of 
Cumberland and Hants; January 15; 
at Wandsworth, in the house of his 
early and highly-respected friend Wil- 
liam Borradaile, Esq., aged 83. 

Mr. Barwis was second son of John 
Barwis, Esq. on whose death in 1800, 
his elder brother Thomas having pre- 
viously lost his life by an accident, he 
inherited the small estate at Langugg, 
belonging to his family. He was edu- 
cated at the school of St. Bees, and at 
the usual period removed to Queen's 
College, Oxford, where he was elected 
scholar and afterwards fellow on the old 
foundation, and attained the degree of 
M. A. in the year 1800. On the death 
of his uncle, the Rev. Dr. Cuthbert 
Barwis, he succeeded to the school in 
Soho Square, originally established by 
Mr. Martin Clare. This he soon after- 
wards relinquished to the care of the 
Rev. Dr. Barrow, now Prebendary of 
Southwell ; and retired for some time 
to Moulsey in Surrey. In 1786 he 
was presented by the Provost and Fel- 
lows of his college to the living of Ni- 
ton. When his present Majesty was 
Prince of Wales, he was appointed one 
of his chaplains, but was advanced to 
no higher distinction in the church. 
At length finding age advancing, about 
four years ago, with the permission of 
his diocesan, he retired to his paternal 
property ; but being obliged by the 
want of a curate to return to the Isle of 
Wight at the latter end of last autumn, 
he resumed his clerical duties; and in 
administering the sacrament at Christ- 
mas, in a damp church, to a large num- 
ber of communicants, after haying per- 

formed the morning and evening ser- 
vices, caught a cold, attended with fever, 
and died on his way home to Cumber- 
land, as before stated ; thus surviving 
less than a year, one of his oldest and 
most valued contemporaries, the Rev. 
Dr. Collmson, the late Provost of his 

To the last he was mindful of his 
jftodj, and a short time ago he invested 
a sum of money in the hands of trustees 
to add to the endowment of the parish 
school of Niton, which, thus assisted, he 
conceived would be fully adequate to 
the instruction of all the poor children 
in the neighbourhood. 

Strongly imbued with a taste for 
learning and polite literature, he de- 
voted a large portion of his leisure to 
their cultivation. Within a very few- 
years of his death, after again reading 
through most of the Greek and Latin 
classics, he added to his knowledge of 
other languages, a complete acquaint- 
ance with the best Italian authors. Al- 
though too much engaged by the active 
duties of his station to become a pro- 
fessed writer, he was author of several 
minor compositions in prose and verse, 
which evinced both fancy and judgment, 
and his epistolary style was remark- 
able for ease and felicity of expression. 

In politics Mr. Barwis, like his family 
before him, was a Whig, and having be- 
come acquainted with Mr. Fox, during 
his contests for Westminster, whom he 
greatly admired as a scholar, as well as 
a statesman, he ever afterwards support- 
ed the Whig interest, both in Cumber- 
land and Hampshire, and at the last 
general election seconded the nomina- 
nation of Mr. Curwen for the former 
county. In religion he was a temperate 
but firm supporter of the Church of 
England. For many years he favoured 
what he considered the just claims of 
the Catholics ; and while on their part 
securities were offered to the Establish- 
ment, he was their strenuous advocate ; 
on that principle he took an active part 
in the election of Lord Grenville as 
Chancellor of Oxford ; but when un- 
conditional emancipation was demanded, 
he became decidedly averse to any fur- 
ther concessions. 

He passed through a long and useful 
life, conspicuous for beneficence, inte- 
grity, and independence ; and although 
he attained the advanced age of more 
than fourscore years, his friends have to 
regret that it was not extended to a still 
later period ; as few men at any age 



more completely possessed the " mens 
sana in corpore sauo." Gentleman's 

BATHURST, Captain Walter, of 
the Genoa ; killed on the quarter deck 
of his vessel shortly after the commence- 
ment of the battle of Navarino, Oct. 21 . 
1827. He was a nephew of the Bishop 
of Norwich ; was made a Lieutenant in 
1790; and confirmed as a Post Cap- 
tain, Oct. 24. 1799. Previous to the 
latter promotion, he had taken the Ville 
de Paris, a first rate, to the Mediter- 
ranean, when he received the flag of 
Earl St. Vincent, and from whence he 
brought her home as a private ship, 
about August in the same year. The 
Earl re-hoisted his flag in the Ville de 
Paris, as Commander-in-Cluef of the 
Channel fleet, April 25. 1800, and 
Captain Bathurst soon after joined the 
Eurydice, of 24 guns ; in which ship, 
being on his return from convoying the 
outward-bound Quebec trade, he cap- 
tured le Bougainville, French privateer 
of 14 guns and 67 men, and a Danish 
East Indiaman, about April 1807. On 
the 20th Oct. following, he sailed for 
the East Indies with despatches relative 
to the peace of Amiens. Whilst on 
that station, Captain Bathurst removed 
successively into the Terpsichore and 
Pitt frigates ; the former of which cap- 
tured a Dutch East Indiaman early in 
1 805 ; the latter was employed in block- 
ading Port Louis, and took several 
prizes in June, 1806. On the 20th of 
that month she had one man killed, and 
her hull much damaged by the fire 
from Fort Cannonnier, to which she 
waz exposed during twenty minutes, 
without being able to return a single 
gun. The Pitt subsequently resumed 
her original name, Salsette, and was 
employed in the Baltic, under the orders 
of Sir James Saumarez. In January 
1808, Capt. Bathurst captured the Rus- 
sian cutter Apith, of 14 guns and 61 
men, 4 of whom were killed, and 8, in- 
cluding her commander, a lieutenant 
in the Imperial navy, wounded before 
she could be induced to surrender. The 
Salsette, on this occasion, had a marine 
killed by the cutter's fire. In July 1 809, 
Captain Bathurst conducted a division 
of Earl Chatham's army to Walcheren. 
Towards the latter end of 1810, he re- 
moved into the Fame, 74 ; in which 
ship he was actively employed on the 
Mediterranean station during the re- 
mainder of the war. Captain Bathurst 
was appointed to the Genoa, 7-1, about 

three years ago, and, though in bad 
health, declined to leave her, on being 
ordered to the Mediterranean. He 
married, in 1 808, Miss Marianne Wood, 
of Manchester Street, Manchester 
Square. To this lady, who with five 
children survives him, the Lord High 
Admiral addressed with his own hand a 
letter of condolence, immediately on the 

receipt of the news of the battle 

Gentleman's Magazine. 

BELFOUR, the Rev. Hugo John, 
in Jamaica, Sept. 1827; aged 25. 

This gentleman, who was a nephew 
of the late Rev. Okey Belfour, minister 
of St. John's Wood chapel, entered into 
holy orders in May, 1826; and, under 
the auspices of the Bishop of London, 
was appointed to a curacy on the island 
of Jamaica, with the best prospects of 
preferment. During the short period 
of his clerical career, his conduct pro- 
cured him the approbation of the dis- 
trict; and from the zeal and ability 
he displayed in his sacred function, he 
would doubtless, had his life been pro- 
longed, have become an ornament to the 
Church. Possessing, with much facility 
of composition, poetical talents of no 
common order, his reputation as a scho- 
lar and a man of genius rendered him 
well known, while in England, in the 
literary circles. He was the author of 
the "Vampire *' and " Montezuma," two 
dramatic pieces of merit, which he pub- 
lished, with other poems, under the as- 
sumed name of St. John Dorset. 
Gentleman's Magazine. 

BELSHAM, William, Esq. NOT. 
17, 1827 ; in Portland- Place, Hammer- 
smith ; aged 75. 

Tin's gentleman was brother to the 
Rev. Thomas Belsham, the Unitarian 
minister. As a Whig historian, and a 
political writer enthusiastically devoted 
to his party, he has long been known. 
His literary career was commenced in 
1789, by " Essays, Historical, Political, 
and Literary," in 2 vols. 8vo. These 
went through several editions, and were 
followed by a long series of similar la- 
bours on the Test Laws, the French 
Revolution, the distinctions between the 
old and new Whigs, Parliamentary Re- 
form, the Poor Laws, &c. &c. In 1793 
he published, in 2 vols. 8vo. " Me- 
moirs of the Kings of Great Britain of 
the House of Brunswick Lunenberg." 
This led to his larger history. In 1795 
there appeared with his name four vo- 
lumes of " Memoirs of the Reign of 
Geonrc ] II. to the Session of Parliament 



ending 1793;" and a fifth and sixth 
volume followed in 1801. In 1798, he 
published in 2 vols. 8vo. a " History 
of Great Britain from the Revolution 
to the Accession of the House of Han- 
over; "and finally, in 1806, all these 
parts were brought into one body in his 
" History of Great Britain to the con- 
clusion of the Peace of Amiens in 
1802," in twelve octavo volumes, 

Mr. Belsham lived in great intimacy 
with the late Mr. Whitbread, and with 
other gentlemen of the Whig party. He 
formerly resided at Bedford. Gentle- 
man s Magazine. 

BERINGTON, the Rev. Joseph; 
Priest of the Roman Catholic Church; 
Dec. 1st, 1827; at Buckland, in Berk- 
shire ; aged 84. 

This gentleman was eminent as a 
writer of the " liberal " party, among 
his own communion ; and especially as 
an antagonist of the late Bishop Milner ; 
his controversies with whom were, about 
thirty years since, in some measure car- 
ried on in the pages of the Gentleman's 
Magazine. Mr. Berington's first pub- 
lication was a " Letter on Materialism, 
and Hartley's Theory of the Human 
Mind, 1776." 8vo. His next was 
" Immaterialism delineated, or a View 
of the first Principles of Things, 1779." 
8vo. In the same year he also published 
" A Letter to Dr. Fordyce, in Answer 
to his Sermon on the delusive and per- 
secuting Spirit of Popery." To this 
succeeded, " The State and Behaviour 
of English Catholics, from the Reforma- 
tion till 1780, with a View of their pre- 
sent Wealth, Number, Character, &c." 
" Address to the Protestant Dissenters 
who have lately petitioned for a Repeal 
of the Corporation and Test Acts, 
1786." 8vo. " History of the Lives of 
Abelard and Heloisa, comprising a pe- 
riod of Eighty-four Years, from 1079 
to 11 63, with their genuine Letters, 
from the Collection of Amboise, 1787." 
4to. second edition, 1789. 8vo. " Re- 
flections, with an Exposition of Roman 
Catholic Principles, in reference to God 
and the Country, 1787." 8vo. " Ac- 
count of the present State of Roman 
Catholics in Great Britain, 1787." 8vo. 
* c On the Depravity of the Nation ; 
with a View to the Promotion of Sun- 
day Schools, 1788." 8vo. " The 
Rights of Dissenters from the Esta- 
blished Church ; in relation, principally, 
to English Catholics, 1789." 8vo. 

The first letter of Mr. Berington in 
" The Gentleman's Magazine," which 

the present writer is able to trace, ap- 
peared in the number for November, 
1787. It is in answer to the reflections 
of a correspondent on the Abb Mann's 
account of Lord Montagu's death-bed 
conversion to Popery at Brussels. In 
the following month is a letter of his, 
recommending that no communication 
should be anonymous ; but this proposi- 
tion he is induced, in a great measure, 
to modify in the following February, 
some other writers having very properly 
shown the advantages of which the pri- 
vilege of publishing under an assumed 
signature is sometimes productive. A 
controversial letter on the principles of 
the Roman Catholics appears in the 
number for August following ; and 
shortly after (p. 1156), Mr. Milner 
(subsequently the Bishop) takes an op- 
portunity of paying him the following 
compliment : " Mr. J. Berington 
possesses an enlivening pen, which will 
not suffer any subject that it touches to 
languish, or grow insipid. Amongst 
all the periods that have been objected 
to in his numerous compositions, no 
one ever objected to a dull period. 
Such a correspondent, therefore, was a 
treasure to your Miscellany ; but from 
his silence under a late violent attack in 
your Magazine for September, I fear he 
pays more regard to the merits of his 
antagonist, than to the gratification of 
the public. It seems that in one of his 
late controversial works, he brought for- 
ward a Profession of the Catholic 
Faith,' which differs in nothing from 
the famous exposition of Bossuet, or 
the decisions of the Council of Trent, 
except in being more copious and ex- 
plicit in those points, on which Catho- 
lics wish to give satisfaction to their 
fellow-subjects. This Profession either 
he, or some of his friends, under the 
signature of Candidus, communicated to 
your Miscellany." Mr. Milner then 
takes a review of the subsequent corre- 
spondence, which probably would now 
interest but very few. 

In 1790, Mr. Berington published at 
Birmingham, in a4to. volume, a " His- 
tory of the Reigns of Henry II. and of 
Richard and John, his Sons; with the 
Events of this Period, from 1154 to 
1 216 ; in which the Character of Thomas 
a Becket is vindicated from the Attacks 
of George Lord Lyttelton." 

In 1792, among upwards of fifty con- 
troversial pamphlets published about 
that time by the Catholics, respecting 
their ecclesiastical x government in this 



country, there was one in which Mr. 
Berington was directly recommended to 
the episcopal function.* This was in 
" Reflections on the Appointment of 
a Catholic Bishop to the London Dis- 
trict, in a Letter to the Catholic Laity 
of the said District. By Henry Clif- 
ford, Esq." The Pope had named Mr. 
Douglas to the London district. Mr. 
Clifford (a lawyer) said, " Reject the 
nomination of Mr. D. ; refuse to ac- 
knowledge him as your bishop. Name 
Mr. Berington for your pastor ; claim 
him as your own ; deny obedience to 
the mandates of any other, and protest 
against his proceedings." Mr. Bering- 
ton's admirers were, however, only a 
party; and, it appears, not the superior 
one. His taste for innovation was, at 
the same time, censured in " Remarks 
on the Writings of the Rev. Mr. Joseph 
Berington ; addressed to the Catholic 
Clergy of England, by the Rev. Charles 

In 1793, appeared from the pen of 
the deceased, in an 8vo. volume, " Me- 
moirs of Gregorio Panzani ; giving an 
Account of his Agency in England, in 
the Years 1634, 5, and 6; translated 
from the Italian original, and now first 
published. To which are added, an 
Introduction and a Supplement, exhi- 
biting the State of the English Catholic 
Church, and the Conduct of the Parties 
before and after that Period, to the Pre- 
sent Times." This occasioned some 
further " Remarks " from his former 
animadverter, Mr. Plowden, who was 
pleased to doubt the authenticity of the 
MS. Mr. Berington vindicated its ge- 
nuineness in the Gentleman's Maga- 
zine for June, 1795; and was answered 
by Mr. Milner in that for September. 
The latter then stated, that " the well- 
known Mr. Joseph Berington, so far 
from being a Roman Catholic bishop, 
has not even the ordinary commission of 
a Roman Catholic clergyman, in the ec- 
clesiastical district in which he resides." 
Mr. Milner also deprecates the idea that 
Mr. Berington's publication contained 
the genuine doctrines and sentiments of 
his community. 

In 1796, he evinced unequivocal 
marks of the difference of his sentiments 
from the majority of the Catholics, on 

* There was a Doctor Charles Be- 
rington, perhaps a relation, who was ac- 
tually a Bishop, and died Vicar- Apos- 
tolic of the Midland District in 1798. 

the subject of modern miracles. " An 
Examination of Events termed Miracu- 
lous, as reported in Letters from Italy," 
was directed to the futile attempts to 
raise a superstitious enthusiasm among 
the inhabitants of Italy, in resistance to 
the French invaders ; and was accompa- 
nied by an announcement of the first of 
five quarto volumes of the " History 
of the Rise, Progress, and Decline of 
the Papal Power." Of the production 
of this intended extensive work we find 
no mention. 

In 1813, Mr. Berington composed, 
in conjunction with Doctor Kirk, " The 
Faith of Catholics confirmed by Scrip- 
ture, and attested by the Fathers of the 
first Five Centuries of the Church," 
Svo. ; and in 1814, appeared in quarto, 
his largest, and we believe his last work, 
a " Literary History of the Middle 
Ages ; comprehending an Account of 
the State of Learning, from the Close 
of the Reign of Augustus, to its Re- 
vival in the Fifteenth Century." Gen- 
tleman's Magazine. 

BEWICK, Mr. Thomas, the cele- 
brated engraver on wood, at his house 
in Gateshead, county of Durham, on 
the 8th of November, in the 76th year of 
his age. 

For some time previous, his constitu- 
tion, naturally strong, was visibly break- 
ing up; and though he worked at his 
profession in his own house till within 
four or five days of his death, he seldom, 
during the last twelve months, ventured 
out to attend his business at Newcastle. 
Thus has a genius passed away from us 
who has honoured and benefited his 
country who revived the long-neg- 
lected art of wood-engraving, and up- 
held it, in spite of the defects which are 
said to have caused its decline, and 
brought the art again to a state of per- 
fection. But Mr. Bewick's merits 
have so long been before the public, and 
have so frequently engaged the pen of 
the critic, that little now can be said 
which would be new on the subject. 
His talents were of the first order ; and 
if originality be the chief attribute of 
genius, and if the combination of va- 
rious qualities be the test of excellence, 
Mr. Bewick possessed that attribute and 
those qualities in an eminent degree. 
He was a naturalist, a draughtsman, 
and an engraver; and no man, there- 
fore, was ever better qualified for works 
on natural history. And although he 
was generally viewed in the character of 
an engraver, that was certainly not his 


chief merit. His design, as being more 
indicative of original genius, is entitled 
to our first praise, and would alone ren- 
der his name immortal. There is so 
much of simple nature and character in 
his pieces ; so minutely perfect are they 
in every part ; the scenes are so common, 
and the incidents so unaffected and true 
to life, that it is self-evident nature was 
always his guide. She, indeed, may be 
said to have been a mistress for whom 
he had too much love ever to depart 
from. His history figures were chiefly 
drawn from the life, and his landscapes 
(beautiful they are !) for the most part, 
views. It seems to have been a maxim 
with him never to suffer his imagination 
to act when nature could furnish the 
model : and his eye was most faithful. 
He knew well the just proportions of 
a figure, and his lines, consequently, are 
as true as the lines of Euclid. Com- 
bining, with accuracy of outline, the 
meaner talent of an engraver, his pic- 
tures possess the utmost spirit and free- 
dom, and his knowledge in natural 
history perfected the conception of, and 
gave character to, his designs. His 
genius was strongly inclined to the hu- 
morous, and he frequently vented his 
satire, and sometimes his resentment, on 
particular persons in his tail-pieces. 
Once a man cheated the artist out of a 
cart of coals, and, to punish the fellow, 
Mr. Bewick sketched his likeness, and 
made the devil drive him to the gallows 
in his own coal-cart. This cut is in 
page 45 of his " British Birds." In 
other engravers the management of lines 
constitutes the greatest share of their 
merit ; for engraving of itself is but a 
mechanical art, which, in truth, requires 
not so much elevation of genius as great 
industry and patience, assisted, of course, 
by a portion of talent. But it was the 
rare and happy union of talents of a high 
and opposite quality which gave pre-emi- 
nence to the works of Bewick. So 
much for his merits as an artist. As a 
writer it is difficult to determine what 
share of merit is due to him. His abi- 
lities in this capacity have been ques- 
tioned, and, perhaps, unfairly. What 
was said to be written by others, it is 
known, received only their corrections. 
Mr. Bewick would have been a singu- 
larly fortunate man if, during his long 
life, he had escaped the blighting breath 
of calumny. Good man, he was not 
" pure as snow," but his reputation was 
not much in danger ; and as the attempts 
to detract from his honestly-gotten fame 

were dictated by the malice of his ene- 
mies, whom no explanation would sa- 
tisfy, his friends never thought it worth 
the trouble to defend him from their 
dastardly attacks. Like most of those 
who write on a subject where the inves- 
tigation of ages has left little room for 
discovery, he added his mite to the com- 
mon fund of information, and did his 
duty. But his fame will not rest on his 
writings. He was little skilled in the 
elegance of composition or grammatical 
refinement ; but his language is always 
sensible, clear, and nervous. Mr. Be- 
wick was born at Cherrybum, a small 
village near Ovingham, about fourteen 
miles west of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, in 
1753. At the age of fourteen he was 
apprenticed to Ralph Beilby, an en- 
graver in Newcastle, who was a man of 
considerable talent. 

Mr. Bewick was first brought into 
public notice by his wood-cut of the 
Old Hound, which gained the premium 
offered for the best specimen of wood- 
engraving by the Society of Arts in 
1775. That circumstance was the 
foundation-stone of his fortune, and 
from that time his fame gradually in- 
creased. In 1790, conjointly with Mr. 
Beilby, who was then his partner, he 
published his Book of Quadrupeds. In 
1795, he, with his brother John (who 
was also eminent as an engraver;, 
embellished an edition of Goldsmith's 
" Traveller," and " Deserted Village," 
and " Parnell's Hermit ; " and the fol- 
lowing year ma"de some beautiful de- 
signs for " Somerville's Chase." In 
1797, he published the first volume of 
" British Birds;" in 1804, the second 
volume ; and in 1818, appeared the last 
of his published works, " The Fables." 
He was engaged on a History of Fishes 
when he died ; and left in the hands of 
his family a MS. memoir of his family, 
which is said to be written with great 
naivete, and full of anecdote. Mr. Be- 
wick's personal appearance was rustic ; 
he was tall, and powerfully formed. 
His manners, too, were somewhat rustic ; 
but he was shrewd, and never wished to 
ape the gentleman. His countenance 
was open and expressive, with a capa- 
cious forehead, strongly indicating in- 
tellect ; his eyes beamed with the fire of 
genius. He was a man of strong pas- 
sions, strong in his affections, and 
equally strong in his dislikes : the latter 
sometimes exposed him to the charge of 
illiberality ; but the former and kinder 
feeling greatly predominated. True, he 



was (what most men are) jealous of 
his fame, and had not much affection 
for rival artists ; but they seldom crossed 
his path, or caused him much uneasiness. 
His resentment, when once excited, was 
not easily allayed, and he seldom spared 
those who ill-treated him ; but there 
was much warmth in his friendship. 
Strictly honourable in his dealings, 
to his friends there never was a more 
sincere or kinder-hearted man than 
Thomas Bewick. Many of his pupils 
arrived at excellence, though unfortu- 
nately some are dead, and others inca- 
pacitated by affliction. Johnson and 
Ransom died. Luke Clennell lies in 
a cureless state of insanity. White and 
Harvey, both now in London, the one 
as an engraver on wood, the other as a 
designer, are doing well. Morning 

BIGG, William Redmore, Esq. 
R. A. ; Feb. 6 ; in Great Russell 
Street, Bloomsbury. 

The works of this artist are well 
known to many of our readers, and duly 
registered from the earliest annals of 
the British School of painting, founded 
by his late Majesty. The subjects of 
his pencil were mostly of a domestic 
nature. In these, benevolence, or the 
tender feelings, either of jaarental or 
of rustic society, were forcibly pour- 
trayed. His " Shipwrecked Sailor 
Boy," " Youths relieving a Blind 
Man," " Black Monday," with many 
others equally interesting, have been 
engraved : some have been copied by 
foreign artists, and are frequently to be 
seen in travelling through the Continent. 
He was an intimate friend of Sir Joshua 
Reynolds ; and the amenity of his man- 
ners endeared him to a numerous ac~ 
quaintance, by whom, and his family, 
his loss is sincerely regretted. Gen- 
tleman's Magazine, 

BINGHAM, George, Aug. 3. in 
his 72d year. George was well known 
for his harmless eccentricities in the 
neighbourhood of Sherborne. 

He prided himself on the anti- 
quity of his family, and claimed no less 
than a ducal rank. He was a frequent 
attendant on the fox-hounds, his hat 
bound with laurel and ribbons; and, 
notwithstanding his great age, contrived 
to enjoy much of the pleasures of the 
chase, clearing, by means of a leaping- 
pole, the most formidable fences, and 
making the " welkin ring " with vocife- 
rous acclamations at the death. In his 
calmer moments George's speculations 

ran chie6y on the increase of his ima- 
ginary estates, and the improvement of 
his visionary flocks ; all lands and farm- 
ing-stock, advertised for sale, finding in 
him a promised purchaser. George 
boasted a confidential intercourse with 
the neighbouring nobility and gentry, at 
whose houses he was received with 
kindness and compassion. The wander- 
ing chronicler of the district, he detailed 
his melancholy and important intelli- 
gence with a solemnity of aspect, and an 
ominous shake of the head, not to be 
forgotten by those who have witnessed 
it ; and related the sly scandal, or the 
merry jest, with " the loud laugh," that 
indeed " spoke the vacant mind." 
Known and pitied by all, this record of 
poor George will not be read without in- 
terest, especially by those who, accus- 
tomed to his innocent fancies, " could 
have better spared a wiser man." 
Gentleman's Magazine. 

BISHOPP, Mr. John, Dec. 4. 
1827, at Penn's Rocks, near Tunbridge 
Wells; aged 42. 

Though taken from the world in mid- 
dle life, this man had acquired the most 
singular habits. Penurious to the last 
degree, although living in the possession 
of property estimated at least worth 
60,000/., his garb was that of the com- 
monest labourer, and generally that 
which had been thrown off by others. 
His mansion, a capacious and rather 
handsome building (which is remarkable 
for having been built by the celebrated 
William Penn, whose residence it was, 
and from whom the estate takes its 
name), he has suffered to go into a most 
ruinous state of dilapidation ; even in 
the apartment in which he died, old rags 
supplied, in some parts of the window, 
the place of glass ; and every thing else 
was in the same style of wretchedness. 
He was in the habit of attending auc- 
tions, and particularly those of inferior 
goods, where he generally purchased the 
refuse lots. Such was his notoriety in 
this, that when any very inferior lot 
was offered, it was often remarked, " Oh, 
that's a lot for Bishopp." Such an ac- 
cumulation of the veriest rubbish had 
he obtained, that the once spacious 
rooms of his house were filled with it : 
the very poor were the only customers 
he had to purchase, so that his sjock 
greatly increased. His manners were 
mild, his wit ready, and his temper re- 
markably good, which was often put to 
the test by rude jests and remarks on 
his peculiarities, which he always turned 



on his assailants with temper and adroit- 
ness. A meddler in other men's mat- 
ters once said to him, as he was passing 
with a waggon-load of what he called 
goods, " Why, Bishopp, you will buy up 
all the rubbish in the country." With- 
out stopping, he replied, " Not all, my 
friend ; I shall never bid for you." He 
died intestate ; which will produce a 
distribution of property, from which the 
gentlemen of the law, probably, will not 
be excluded. He was never married ; 
but had an illegitimate son, for whom 
he made no provision. Gentleman's 

BROUGHTON, Major- General 
Edward Swift, of the Bengal establish- 
ment, formerly Lieutenant- Governor of 
St. Helena ; December, 1327 ; at Edin- 

This officer was appointed a Cadet in 
1777 : he arrived in Calcutta, and was 
promoted to Ensign in July, 1778; in 
October following to Lieutenant, and 
appointed to the 1st European regiment 
in the field. In 1780 he was removed 
to the 3d battalion of Native Infantry, 
which corps formed part of the detach- 
ment of battalions under Lieutenant- 
Colonel Cockerell, which marched to 
Madras, joined the grand army, and 
served with it during the whole war in 

In 1796, Lieutenant Broughton was 
promoted to Captain, and, in 1798, his 
battalion formed part of Sir James 
Craig's army assembled at Anopsheher, 
to oppose Zemaun Shaw, who threat- 
ened the invasion of Hindostan, but a 
rebellion in his own country obliged 
him to return. In 1800 Captain 
Broughton was promoted to Major, and 
posted to the 2d European regiment. 
In October Lord Wellesley appointed 
him to the command of a volunteer bat- 
talion of Sepoys, 1100 strong, which 
embarked on a secret expedition, ren- 
dezvoused at Trincomalee, was joined by 
several corps under General Baird, and 
sailed in February for the Red Sea. 
Six companies reached their destination; 
but the transports, with the other four 
companies and staff, and part of his 
Majesty's 80th regiment, under Colonel 
Champagne", the second in command, 
were obliged to bear up for Bombay, 
being in want of water and provisions, 
having been seventeen weeks at sea. 

In January, 1802, Major Broughton 
embarked, with the four companies, for 
a Portuguese settlement in the Gulf of 
Cambray, and was afterwards employed 

in the Guzerat, under Governor Dun- 
can, who expressed, in general orders, his 
approbation of the good conduct of the 
corps. In July he embarked and re- 
turned to Calcutta, where, on his arri- 
val in August, Lord Wellesley ap- 
pointed him to the command of the 
Ramghur battalion. In July, 1 805, he 
was promoted to Lieutenant- Colonel ; 
and, war breaking out with the Mah- 
rattas, he was appointed to command a 
detachment consisting of about 3,COO 
men. Lieutenant-Colonel Broughton 
entered Sumbhulpoor, belonging to the 
Nagpore Rajah, and reduced the whole 
province, which was ceded to the Ho- 
nourable Company at the peace ; and for 
this service he received the thanks of the 
Governor- General in Council, "for the 
zeal, activity, judgment, fortitude, and 
ability, which had distinguished his 
conduct, both during the continuance 
of the war, and since the conclusion of 
peace." In 1806 he obtained permission 
to return to England on furlough, and, 
in 1808, the Court of Directors ap- 
pointed him Lieutenant- Governor of 
their Island of St. Helena. He was 
promoted by brevet to Colonel Jan. 1. 
1812; and, in 1813, solicited and ob- 
tained the Court of Directors' permis- 
sion to resign, and return to England 
on furlough, having been five years 
Lieutenant- Governor. He was pro- 
moted to the rank of Major- General, 
June 4. 1814. East India Military 

BROWNE, the Right Hon. Denis ; 
Aug. 14., after a few days' illness, at 
his residence at Claremorris, in the 
county of Mayo, in the 69th year of 
his age. He was one of the repre- 
sentatives of the county of Mayo in 
Parliament for upwards of five-and- 
thirty years ; during which time he 
held paramount sway over its internal 
discipline and local interests. In the 
long voyage of his political life, he had 
to encounter many severe storms, in 
which he proved himself a skilful and 
successful pilot. During the trying sea- 
son of foreign invasion, domestic rebel- 
lion, and more private and local dis- 
turbance, his active and vigilant mind 
was eminently and usefully engaged, in 
the punishment as well as the prevention 
of crime, and in the preservation of the 
public peace. As a ruler and a magis- 
trate, he did not bear the sword in 
vain : he was, in times of danger and 
commotion, a terror to all who proved 
themselves inimical to public safety, or 



to private tranquillity an avenger to 
execute wrath on those who did evil 
and conduced, as much as any man of 
his rank in life, to suppress that spirit of 
insubordination, so dangerous to the 
public weal, and so prevalent in an 
often-distracted country. In the more 
private, though not less useful, situation 
of a resident country gentleman and 
landlord, Mr. Browne was, by example 
and precept, an encourager of industry 
and agriculture. For some years pre- 
vious to his decease he had, in a great 
measure, retired from public life ; not- 
withstanding which, he acted as one of 
the Grand Jurors of the county of 
Mayo at the late assizes ; and, whilst in 
the execution of his duty, he was seized 
with the illness which terminated so 
fatally. Mr. Browne was brother to the 
late, and uncle to the present, Mar- 
quess of Sligo, Governor of Mayo, and 
a Member of his Majesty's Privy 
Council. Mayo Constitution. 

BRUCE, Sir William, sixth Ba- 
ronet, of Stonehouse, county of Stir- 
ling ; Nov. 17. 1827; aged 85. 

Sir William was the third but eldest 
surviving son of Sir Michael, the fifth 
Baronet, by Mary, eldest daughter 
of Sir Andrew Agnew, of Lochnaw, 
county of Wigton, Baronet, Heritable 
Sheriff of Galloway. He succeeded to 
the title Nov. 1. 1795, having married, 
in the same year, Anne, third daughter 
of Sir William Cunningham, fifth Ba- 
ronet of Robertland, county of Ayr, 
and sister to the present Baronet of that 
place. By this lady lie had issue three 
sons, and two daughters. 1. Michael, 
his successor, who married, in 1822, the 
only daughter of Alexander Moir, Esq. 
of Scotstown ; 2. William Cunning- 
ham ; 3. Alexander Fairlie; 4. Anne 
Colquhoun ; 5. Mary Agnew. Gen- 
tleman's Magazine. 

BERRY, the most noble Elizabeth 
Scott, Duchess Dowager of; Nov. 21. 
1827 ; at Richmond; aged 84. 

This highly descended and allianced 
noblewoman was born June 9. 1743, 
the only child of George Brudenel, Duke 
of Montagu, K. G., by Mary only child 
of John Duke of Montagu, K. G. by 
Mary youngest daughter and co-heir of 
John, the great Duke of Marlborough, 
K. G. At the age of 24, " Lady Betty 
Montagu " was married to Henry Duke 
of Buccleugh, then a minor, but after- 
wards also Duke of Queensberry, K. T. 
and K. G. He died in 1812, having 


had by her Grace, three sons and four 
daughters, viz. 1. George Earl of Dal- 
keith, who died young; 2. Lady Mary, 
now Countess of Courtown ; 3. Lady 
Elizabeth, now Countess of Home; 4. 
Charles- William, late Duke of Buc- 
cleugh and Queensberry ; 5. Lady 
Caroline, now Marchioness of Queens- 
berry; 6. Lord Henry-James, now 
Lord Montagu of Boughton ; 7. Lady 
Harriet, now Marchioness Dowager of 
Lothian. Through these connections 
her Grace has had forty-three grand- 
children, of which thirty-five survive. 

No female in this kingdom, out of the 
Royal Family, concentrated such claims 
of rank as the late Duchess of Buc- 
cleugh ; none possessed equal patronage, 
wealth, and power. These circumstances 
have a decided tendency to divide the 
possessors from their lowlier fellow- 
creatures, as much by deficient sympa- 
thies as situation ; and hence it often 
happens that when the rich give liberally, 
they do not therefore give considerately ; 
for they cannot comprehend, in many 
cases, the distress they may be willing to 
relieve. This lady, on the contrary, en- 
tered into every one's feelings, under- 
stood every one's wants ; for it was the 
great business of her life to examine and 
relieve. She was called, emphatically, 
" the good Duchess," and understood 
to be always easy of access, always wil- 
ling to help, yet solicitous to discriminate 
the character of all cases, and at once 
noble and prudent in her donations. 
Was there a respectable tradesman in 
the middle ranks of life borne down by 
a large family and adverse circum- 
stances ? she was aware that no petty 
boon would meet the exigencies of the 
case, and by large sums has she, many a 
time, averted the horrors of bankruptcy, 
and so supported the family in their ap- 
pearance, that suspicion of poverty has 
never glanced towards them. As it was 
always her injunction to keep her gifts 
secret, many have been thus helped who 
have never spoken ; but there have also 
been many ht- arts that could not contain 
the swelling gratitude which compelled 
them to thank the hand which helped 
them, to bless " the good Duchess " 
who had rescued them from ruin. 

To every description of the poor, she 
was so constant a refuge, that it was well 
known numbers came to dwell in the 
vicinity of her seats, for the sake of 
partaking her bounty. Had a poor 
man an accident ? the Duchess paid 
the surgeon for attending him, and sent 



to his family every Saturday his usual 
wages. Was the mother of a family or 
her children sick ? every day the father 
had restorative food given for them till 
the last was well. The widow's children 
were educated and apprenticed, industry 
was encouraged and rewarded, disease 
and infirmity were provided for. Her 
hand, though aged and tremulous, could 
always write orders for relieving the 
distant object not less than that which 
pressed upon her sight ; and never did 
a severe season set in for which she did 
not provide coals and blankets, bread 
and meat, for the great families at her 
various estates, which God had com- 
mitted to her charge, and which were 
always present to her memory, with all 
their ailments and necessities, their in- 
fants, and their aged. " Give all of 
them help, ask for rent from none of 
them," were words I once read myself, 
in a hurried note written to her man of 
business, when he was sent by her on an 
errand of mercy. Macneil, in his Skaithe 
of Scotland, in relating the affecting 
story of a deserted wife and her babes 
restored to happiness and virtue by cha- 
ritable aid, said, almost fifty years ago, 

" Wha's the angel but Buccleugh? " 

from whom we learn, that her youth 
was employed in the same manner as 
her age has been ; that the sympathy of 
her disposition, the affability of her 
manners, and the nobility of her heart 
were equally apparent. It is said, that 
during the lifetime of the Duke her 
husband, they jointly gave away no less 
than thirty thousand a year in charities, 
and since her widowhood it has been 
but little less which she has devoted to 
the same purpose, although frequently 
to her own serious inconvenience. For 
a year or two, latterly, it has been ap- 
prehended that personal weakness, ac- 
companied by partial less of memory, 
has rendered her liable to imposition ; 
but, as the habit of giving had become a 
pleasure, as much as it was formerly a 
principle, her family most amiably for- 
bore all interference on the subject, and 
thus spared her the pain of conscious 
inability ; which, to a person long blessed 
with wonderful health and activity, must 
have been a source of mortification, not- 
withstanding her truly Christian sub- 
mission and resignation. 

She sunk at a patriarchal age, sur- 
rounded by the descendants who lived 
and honoured her, and by old and vene- 

rating servants ; for whom she has pro- 
vided in three distinct classes, according 
to the length of their servitude. The 
day of her funeral will be remembered 
by the young, as one in which the old 
wept, and the manly were bowed down 
with sorrow ; every inhabitant of Rich- 
mond, who could by any means procure 
a horse and black cloak, followed the 
mournful procession, as the only means 
he now possessed of proving his gratitude 
or evincing his admiration. All the 
shops were shut up, business and plea- 
sure alike suspended, and the whole of 
the remaining population, long after the 
funeral had gone by, stood in groups, 
talking of " the good Duchess," and in 
many cases weeping for their benefac- 

Nor amongst the praises of the poor 
let the warm esteem and admiration of 
all the higher ranks be forgotten ; for it 
has rarely happened, that one whose vir- 
tues had won such universal praise, 
could have been so entirely beloved. To 
this may be added, that the Duchess 
united to a strong and cultivated mind 
a fine taste in works of art ; especially 
music and painting, and that she was in 
every respect as great an ornament to 
the high station in which she moved, as 
a blessing to those below her. Her ex- 
ample had a happy influence during her 
life ; for it was well known that her 
daughter-in-'aw (the yoxmg Duchess, as 
she was called formerly) was in every 
respect like-minded ; and it can hardly 
be doubted, that even generations un- 
born will be influenced by the treasured 
memorials of her good deeds, noble qua- 
lities, and endearing virtues. The re- 
mains of the Duchess Dowager were de- 
posited in the vault of the Montagu fa- 
mily, atWarktonchurch, near Kettering. 
During Sunday the body lay in state in 
one of the principal apartments of 
Boughton-house, and on Monday was 
conveyed to the church with the solem- 
nity and decorum becoming the mourn- 
ful occasion. After the usual attendants, 
at the head of the melancholy procession, 
were thirty of the tenants of the deceased 
Duchess on horseback. The hearse, 
upon which the armorial insignia of her 
Grace were displayed, was preceded by a 
carriage, in which were the clergymen 
of the neighbouring parishes, and fol- 
lowed by three mourning coaches, the 
carriage of the late Duchess, and those 
of Lord Montagu, the Duke of Buc- 
cleugh, the Hon. Captain Cust, and 
Henry Oddie, Esq. The body was 



followed to the grave by Lord Montagu, 
the Duke of Buccleugh-, Lord Dunglass, 
the Hon. Robert Stopford, the Hon. 
Sir Edward Stopford, the Hon. and 
Rev. R. B. Stopford, the Hon. Captain 
Cust, Mr. Oddie, her Grace's solicitor, 
and Mr. Edwards, steward of the 
Boughton estates. Gentleman's Ma- 

BURR, Lieutenant- General Daniel, 
of the Madras establishment; Feb. 19, 
in Portland- Place, aged 79. 

This officer was appointed a cadet on 
the Madras establishment in 1767. He 
arrived at Fort St. George, July 6. 1 768, 
and joined the army then lying at Oos- 
cottah, in the Mysore country, on the 
23d of August. On the 3d of Nov. fol- 
lowing, he received an Ensign's com- 
mission. He shortly after accompanied 
a detachment to the relief of Oossoor, 
and was present at the cannonade of 
Arlier. He was also" employed in active 
and continual service with the army in 
the field ; and engaged in almost every 
action till the peace, in 1769, when the 
1st European regiment, to which he was 
attached, was stationed at Trichinopoly. 

In 1770, this officer was promoted to 
a Lieutenancy, and in 1771, detached 
with a company of sepoys, to garrison 
Aylore, a small fortress 45 miles west of 
Trichinopoly, on the frontier of Hyder 
Ally's country. In the command of 
this station, where he effectually exerted 
his vigilance and activity, he remained 
until the troops had assembled on the 
plain of Trichinopoly, for the siege of 
Tanjore. He was then recalled to join 
his battalion, which greatly distinguished 
itself in a hard-fought contest with the 
enemy's cavalry, who with undaunted 
courage rode up to the muzzles of our 
artillery. The troops obtained a well- 
earned share of praise from the Com- 
mander-in- Chief, General Joseph Smith, 
for their exertions on this occasion, and 
Lieutenant Burr received the personal 
thanks of Lieutenant- Colonel Vaughan 
for the steadiness and gallantry displayed 
by that part of the Carnatic battalion 
which was under his command. After 
several weeks of extreme fatigue and 
privation, during which the rainy season 
had commenced and the troops were 
much reduced by sickness, a practicable 
breach was effected, when the Rajah of 
Tanjore ottered terms of peace, which 
being accepted, the army went into can- 

In May 1772, an expedition was 
formed, under the command of General 

Joseph Smith, for the reduction of the 
Ramanadporum and Shevagunga Pol- 
lams. On the march to the former, 
Lieutenant Burr became afflicted witli a 
liver complaint, accompanied with such 
serious appearances, that he was recom- 
mended to quit the field, This he de- 
clined ; but he was compelled, from the 
prevalency of the disease, to submit to a 
temporary resignation of his company of 
grenadiers. He obtained permission, 
however, to volunteer with the storming 
party against Ramanad; and, joining the 
1st division of European grenadiers, 
commanded by Captain Robert Godfrey, 
was the fourth man who effected a foot- 
ing on the breach of the fort. The army 
then marched into the Little Marawa 
country, and encamped before the bar- 
rier, which was defended by 5000 Poli- 
gars, and led to the Rajah's strong-hold 
of Callacoil. The army having made 
itself master of this place, and subju- 
gated the whole of these countries to the 
Nabob's authority, which was the object 
of the campaign, returned to Trichino- 
poly, and separated. The grenadier 
corps being disbanded, Lieutenant Bun- 
was appointed to the 5th battalion of 
Native Infantry, which was at this time 
in the field, but ordered to Amboor. 
In April 1773, an army, under the com- 
mand of General Smith, was assembled 
on the plains of Trichinopoly, for the 
final reduction of the Tanjore country. 
Lieutenant Burr's battalion was ordered 
to march to Carangooly, to escort the 
battering train and stores from that de- 
pot, for the siege of Tanjore; and the 
whole of those immense stores were con- 
ducted in perfect safety, and joined the 
army in June before that place. He also 
rendered eminent service during the 

Shortly after the reduction of the Tan- 
jore country, Lieutenant Burr accom- 
panied the army to Negapatam; which 
place, however, surrendered soon after 
the arrival of the British troops before 
it. The 5th battalion was afterwards 
stationed at Madura, and, owing to the 
absence of senior officers, Lieutenant 
Burr assumed and continued in com- 
mand of it until Oct. 1774, when he 
was appointed to the Adjutancy of the 
4th Sircar battalion, stationed at Aska. 

In Jan. 1778, a detachment was form- 
ed at Aska, to take possession of the 
Gumsoor country ; on which service 
Adjutant Burr received a wound through 
both his legs, by a musket-ball. In 
December following, whilst in the com- 
E E 2 



mand of the garrison of Ganjam, he was 
directed to escort 400 bullocks, laden 
with provisions and stores, for the relief 
of the garrison of Gumsoor, at that time 
surrounded by the Peons of the Rajah 
Vicherum Bunjee ; and to take upon 
him the command of the troops in that 
zemindary. This service he accom- 
plished, although under the greatest dis- 
advantages ; for, from the dawn of the 
morning of the 25th of December, when 
he entered the Gumsoor country, he was 
attacked by upwards of 3000 of the 
enemy ; to oppose whom his detach- 
ment consisted of no more than 84 Se- 
poys and 3 European Serjeants. He 
lost in this march 12 veterans in killed 
and wounded ; and his small force would 
have suffered a still greater diminution, 
had he not received a reinforcement 
when within two miles of the garrison. 
The following evening, Adjutant Burr, 
with a detachment of 200 men, made a 
night attack upon the enemy encamped 
about five miles from the garrison ; took 
137 prisoners, destroyed many, and dis- 
persed the rest. This service was ho- 
noured with the thanks of the command- 
ing officer, and the full approbation of 
the Chief and Council in the Ganjam 

On the 18th of July 1779, Adjutant 
Burr was promoted to a Captaincy, and 
in March 1780, was appointed to the 
command of the Sibbendies, in the Gan- 
jam district, from whence he was re- 
moved in April 1782, and joined the 
army in the Carnatic. In May of that 
year, the troops moved forward for the 
siege of Cudalore; and on the 13th of 
June, Captain Burr was engaged with 
Colonel, now Lord Cathcart (who com- 
manded the whole of the grenadier corps 
of the army) in storming the French 
outworks ; on which service one half of 
his company was killed or wounded. 
The total loss of that day amounted to 
1030 men. During the night of the 
25th of the same month, Captain Burr 
was on duty with his grenadiers, when 
the enemy made the memorable sortie, 
with their whole force, on our trenches, 
and on which occasion we made nearly 
150 prisoners, including an individual 
at that time a Serjeant in the French 
army, and who now so ably sways the 
sceptre of Sweden. 

On Captain Burr's return to Madras, 
he was appointed, September 10. 1783, 
to the command of Ganjam. In 1787, 
he was removed to the European regi- 

ment doing duty at Velore ; in 1789, lie 
received the rank of Major, and, for a 
short period, he commanded the garri- 
son and troops at Velore. In 1791, he 
was appointed to the command of the 
troops in the Guntoor Sircar, which he 
retained to February 1794. On the 
1st of March that year, he Obtained the 
rank of Lieutenant- Colonel ; in January, 
1797, he was appointed to the command 
of Condapilly ; in July, he was promoted 
to the rank of Colonel ; and being soon 
after appointed to the 10th Native In- 
fantry, he resigned the command of 

Colonel Burr embarked for England 
on furlough in January 1798, but 
again arrived at Madras in August 1799. 
In April 1800, he was appointed to the 
command of the troops in Molucca is- 
lands ; on which service he sailed on the 
12th of August following, and arrived 
with the relief at Amboyna on the 21st 
of November. In December 1800, 
Colonel Burr, in concert with the resi- 
dent Mr. Farquhar, projected the enter- 
prise of subjugating Ternate, the prin- 
cipal of the Molucca islands, to the Bri- 
tish dominion. 

The first expedition in February 
1801, was unsuccessful ; but at the be- 
ginning of April the second sailed from 
Amboyna, and on the 23d reached Fi- 
dore : here Colonel Burr had an inter- 
view with the Sultaun and his chieftains, 
who engaged to assist him with a consi- 
derable force, which accordingly joined 
him in a few days. On the 3d of May, 
Colonel Burr landed at Ternate to re- 
connoitre : a detachment of troops, under 
the command of Captain Walker, dis- 
embarked on the 4th ; and on the 8th, 
the whole were landed. On the follow- 
ing morning Kiameera was given up ; 
and on the 21st of June, the island, with 
its dependencies, surrendered to the 
British arm?. 

In July, Colonel Burr returned to 
Amboyna; and in January 1802, he 
resigned the command to Colonel 
Oliver. On the 18th of April he em- 
barked for India, in command of the 
relieved troops from Amboyna ; and, on 
the 1 1th of June, arrived at Madras. The 
state of his health now compelled him to 
return to England, after thirty-five 
years' service; and, on the 20th Feb. 
1803, he accordingly sailed from Madras 

Colonel Burr was promoted to the 
rank of Major- General, Jan. 1. 1805, 



and to that of Lieutenant- General, April 
22. 1815. East India Military Ca- 

BURTON, Walter Henry, Esq. 
of Lincoln's Inn, Barrister-at-Law ; 
Aug. 25. ; at the house of his friend, 
Mr. Lewis, surgeon, at Sudbury, in 
Suffolk, of a rapid decline ; in his 33d 

He was the only son of the late 
Michael Burton, Esq. of Mildenham, in 
that county ; and received his academi- 
cal education at Exeter College, Oxford ; 
where he obtained, in 1816, the Chan- 
cellor's prize for Latin verse, the subject 
of which was " Druidse ; " and the com- 
position deserves very high regard. Af- 
ter having acquitted himself with the 
greatest credit in the public schools, and 
obtained the distinguished honour of 
being ranked in the first class, both in 
lAteris Huntanioribus, and in Disciplinis 
Math, et Phys., he took the degree of 
B.A. in 1818, having been previously 
elected a Fellow of his Society. On the 
16th of Oct. in that year he was elected 
a Vinerian Scholar; and, on the 1st of 
Dec. 1825, a Fellow. On the 7th July, 
1821, he preceded to the degree of 
M.A. Gentleman's Magazine. 


CAMERON, Lieutenant-General 
Sir Alan, K.C.B., Colonel of the 79th 
or Cameron Highlanders ; March 9. at 
Ful ham ; at a very advanced age. 

By birth a Highlander, in heart and 
soul a true one, in form and frame the 
bold and manly mountaineer, he early 
acquired considerable influence in his 
native glens. Ardent and persevering 
in whatever he undertook, when the 
American war began, he devoted himself 
enthusiastically in his country's cause. 
Unfortunately, however, when on de- 
tached service, he was taken prisoner of 
war, and immured, vindictively, for 
nearly two years, in the common gaol 
of Philadelphia, under the plea that he 
had been engaged in exciting the native 
tribes in favour of Great Britain. In 
attempting to escape from a confine- 
ment so much at variance with the 
usages of war, Sir Alan had both his 
ancles broken and shattered ; and he 
never perfectly recovered from the 
painful effects of those injuries. 

Sir Alan was subsequently placed upon 
half-pay as a provincial officer ; but, 
aroused by the alarms and dangers of 

1793, he, principally by his personal in- 
fluence over the minds of the High- 
landers, in little more than three months, 
patriotically raised the 79th, or Ca- 
meron Highlanders. In accomplishing 
this, no burden was thrown upon the 
public. Sir Alan Cameron defrayed 
the whole expense out of his own 
private funds, no bounty- money what- 
ever having been drawn from govern- 
ment; his officers, also, were taken 
from the half-pay list, nor was any pro- 
motion upon that occasion allowed. In 
August that year, Sir Alan was ap- 
pointed Major- Commandant of this his 
clan regiment ; and in January 1 794, 
Lieutenant- Colonel Commandant of the 
same. At the head of his regiment, 
during the latter year, he joined the 
army in the Netherlands, under the late 
Duke of York. 

In 1795, Sir Alan proceeded to the 
West Indies, then powerfully menaced. 
Very severe losses were there sustained 
by his regiment, and the brave soldier 
had the mortification of seeing the rem- 
nant of his corps draughted chiefly into 
the 42d regiment. Sir Alan, therefore, 
returned home. So sensible, however, 
was his late Royal Highness of the 
value of his services, that he was imme- 
diately commissioned to raise the Ca- 
meron Highlanders anew; which, by 
unceasing exertion, and considerable 
pecuniary sacrifices, he proudly accom- 
plished in little more than six months, 
notwithstanding the advanced period of 
the war. 

In 1799, Sir Alan again served with 
his regiment on the Continent, under 
his Royal Highness the late Duke of 
York, whom he ever considered as his 
best benefactor. In the battle of Ber- 
gen-op-Zoora, Sir Alan was twice se- 
verely wounded. 

In 1800, Sir Alan Cameron served in 
the expeditions to Ferrol, Cadiz, &c,, 
and, in 1801, at the head of his brave 
men, he shared the dangers and glories 
of Alexandria, and endured the hard- 
ships and perils of the Egyptian cam- 

In 1804, Sir Alan and the officers of 
his regiment, in the course of only a few 
months, and solely by recruiting, raised 
a strong '2d battalion of 800 rank and 
file for general service. He was reward- 
ed, in consequence, with the rank of 
Colonel, on the 1st of January 1805. 
In the descent upon Zealand, Sir Alan, 
by the order of Lord Cathcart, took mi- 
litary possession of Copenhagen, at tke 
E E 3 



head of the flank companies of the army. 
In 1808, Sir Alan accompanied his gal- 
lant countryman, Sir John Moore, as 
Brigadier- General, on the expedition to 
Sweden ; and, in 1808, to the Penin- 
sula. Advancing from Portugal with 
reinforcements, he was placed in a most 
critical situation by the sudden and un- 
expected retreat to Corunna; never- 
theless, he succeeded, undergoing great 
fatigue and enduring great privation, in 
marching his force, which had been con- 
siderably augmented on its route by 
convalescents and stragglers^ in safety 
to Lisbon. This force is generally 
considered very materially to have 
assisted the Duke of Wellington, in the 
successful attack which his Grace soon 
afterwards made upon Soult, at Oporto. 
At the battle of Talavera, Sir Alan had 
two horses shot under him, when he 
took post by the colours of one of the 
regiments of his brigade ; and, through- 
out that arduous and eventful day, 
never, indeed, were energy and gal- 
lantry more conspicuously and effec- 
tively displayed. He wore a medal for 
his services on that occasion. 

The action at Busaco was the last in 
which Sir Alan Cameron was engaged. 
He commanded a brigade in which his 
own regiment, present with him, bore 
also a part ; extreme ill health then 
compelled him to retire from the active 
service of his country for ever. 

On the 25th of July 1810, Sir Alan 
was appointed a Major- General; after 
the peace a K. C. B. ; and on the 12th of 
August, 1819, he was made a Lieute- 
nant- General. 

A great sufferer in body from severe 
infirmities contracted by continued ex- 
posures and fatigues on service, Sir 
Alan, nevertheless, lived to an advanced 
age. But he was doomed to see his 
family drop around him his youngest 
son, when his aide -de- camp, early in 
the Peninsular campaign, from priva- 
tions and fatigues his eldest, when 
loading on the immediate advance of the 
British army at Fuentes d'Onor his 
nephew and his orphan grandson, both 
of whom perished from the baneful 
effects of West India service ; the former 
was he who, holding only the rank of 
Lieutenant, bravely led on the Cameron 
Highlanders at the battle of Waterloo, 
when all his superior officers had been 
either killed or wounded. Of his own 
immediate male kindred, Sir Alan has 
left onlv one son, Lieutenant- Colonel 

Cameron, who, until the close of the 
war, when the corps was disbanded, 
commanded the 2d battalion of the 
Cameron Highlanders ; and who fol- 
lowed to the grave the remains of his 
veteran parent. Gentleman's Maga- 

CAME RON, the r Right Rev. Alex- 
der, D. D. Bishop of Maximianopolis, 
and Vicar Apostolic of the Lowland 
District of Scotland ; March 7. ; at 
his house in Catholic Chapel Lane, 

The venerable deceased was born in 
August i 747. He went to the Scotch 
College in Rome in 1760, where he 
remained eight years, and carried away 
the first prizes awarded during that 
period. He returned to Scotland in 
1772, and acted as Missionary Apos- 
tolic in Strathearn till 1780, when he 
was appointed Rector of the Scotch 
College in Valladolid in Spain, where 
he remained eighteen years. In 1798, 
he was appointed coadjutor to Bishop 
Hay, then Vicar Apostolic of the Low- 
land District of Scotland; and was 
consecrated a Bishop in Madrid the 
following year. In 1802, he returned 
to Scotland, and, Bishop Hay having 
resigned in 1806, he then succeeded 
that prelate. From the period of his 
last return to Scotland, he uniformly 
resided in Edinburgh. The late Bishop 
Cameron's character was an ornament 
to his church, and, we may add, to 
the age he lived in. He was pious 
without bigotry, profoundly learned 
without the least pedantry; and his 
benevolence was truly Catholic, em- 
bracing all denominations of Christians. 
His appearance was at once venerable 
and gentlemanly, and was the faithful 
index to his highly-cultivated and 
amiable mind. His discourses were dis- 
tinguished for nervous common sense, 
and also for uncommon eloquence 
eloquence truly simple, always affecting, 
sometimes overpowering. In general, 
when he preached, he shunned all con- 
troverted or debateable points of faith; 
and was content to enforce the grand 
truths as to which all sects of Christians 
are agreed, and the sublime precepts of 
morality with which the Scriptures 
abound ; and this he did by addressing 
the understanding, and appealing to the 
best affections of the human heart. It 
is not too much to say, that no man 
of his day was more respected and 
esteemed than he was by all classes, not 



only of his flock, or of his own peculiar 
faith, but of the people at large. 
New Monthly Magazine. 

CANNING, the Hon. William 
Pitt, Capt. R. N. of His Majesty's 
ship Alligator ; Oct. 25. ; at Funchal, 
Isle of Madeira. Captain Canning 
was the eldest son of the late Minister, 
by Joan, now Viscountess Canning. 
He was appointed a 'Lieutenant in Feb. 
1823, a Commander, April 1825, and a 
Post Captain, Dec. 1826; thus, being 
raised from a Midshipman to Post Cap- 
tain in less than four years. Captain 
Canning had been engaged to dine with 
Mr. Gordon. He passed the morning 
in the exercise of rackets, with which he 
became excessively heated. He walked 
out for the purpose of bathing in a large 
reservoir near to the house of his host. 
It is supposed, that on plunging into 
the water he was seized either with the 
cramp or an apoplectic fit, as he rose no 
more alive. Captain Canning was a 
young officer of the greatest promise. 
His ship, the Alligator, had arrived at 
Madeira at the very crisis of the late 
disturbances at that island ; and the dis- 
cretion, firmness, and ability, with which 
Captain Canning acted in the difficult 
circumstances in which he was placed, 
showed a judgment beyond his years, 
and an acquaintance with international 
law hardly to be expected from his pro- 
fession. Gentleman s Magazine. 

CARYSFORT, the Right Hon. 
John Joshua Proby, first Earl of; and 
second Lord Carysfort, of Carysfort, 
county of Wicklow, in the Peerage of 
Ireland ; first Lord Carysfort of Nor- 
man's Cross in Huntingdonshire, K.P., 
a Privy-Councillor, and Joint Guardian 
of the Rolls in Ireland, LL.D. F. R.S. 
F. S. A. M. R. I. A. &c. ; 7th of April, at 
his residence in Upper Grosvenor Street; 
in the 77th year of his age. 

The Earl of Carysfort was the de- 
scendant of a family long seated at 
Elton, in Huntingdonshire. The bulk 
of their fortune was obtained in the 
East Indies, where one of their ances- 
tors, William Proby, Esq., was Go- 
vernor of Fort St. George, Madras. 
Sir Thomas Proby was created a baronet 
iu 1662 ; but, dying without male issue, 
the title became extinct. His great 
nephew, Sir John Proby, K. B. , born 
in 1720, a Lord of the Admiralty, a 
Privy- Councillor, &c., was created Ba- 
ron Carysfort, in 1752. His only Son, 
by the Hon. Elizabeth Allen, sister, 
and co-heiress with her sister , Baroness 

Newhaven, of John third Viscount 
Allen, was the noble subject of th 
present sketch. 

His Lordship was born Aug. 12. 
1751. He received his education at 
Westminster School, and Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, where he took the 
degree of M. A. in 1770, and proceeded 
LL.D. in 1811. 

Succeeding to the Irish Peerage by 
the death of his father in 1772, he, for 
several years, took an active and distin- 
guished part in the debates of that Par- 

On the 19th of March 177-1, his 
Lordship was married to his first lady, 
Elizabeth, only daughter of the Right 
Hon. Sir William Osborn, of Newtown, 
county Tipperary, Bart., by whom he 
was father of the present Earl, and 
other children hereafter mentioned. 

In 1779, Lord Carysfort was elected 
a Fellow of the Royal Society ; and in 
1780, he appeared as an Author and a 
Reformer, in a pamphlet entitled " A 
Letter to the Huntingdonshire Com- 
mittee, to show the legality as well as 
necessity of extending the Right of 
Election to the whole body of the Peo- 
ple, and of abridging the duration of 
Parliament." His Lordship did not 
himself become a member of the British 
Legislature until ten years after, al- 
though he had been nominated a candi- 
date for the University of Cambridge in 
1779. He pursued his enquiries in 
" Thoughts on the Constitution, with a 
view to the proposed Reform in the re- 
presentation of the people, and the dura- 
tion of Parliaments," 1783, 8vo. 

His Lordship was invested a Knight 
of the order of St. Patrick, March'5. 
1784; and he was installed in the Ca- 
thedral of St. Patrick, on the 17th of 
March, in the following year. 

Having lost his first wife in 1783, 
Lord Carysfort, by a second alliance, 
became connected with some powerful 
members of the Administration. Cn 
the 12th of April, 1787, he was marritd 
to Elizabeth, second daughter of the 
Right Hon. George Grenville, sister to 
Lord Grenville, then Secretary for the 
Foreign Department, and aunt to the 
present Duke of Buckingham and 
Chandos. In 1789 he was appointed 
Guardian and Keeper of the Rolls in 
Ireland; and on the 18th of August, 
in the same year, he was created Earl 
of Carysfort. 

He was first elected to the English 
House of Commons in January 1790, 
E E 4- 



on a vacancy in the Borough of East in 1818, Miss Isabella Howard, first 
Looe. At the general election in that cousin to the present Earl of Wicklow ; 
year, he was returned for Stamford, of 4. Lady Emma-Elizabeth, who died in 
which place he continued one of the 1791 ; and 5. Lady Gertrude. By his 
representatives, in^hat and the following second marriage the Earl of Carysfort 
parliament, until'called to the British was father of, 6. Lady Charlotte; 7. 

Lady Frances; 8. the Hon. George, 
who died an infant; and 9. Lady Eli- 
zabeth, who is now the widow of Capt. 
William Wells, R.N. , of Holme-house, 

House of Lords by the title of Baron 
Carysfort, of the Hundred of Norman's 
Cross, in the county of Huntingdon, 
Jan. 13. 1801. On the 24th of May, 

1 800, he was appointed His Majesty's county of Huntingdon. Monthly and 
Ambassador at the Court of Berlin, Gentleman's Magazines. 
and in 1801, he filled the same high 
situation at the Russian metropolis. In 
1806, he was appointed Joint Post- 
master-general in England; which off ce 
he retained until the change of ministry, 
in the following year. 

At Cambridge, Lord C. acquired 

CLINTON, the Rev. Charles Fynes, 
D.C.L., Senior Prebendary of West- 
minster, Rector of St. Margaret's in 
that city, and of Cromwell; Nov. 13. 
1827; at Cromwell Rectory, Notting- 

Dr. Fynes "was descended from a 

that love of poetry and classical learn- younger son of Henry, second Earl of 
ing, which he continued, with unabated Lincoln (who died in 1616), viz. Sir 
ardour, to cultivate to the end of his Henry Clinton, who was generally 
life. His reading, however, was not known by the name of Fynes. The 
confined to these objects, but compre- same was the paternal name of the de- 
hended a large extent of science, and of ceased dignitary, who added that of 
ancient and modern literature. Clinton within the last few years. He 

He was the author of two volumes of wa s of Oriel College, Oxford, B. C. L. 
Dramatic and Miscellaneous Poems," 1776, D.C.L. 1788, was elected a Pre- 
1810, of considerable merit, and of bendary of Westminster in the latter 
*' An Essay on the Improvement of the year, and was presented to the living of 
Mind," addressed to his children, and Cromwell in 1789, by his kinsman the 

printed privately. 

His taste in painting was generally 

Duke of Newcastle, the chief of the 
Clintons. He succeeded to the living 

acknowledged to be eminently correct ; of St. Margaret's, Westminster, which 

is in the gift of the Dean and Chapter, 
in 1798. Dr. Clinton had three sons: 
1. Henry, who married first a daughter 

and he was a munificent patron of Bri- 
tish Artists, of whose works he had col- 
lected several valuable specimens. 

Of the duties of religion, he was a o f the Rev. Dr. Wylde of Newark, and 
zealous observer, both in family prayer secondly, Catharine, third daughter of 
and in public worship. His conduct in Dr. Majendie, Bishop of Bangor ; 2. 
public life was manly, consistent, and Clinton-James, M. P. for Aldborough ; 

honourable ; and the attachment of his 
friends bore the strongest testimony to 
his uprightness and integrity. 

His death was sudden, though pre- 
ceded by many years of complicated 
malady, and occurred, almost uncon- 
sciously to himself, when he had scarcely 
finished reading the Morning Service of 
the day in his private devotions. 

The Earl had children by both his 
marriages. By the first he was father 
of three sons and two daughters ; 
1. William-Allen, Lord Proby, Capt. 
R.N. and M.P. for Buckingham, who 
died at Surinam, Aug. 6. 1804; 2. John, 
now Earl of Carysfort, a Major- General 
in the army, and M. P. for the county 

3. The Rev. Charles- James. This ve- 
nerable person has carried with him to 
the grave the sincere regret of his pa- 

The evil that men do lives after them : 
The good is oft interred with their bones. 

The most useful characters, in the 
sphere of ordinary life, are not those 
which form the usual subjects of pa- 
negyric. The continued and gentle 
operation of a well-spent life is unob- 
served and unostentatious. Such was 
the tenour of the life of the departed. 
In it, however, the charity and good- 
will of that religion, of which he was a 

of Huntingdon in the Parliaments of minister, were not to be mistaken. The 

1806 and 1812 ; 3. the Hon. Granville- poor of Westminster will remember the 

Leveson, a Captain R.N., and M.P. hand that liberally ministered to their 

for the county of Wicklow ; he married, wants ; and the love of peace and har- 



mony, which guided his actions and 
threw their grace upon his demeanour, 
will not soon he forgotten. Gentle- 
man's Magazine. 

COLLYER, Joseph, Esq., Senior 
Associate Engraver of the Royal Aca- 
demy ; Dec. 24. 1827, in his 80th year; 
and retaining his faculties to the last. 

He was born in London, Sept. 14. 
1 748, and was the son of parents who 
made a considerable figure in the lite- 
rary world, as translators from the Ger- 
man of Gesner and Bodmer, at a time 
when the German language was little 
cultivated in this country. Mrs. Col- 
lyer, whose maiden name was Mitchell, 
was principally known as the translator 
of Gesner's " Death of Abel," pub- 
lished in 1762. This work was received 
with so much favour, as immediately to 
become a work of great popularity ; it 
went through numerous editions in 
England, Scotland, and Ireland, and 
still remains on the list of books in- 
tended as presents for young persons. 
She had, however, before this, pub- 
lished, in 1750, in two volumes, " Let- 
ters from Felicia to Charlotte," which 
appear to have recommended her to the 
notice of Mrs. Montague, Miss Talbot, 
and Mrs. Carter. Mrs. Carter, in a 
letter dated 1761, speaks of her to 
Mrs. Montague as " writing for the 
support of her family ; which," she 
adds, " is a laudable employment." 
Mrs. Collyer afterwards translated part 
of Klopstock's Messiah ; but dying in 
1763, before it was completed, the re- 
mainder was translated and published 
by her husband, about the end of that 
year, in two volumes. The third did 
not appear until 1772, when a taste for 
this species of poetry, or mixture of 
poetry and prose, was beginning to de- 
cline. Mr. Collyer afterwards trans- 
lated the " Noah" of Bodmer, in 1767 ; 
and compiled some other works, held in 
estimation in his day, particularly " A 
Geographical Dictionary, or History of 
the World," in two volumes, folio; a 
" History of England," in 14 volumes, 
12mo. 1774; and " The History of 
Sophia Sternheim," from the German, 
published some time after his death, 
which took place Feb. 20. 1776. It 
may here be noticed, that there was a 
Joseph Collyer, a bookseller, who died 
in 1724, and had been for twenty-two 
years Treasurer of the Worshipful Com- 
pany of Stationers. It is not impro- 
bable that he was father of the author 
whose memoirs we have just given, and 

who was a freeman of that Company ; 
and grandfather of the artist whose death 
we now record, and who was both free- 
man and liveryman, and served the of- 
fice of Master of the Company of Sta- 
tioners in 1815. 

This gentleman, who had early dis- 
played a taste for his art, was appren- 
ticed to Mr. Anthony Walker, an en- 
graver of considerable eminence in his 
day, who executed some of the large 
plates in the Houghton collection ; but 
this instructor he lost when only in his 
sixteenth year. Mr. Collyer might then 
have served the rest of his apprentice- 
ship with Mr. Walker's brother, like- 
wise an engraver of eminence, who died 
in 1793. This is the more probable, as 
the Flemish Wake, in the Houghton 
collection, said by Strutt to be William 
Walker's, has been attributed to Mr. 

In early life, Mr. Collyer was admitted 
a student at the Royal Academy, and, 
with a laudable ambition, applied for 
permission to make engravings from the 
portraits in the Council Chamber, of 
the late Dr. William Hunter, painted 
by Mason Chamberlain, R. A., and of 
Sir Joshua Reynolds, President, and 
Sir William Chambers, Architect, both 
painted by Sir Joshua. The taste and 
accuracy he displayed in these portraits 
introduced him to the favourable notice 
of Sir Joshua ; and , about the same time, 
he formed a very close and friendly in- 
timacy with the late J. Russell, R. A. 
many of whose beautiful crayon pic- 
tures were engraved by Mr. Collyer. 
Sir Joshua likewise conceived such an 
opinion of Mr. Collyer's skill, as to 
permit him to make an engraving from 
his highly-esteemed picture of Venus ; 
and it appears to have been in conse- 
quence of the ability he displayed on 
this piece, that in Nov. 1 786, he was 
elected an Associate Engraver of the 
Academy. He died the senior of that 
rank of members, having next to him 
that very eminent artist, James Heath, 
Esq., who had been his apprentice. 

The specimens Mr. Collyer afforded 
of superior talents in the stipled style of 
engraving, are very numerous, and 
much admired for delicacy, high finish- 
ing, and accuracy. His numerous por- 
traits in that style, unquestionably stand 
unrivalled ; and among them are parti- 
cularly distinguished the portraits of his 
present Majesty, of the late Queen 
Charlotte, and of the Rev. Daniel Wil- 
bon, Vicar of fclington, which last was 



engraved by Mr. Collyer when in his 
seventy-third year. But probably the 
most exquisite specimen of his skill is a 
private plate, a circular engraving of the 
late Sir William Young, Bart. F.R.S. 
and M. P. from a pencil drawing by 
J. Brown, in the year 1788. Of the 
line engraving he has left sufficient 
proofs of excellence, in the Flemish 
Wake of Teniers, the Review of the 
Irish Volunteers, after Wheatley, and 
the portrait of the Rev. William Tooke, 
F. R. S. 

Mr. Collyer was a man of great re- 
gularity of habits, and punctual in all 
his dealings, even to the last, as, a few 
hours before he died, he sent for a per- 
son to adjust an account which might 
have been misunderstood after his death. 
He was, indeed, conscientious in all his 
dealings, and proved that this conduct 
had its solid foundation in uniform 
piety. Gentleman's Magazine. 

COLQUHOUN, the Rev. John, 
D.D., Nov. 27. 1827; at his house in 
Constitution Street, Leith ; in the 80th 
year of his age, and the 46th of his 
ministry ; the whole of which he most 
conscientiously, ably, acceptably, and 
usefully discharged in the Chapel of 
Ease there. His whole life was blame- 
less, and exemplary as a Christian. He 
was sincere, pious, and devout, with 
much modesty and simplicity of cha- 
racter. As a theologian, he stood high 
in the opinions of Evangelical Divines ; 
as an author, he has been, and will 
be, read, with much pleasure and profit, 
by those who have a taste for accurate 
statements of religious truth. Slack- 
wood's Magazine. 

CONGREVE, Sir William, second 
Baronet of Walton, in Staffordshire, 
Knight of St. Anne, of Russia, M.P. 
for Plymouth, senior Equerry to the 
King, Comptroller of the Royal Labo- 
ratory, and Superintendant of the Mili- 
tary Repository at Woolwich, and 
F. R. S. ; in May, at Toulouse ; aged 56. 

This celebrated member of the world 
of science was of a junior branch of the 
Congreves, of Congreve, in Stafford- 
shire. William has been a favourite 
name of the family, ever since the cele- 
brated poet (who was descended from a 
common ancestor in the time of Charles 
I.) acquired his literary fame. The 
deceased was born May 20. 1772, the 
eldest son of Lieutenant- General Sir 
William Congreve, the first baronet, by 
his first wife, Rebecca Elmston. The 
General died in 1814, in possession of 

the same offices at Woolwich as his son 
has ever since filled. The latter entered 
early into the same branch of military 
service as his father had pursued. He 
had, in 1816, attained the rank of 
Lieutenant- Colonel in the Artillery; 
and was then Equerry to the Prince 
Regent. Retaining the latter honour- 
able appointment, he had retired in 
1820 from his military rank. 

It was in 1808 that he first invented 
that formidable engine of warfare, the 
Congreve rocket, which he succeeded in 
establishing as a permanent instrument 
of the military and naval tactics of the 
country, and which foreign nations have 
found it imperatively necessary to adopt. 
Having been tried and approved, it was 
used by Lord Cochrane in Basque 
Roads, in the expedition against Wal- 
cheren, in attacks on several places in 
Spain, at Waterloo, and, with most ser- 
viceable effect, in the attack on Algiers. 
For the effect of the Congreve rockets at 
the battle of Leipsic, in 1813, the order 
of St. Anne of the second class was con- 
ferred on Sir William by the Emperor 
of Russia ; and when the Emperor vi- 
sited England, in 1814, he was particu- 
larly interested by an exhibition of their 
powers at Woolwich. Sir William had 
a private factory at West Ham in Essex. 
The rockets have also been employed in 
a modified form, in the whale fishery. 

But the Congreve rocket, though the 
most important, was only one of very 
many scientific inventions by which Sir 
William benefited himself and the world. 
On several of these he published trea- 
tises. In 1812, he issued an " Ele- 
mentary Treatise on the Mounting of 
Naval Ordnance ; showing the true prin- 
ciples of construction for the carriages 
of every species of Ordnance." 4to. 

In 1811, Sir William Congreve was 
elected Fellow of the Royal Society. 
In 1812, he was returned to parliament 
for Gatton, and in 1820 and 1826, for 
Plymouth. He succeeded his father in 
the baronetcy, April 30. 1814. 

In 1815, appeared " A Description of 
the construction, properties, and varie- 
ties of the Hydro- Pneumatic Lock," 
for which he obtained a patent in that 
year, and which is now so generally 
adopted on canals. This invention 
formed a due propitiation to the genius 
of Peace after the assistance his other 
important discovery had given to the 
sanguinary means of War ; and elicited 
many a deserved compliment to those 
talents which had before enabled him to 



add to the military power of his coun- 
try, and now to multiply the resources 
of its internal prosperity. 

In the same year, Sir William ob- 
tained a patent for a new mode of ma- 
nufacturing gunpowder. This inven- 
tion consisted, first, in a machine for 
producing as perfect a mixture as pos- 
sible of the ingredients ; and, secondly, 
in an improved mode of passing the 
mill-cake under the press, and a new 
granulating machine. 

In 1 8 1 9, a patent was granted to him 
for an improved mode of inlaying or 
combining different metals ; and another 
for certain improvements in the manu- 
facture of bank-note paper for the pre- 
vention of forgery. In 1823, Sir Wil- 
liam published, by order of government, 
a very interesting report on the Gas- 
light. Establishments of the Metropolis. 
After recounting these, his important 
benefits to society, it is melancholy to 
have to class him with those individuals 
of previous respectability, the influence 
of whose example decoyed so many 
weaker minds to ruin, during that ma- 
nia for speculation which, two years 
ago, desolated with such cruelty the 
commercial community. On the ebbing 
of the tide, Sir William, like his brother 
senator, the late Mr. Peter Moore, was 
washed by the current from his native 
shore, destined to a perpetual, although 
at the same time a short-lived, exile. 
It was on the third of May, 1828 (not 
many days before Sir William's death), 
that judgment was pronounced in the 
Court of Chancery, on an appeal from 
that of the Vice- Chan eel lor, in the case 
of the Arigna Mining Company. The 
Lord Chancellor then stated, that " the 
bill charged a transaction which was 
clearly fraudulent. Sir William Con- 
greve entered into a treaty with one 
Flattery, for the sale of certain mines 
for 10,0001. on behalf of a company of 
which he was to be the director. The 
two Clarkes afterwards associated them- 
selves with him, and it appeared that 
they were desirous of securing a larger 
profit than they could receive as share- 
holders. They therefore settled, that a 
conveyance should first be made to per- 
sons nominated by them for 10,000/., 
and that those nominees should after- 
wards convey to the company for 
25,000/., in order that the difference 
might go into the pockets of Congreve, 
the Clarkes, and other persons." Such 
is the history of the transaction as related 
by the Lord Chancellor, on the third of 

May ; but his Lordship concluded, by 
repeating what he had before expressed, 
that he wished it to be understood that 
he had refrained from giving any opinion 
as to the conduct of persons who had 
always been characters of great respect- 
ability, until they had, by their answers 
to the bill, explained the charges. His 
Lordship affirmed, however, what the 
Vice- Chancellor had previously ordered 
in the business, and overruled the de- 
murrer, giving the parties six weeks' 
time to answer. Whether any thing 
further has been settled in the business 
we are not at present informed. 

In announcing the death of Sir Wil- 
liam Congreve, the Moniteur French 
newspaper mentions a report, " that, 
having foreseen for some time that war 
would break out in the East, he had sub- 
mitted two projects to his Government : 
one for the defence of Constantinople, 
and the other for its destruction, accord- 
ing as England might be favourably or 
inimically disposed towards the Turks. 
Towards the latter part of his life," con- 
tinues the same writer, " having lost the 
use of his legs, he had invented a chair or 
sofa, which enabled him to move himself 
about his apartment without any as- 
sistance; this machine occasionally 
served him for a bed. He latterly also- 
discovered means of propelling ships at 
sea, without the aid of oars, sails, or 
steam. The details of this plan were 
printed ; it appeared, however, to be 
more ingenious than practicable." 

The remains of Sir William were in- 
terred, on the 16th of May, in the Pro- 
testant cemetery at Toulouse. Gen- 
tleman's Magazine. 

CONOLLY, Charles, Esq., of Mit- 
ford Castle, Somersetshire, a near rela- 
tion of the late Right Hon. Thomas 
Conolly, of Castletown, near Dublin ; 
April 7. ; aged 67. 

Mr. Conolly was one of those who 
belong to and adorn what is, perhaps, 
the most useful, and undoubtedly the 
most independent class of British society. 
The Prince and the Peer stand con- 
stantly in the glare of observation ; the 
eyes of the community are ever on 
them, and they are, in some measure, 
constrained to act up to the character 
expected from their station ; the con- 
dition of the professional man is much 
the same as that of the noble ; while the 
duties of the labouring ranks are few, 
and comparatively easy : being called 
upon simply for the practice of honest 
industry, and, as it were, forced to pre- 



serve the paths of virtue by the dread of 
want and its attendant ills. But the 
opulent and untilled country gentleman 
is more of a free agent than any individual 
in the state. Responsible to no chieftain 
nor body of men, his acres are at once 
his security and his pride ; to them and 
to the laws all his feelings refer them- 
selves ; and as he is the least under con- 
trol, so he may be the best and most 
enviable of the human kind, or other- 
wise, as he pleases. Mr. Conolly chose 
the goodly part ; his career of life was 
marked by a rigid compliance with every 
moral obligation. He accordingly 
merited and enjoyed, as his earthly 
recompence, love and honour in the 
bosom of his family, confidence and 
attachment from his equals, and grati- 
tude and veneration from the poor of 
his neighbourhood. 

His religious persuasion was that of 
the Church of Rome. He was chari- 
table, humble, liberal, and enlightened; 
and he encountered the infliction of 
bodily pain, and the stroke of death, 
with that composure to which the in- 
different and the fanatical alike are 
strangers. Gentleman's Magazine. 

CRAWFORD, James Coutts, Esq., 
Captain in the Royal Navy, at Liver- 
pool, on his way to London, after a few 
days' illness. 

Captain Crawford was born at Dun- 
dee, July 20. 1760, and was the son of 
the late James Crawford, Esq. by 
Helen Coutts, first cousin of the late 
wealthy London banker of that name. 

After making several voyages in the 
Carolina and Virginia trade, he entered 
the Naval service, in April, 1777, as a 
Midshipman, under the present vene- 
rable Admiral John Henry, who at that 
period commanded the Vigilant, a ship 
on the establishment of a sloop of war, 
but armed with heavy cannon for the 
purpose of battering forts, and covering 
the operations of the King's troops 
serving against the rebels in North 
America. Towards the latter end of 
the same year, Mr. Crawford removed, 
with his patron, into the Fowey of 20 
guns; and on the 24th of October 1778, 
he was appointed to act as lieutenant on 
board the same ship. Among the many 
services in which Mr. Crawford par- 
ticipated whilst on the American station, 
the defence of Savannah and reduction 
of Charlestown appear the most con- 
spicuous. On the former occasion, he 
was entrusted with the command of the 
Fowey's guns, mounted in a battery on 

shore ; and his meritorious conduct was 
particularly mentioned in the public 
despatches. After the surrender of 
Charlestown, Mr. Crawford, who still 
continued to act as lieutenant, accompa- 
nied Captain Henry into the Providence, 
a prize frigate of 32 guns ; which ship 
was shortly after ordered home with 
despatches, and, on her arrival, put out 
of commission. 

He subsequently served about two 
months as a Midshipman on board the 
Britannia, of 100 guns, bearing the flag 
of Vice- Admiral Darby, by whom he 
was, in April 1781, appointed to the 
command of the Repulse, a vessel 
mounting five Spanish 26-pounders, 
stationed at Gibraltar. 

It was about this period that the 
memorable siege of that fortress began 
to wear a most serious aspect, the enemy 
having brought no less than fifty 13-inch 
mortars, and sixty-four heavy guns to 
bear upon the garrison from the land 
side, whilst their vast superiority by sea 
enabled them to annoy the southern 
part of the rock with impunity, and 
rendered it extremely difficult for any 
supplies to reach the garrison, unless 
thrown in under cover of a powerful 
fleet. The zeal, gallantry, and inde- 
fatigable exertions of the few British 
officers on the spot, however, were such, 
as induced the Governor to repose the 
utmost confidence in their abilities a 
confidence which, as the result proved, 
was not misplaced. 

After commanding the Repulse about 
thirteen months, during which he was 
often warmly engaged with the Spanish 
gun and mortar-boats, Mr. Crawford 
was ordered to act as first lieutenant of 
the Brilliant; and on that ship being 
scuttled in the New Mole previous to 
the enemy's grand attack, he joined the 
naval battalion encamped at Europa, 
under the command of Captain Curtis, 
to whom he served as Brigade Major 
during the awful conflict of September 
13. 1782. 

The Brilliant being raised again a 
few days after the enemy's defeat, Mr. 
Crawford re-embarked with her crew, 
and continued in that frigate until 
removed in October 1782, into the San 
Miguel of 72 guns, a Spanish ship that 
had been driven on shore near the 
garrison, and compelled to surrender. 
On the 12th of November, the enemy's 
flotilla made an attack upon this vessel, 
but did not succeed in doing her any 
material damage. Again, on the 18th 



of the following month, twenty -nine 
gun and mortar-boats made a second 
attempt to destroy her and other ships 
lying at anchor off Buena Vista, and 
were supported by the Spanish land 
batteries with a very animated can- 
nonade. The mortar-boats composed 
the centre division, and the whole flotilla 
were drawn up in a line of battle ex- 
tending about two miles. They got 
their distance the first round, and re- 
tained it with such precision, that almost 
every shell fell within fifty yards of the 
San Miguel, which was the principal 
object of their attack. The seventy- 
fourth shell fell on board, burst on the 
lower deck, killed four, and wounded 
eleven men, three of whom died soon 
after. Fortunately, however, she re- 
ceived no further injury, although the 
enemy did not retire until they had 
expended the whole of their ammunition. 
Three days after this event, the San 
Miguel was driven from her anchors 
more than half-bay over; and every 
effort to recover her station proved in- 
effectual, till an eddy wind brought 
her about, and enabled her to be run 
aground within the New Mole, where 
she was repeatedly fired upon by the 
enemy during the continuance of the 

In March 1783, Mr. Crawford was 
re-appointed to the Brilliant. His com- 
mission as a lieutenant was at length 
confirmed by the Admiralty, Aug. 10, 
in the same year ; from which period he 
does not appear to have served afloat till 
the Spanish armament in 1790. He 
then joined the Queen Charlotte, a first 
rate, bearing the flag of Earl Howe, to 
whose notice he had been introduced by 
his former commander, Sir Roger Curtis, 
then serving as Captain of the fleet 
under that nobleman. 

We next find Lieutenant Crawford 
proceeding to the East Indies, where 
he remained, attending to his private 
concerns, for several years. Returning 
from thence in a country ship, he had 
the misfortune to be captured by a 
French republican cruiser; but being 
included in an exchange of prisoners 
about March 1797, he was immediately 
after appointed to the Prince, of 98 
guns, bearing the flag of Sir Roger 
Curtis, in the Channel fleet ; where he 
continued to serve till his promotion to 
the rank of Commander, Feb. 14. 1779. 
During the remainder of the war he 
commanded the Childers Brig, em- 
ployed principally on the home station. 

His post commission bears date April 
29. 1802. 

Captain Crawford's next appointment 
was to the Champion of 24 guns, in 
which ship he co-operated with the 
Spanish patriots at the commencement 
of their struggle with the legions of 
Napoleon. From her he removed into 
the Venus, a 32-gun frigate, employed 
on the same species of service. 

During the ensuing siege of Vigo by 
the French army under Marshal Ney, 
Captain Crawford commanded a party 
of seamen and marines, landed from the 
Lively and the Venus, to assist in the 
defence of the castle ; where he continued 
till the defeat of the enemy at the bridge 
of San Payo, and his consequent retreat 
towards Lugo. 

Captain Crawford was subsequently 
appointed in succession to the Hussar 
and Modeste frigates : in the former of 
which he assisted at the reduction of 
Java, by the forces under Sir Samuel 
Auchmuty and Rear- Admiral Stopford, 
in Sept. 1811. 

In the latter ship, he captured Le 
Furet, a remarkably tine French priva- 
teer, of fourteen guns, and ninety eight 
men, near Scilly, at the commencement 
of Feb. 1813. He was put out of com- 
mission at the close of the war. 

Captain Crawford was twice married : 
by his first wife, Anne, eldest daughter 
of Alexander Duncan, Esq. of Edin- 
burgh, he had one child, married in 
1823 to the Hon. Henry Duncan, Cap- 
tain R. N. and C. B. ; by his second 
lady, Jane, eldest daughter of the late 
Vice-Admiral John Inglis, he has left a 
son. . Marshall's Royal Naval Bio- 


DASHWOOD, Sir Henry Watkin, 
D. C. L., third Baronet of Northbrook, 
in Oxfordshire, a Gentleman of the 
Privy Chamber to His Majesty, and for 
thirty-six years M. P. for Woodstock ; 
maternal uncle to the Duke of Man- 
chester, the Earl of Galloway, and the 
Duchess of Marlborough ; and through 
his own maternal aunt, Anne, Duchess 
of Hamilton, first cousin once removed 
to the Duke of Hamilton, the late 
Duchess of Somerset, and the Countess 
of Dunmore ; June 10 ; at Kirtlington 
Park, Oxfordshire, aged 83. 

Sir Henry was the second, but eldest 
surviving, son of Sir James Dash wood, 



the second Baronet, M. P. for Oxford- 
shire, and rfigh Steward of Oxford 
University, by Elizabeth, younger 
daughter and co-heiress of Edward Spen- 
cer, of Rendlesham in Suffolk, Esq. 
Sir Henry was of Brazenose College, 
Oxford, and was created M. A. April 
29. 1766; and D. C. L. July 8. 1773. 
He succeeded his father Nov. 10. 1779 ; 
and married at Gatton Park on the 17th 
of the following July, Mary Ellen, 
eldest daughter of a gentleman who had 
been a Member of the Council in Bengal, 
and niece of Lord Newhaven. Sir 
Henry was appointed a Gentleman of 
the King's Privy Chamber about 1 784 ; 
and was first elected M. P. for Wood- 
stock in that year. He continued to 
represent that Borough until the disso- 
lution in 1820. 

Sir Henry Dashwood was a man of 
great kindness of disposition, and mild 
and gentlemanly manners. He had 
issue by the lady above mentioned, live 
sons and three daughters: 1. Henry- 
George-Mayne (which last name was 
given him after Lord Newhaven), who 
died in 1803; 2. Anna- Maria, married 
in 1810, to John the present Marquess 
of Ely, K. P. ; 3. Sir George, C. B., 
who has succeeded his father, married 
in 1816, Marianne, eldest daughter of 
Sir William Rowley, Bart., M. P. for 
Suffolk, and has children ; 4. Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Charles, who married in 
1822, a sister of Sir G. H. Barlow, 
Bart. G. C. B. ; 5. Carolina, and 6. 
Montagu, both deceased ; 7. Augustus, 
a Captain in the Guards ; and 8. Geor- 
giana Caroline, married in 1819 to Sir 
Jacob Astley, Bart, and the subject of 
the late unfortunate proceedings in the 
Civil Court. Gentleman's Magazine. 

DAVIDSON, the Rev. Dr.; at 
Muirhouse, Oct. 27. 1827; in his 81st 

Dr. Davidson had been, for more 
than twenty years, the senior minister of 
Edinburgh. He had been about fifty 
years a minister of Edinburgh, during 
forty-one of which he was one of the 
faithful and beloved pastors of the Tol- 
booth Church. With talents less fitted 
for the arena of debate, and with a meek 
and peaceful spirit, which recoiled alike 
from political and polemical disputes, 
he was, during his whole course, an 
eminent example of ministerial fidelity, 
consistency of character, and Christian 
benevolence. His discourses were plain 
but neat expositions, richly studded with 

various illustrations of the scriptures. 
He delighted in leading his hearers to 
the gospel as the manifestation of the 
love of God, and as necessarily requiring 
in all who received it, holiness in heart, 
and purity in life. His own life was a 
true portraiture of the holy truths^which 
he taught to others; and many will 
mourn the departure of an affectionate 
and tried friend, and a generous bene- 
factor. Blachwooifs Magazine. 

DAVIES, the Rev. David; Head 
Master of Macclesfield Grammar School ; 
Jan. 20. at Macclesfield ; aged 72. 

He was a native of Machynlleth in 
Montgomeryshire, and graduated at 
Jesus College, Oxford, M. A. 1785, 
B. and D. D. 1810. Soon after his 
first arrival at Macclesfield in 1778, as 
an assistant to the Rev. Dr. Ingles, then 
Head Master, he was unanimously 
chosen by the Governors of the School 
(fourteen gentlemen who are all resi- 
dent in the parish of Prestbury), to be 
the Second Master in the place of the 
Rev. Thomas Jennings, who had re- 
signed that situation. And in the year 
1790, on the resignation of Dr. Ingles, 
(who was afterwards elected Head Mas- 
ter of Rugby) Dr. Davies was, without 
competition, unanimously appointed to 
the vacant Head Mastership; to his 
success in which honourable station the 
Universities and learned professions, and 
his pupils in other useful and respecta- 
ble walks of life, bear ample testimony. 
An excellent portrait of Dr. Davies, 
engraved by Scriven, from a picture by 
Allen, has been recently published by 
subscription. Gentleman s Magazine. 
DE MONTMORENCY, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Reymond Hervey, Major on 
the half-pay of the 18th Royal York 
Hussars, at Naples. 

This officer was appointed Cornet in 
the 14th light dragoons, March 6. 1795, 
Lieutenant in the 13th light dragoons 
two days after, and from that year to 

1798, served in the campaigns of St. 
Domingo and the West Indies, and 
afterwards in North America. He was 
promoted to a Captaincy, Sept. 24. 

1799, and in 1802, 1803, and 1804, he 
served at the senior department of the 
Royal Military College, under the 
special superintendence and command 
of General Jarry, and received a certifi- 
cate qs eligible to serve on the Etat 
Major, or General Staff of the army. 
In 1810, he embarked with his regiment 
for the Peninsula. Landing at Lisbon, 



he joined the Duke of Wellington ; aad 
afterwards re-embarking for Cadiz, com- 
manded a detached squadron at the 
siege of that town, while the regiment 
remained in Portugal ; but he had re- 
joined it before the battle of Busaco. 
He commanded the cavalry of the rear 
guard of the division of Lord Hill, in 
the retreat to the British lines at Torres 
Vedras; served in the advance of the 
army upon the first retreat of Massena, 
from Santarem ; and afterwards in the 
Alentejo, at the siege and evacuation of 
Campo Mayor, at the passage of the 
Guadiana, and on the confines of Spain. 
After having been promoted to a ma- 
jority of the 9th dragoons, Jan. 24. 
181 If that regiment not being then on 
foreign service, he marched from 
Badajos through Spain, and across the 
Pyrenees to Bayonne, with the division 
of the French army under Mortier. 
After being a prisoner at Verdun, at 
St. Germain en Laye three years, he 
was liberated 30th of March 1814, after 
the battle of Paris, on the entry of the 
allies into St. Germain. This officer 
introduced the exercise and manoeuvres 
of the lance into the British service, in 
1 8 1 G. He published a valuable treatise 
on that subject. The Royal Military 

DENHAM, Lieutenant - Colonel 
Dixon ; in June ; at Sierra Leone ; of 
which colony he was the Governor. 

Of this active, intelligent, amiable, 
and celebrated man, we were exceed- 
ingly desirous to obtain some account 
that would at once do him justice, and 
be gratifying to the public ; but we 
regret to say, that our earnest applica- 
tion for materials to his nearest friends 
and connections was wholly unavailing. 
Under these circumstances, all that it is 
in our power to do is to transcribe a 
brief notice of him which appeared in 
The Literary Gazette, and an extract of 
a letter which was publi